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Search for morphological defects

Choose the stage and click on a term on the list of morphological structures, which will appear upon typing into the respective field.
Optional: Choosing a penetrance of >50% will strongly reduce false positive hits.

Search strategy

The search at iBeetle-Base allows for very specific searches (e.g. “larva, leg, size decreased”). However, in order not to miss interesting phenotypes, we recommend initiating your search broadly for defects of the structure and stage you are interested in (larva, leg). Further, a penetrance of >50% is recommended in order to increase the portion of reproducible datasets. Next, the list should be consolidated by browsing the pictures and detailed annotations displayed in the search results. Interesting results can be marked by checkboxes. Finally, the respective details pages should be browsed in order to learn more about additional phenotypes, the gene structure and sequences and its orthologs.


Highly penetrant phenotypes with a direct phenotype-genotype relationship (e.g. lethality, wing blistering) were reproducible at a close to 100% rate in our hands. Regarding processes where the relation between gene function and phenotype is complex (e.g. embryonic development), the rate of reproducibility was between 70% and 80%. Reproducibility of low penetrance phenotypes (<50%) was significantly lower.
Developmental stage

Select the developmental stage for the phenotype search. For embryonic phenotypes please select "larva".

Morphological structure

Select the anatomical structure of the phenotype by using the:

  • auto complete feature. After three letters are typed in the search field, a list of matching values is displayed. Please select one from the list.
  • list of available structues by clicking on . The list of available structures are displayed hierarchically . The number in parentheses idicate the number of data sets linked to this term in any developmental stage.


Estimated portion of individuals in the preparation showing the selected search term combination.
Phenotypes with penetrance >50% are reproducible with high frequency.

  • not selected
  • adult
  • larva
  • egg
  • pupa
  • not selected
  • >30 %
  • >50 %
  • >80 %
max data sets
Optional further specifications
Important note

Be careful with choosing further specifications: You may miss important phenotypes because morphological phenotypes can be correctly described with different term combinations.

We recommend to search rather broadly for the morphological structure of your interest and then reduce the number of hits by browsing through the pictures.
Phenotypes with a penetrance of 30% are frequently not reproduced, especially if they come in combination with many additional annotations.

Temporal, local or logical specifications Altered aspect Nature of change
  • not selected
  • anterior
  • bilateral
  • central
  • complete
  • distal
  • dorsal
  • early
  • ectopically
  • late
  • lateral
  • median
  • oblique
  • oblique
  • posterior
  • proximal
  • unilateral
  • ventral
  • not selected
  • circumference
  • cleavage
  • colour
  • content
  • cuticularisation
  • development
  • differentiation
  • distance
  • dv-orientation
  • egg production:
  • fertility after larval injection
  • fluorescence
  • folding
  • motility
  • number
  • orientation
  • pattern
  • pd-orientation
  • pigmentation/tanning
  • position
  • proximodistal-axis
  • rim
  • robustness
  • segmentation/division
  • shape
  • size
  • stage sequence
  • structure
  • surface
  • not selected
  • bent
  • bilateral
  • blistered
  • broader
  • constricted
  • darker
  • decreased
  • duplicated
  • ectopically
  • elongated
  • everted (inside-out)
  • fragmented
  • fused
  • incomplete
  • increased
  • irregular
  • lighter
  • necrotic
  • not bent
  • not closed
  • not fused
  • not present
  • posteriorized
  • present
  • protruding
  • radially
  • rough
  • rounded
  • shortened
  • split
  • spotted
  • sticky
  • swollen
  • thinner
  • transformed
  • with protrusion
  • without detectable defects

Add new aspect next to the selected one
Add new aspect next to the selected one seachConstraintsHint
Add new aspect next to the selected one

Your search:

Combine searches by clicking the “AND” “OR” “NOT” buttons.
Your current combination of search terms is displayed. Modify the single aspects by clicking on the respective button, or change the logical combination. Remove aspects using the “Remove” button.

  • Developmental stage: larva
    Morphological structure:
    Penetrance: 50%
    Further specifications:
    Altered aspect:
    Nature of change:
    Number of data sets:
Remove current seach restrictions

Select a morphological structure
  • appendage (1139)