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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007418.3: 26412785..26422443
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_11033

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 0.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC032630 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC032630 RA
      atgagtctt ttgcaagaa ttcggaaac tcttgcgtc 
      cactggtcg ctgggtttg accttcctt gtgggcctc 
      atcgcctca gaaacctcc ggtgttgtc acagttatt 
      gcgttacct gtttcagcc ctgtccgta acattatca 
      gcattatgt ggcgcgtcc ttaaacccg actgacaca 
      tacaagaaa cgaaaatta tgtgatatt ttagacttt 
      ttccaaatc tggatggag attctagaa tttctagct 
      gcatcagct acctgtgct aggattgct agcgctact 
      atagactat atcagcaac gagaaatta agagagtgg 
      tttctaggg attgaatcg cactcgttg ggcgagccc 
      tggcctgat attttaggt gtttctatt gttattgtt 
      gtcattgga ttatttatg atggggctt gagaaatcg 
      ccctttttt accgccctt ctgttggtg gctgtgtta 
      gtgactttt gggtttttt gcttcagtt ggctgcttc 
      gaaaccgta gtggattta gcaaagtgg agccaggat 
      tttaaaacg tgtacaatg caaacggtg atatcaggg 
      gcagctatg tgttcatac ggcttcaac agttcttat 
      cagaaaatc acgagacac agacttatc aaaatagtg 
      acaatggtg ttttttccg ttattcttg tacagtttt 
      accaccgta gttttcacg ttgatgtca cactccaag 
      gaactggca ggaacagcg acccctatg ttgcgcgtt 
      tttgaactt cgggacgtc gattgggcc cgtttagta 
      atgtctatt tgtatgatt tgtacaatg tgcctcgcc 
      ttgacggaa attttcccc tccttgtat tcactattt 
      gaggttttg gcgagtaaa gagtggcaa attttttta 
      gcgtctttg aggtacagg aactcgttt acgggggcc 
      ccccttctg gcgattttt tcagcaggc agtctgagt 
      gccattctg gcctttgcg tgtccactg gcctatctt 
      gttaaaatt ttaaacgtc tcgactctc ctcaaagcc 
      atcgcgaag tcattattg gtgctatat tactactac 
      cggcccgaa tttcgcaac gagtcctat ttagttgct 
      ccgagtagc acgcagtac agcaaactg caatcgaaa 
      aatcaaaaa gaaacgaac ttgaaaaat aaaattacg 
      ggtataatt tcgggttgg aagaaaaat gtctcgccg 
      agtagagcc aacaggaat cgaactcca aaagaaggg 
      acgacgcaa gacgatgag tatttgctc ctgaatgag 
      tattgtgat aagtctgat gttgtttta aacgaagtc 
      agttcggac gaagatgag aaagagtca attgtttcg 
      agcgatgtt gaagattcg tacagttcg actgatgtt 
      gatgttgca gttcaagaa tacagggac aaaatacaa 
      gtcgcaacg atcgacaac ttcaacgag aacaaatac 
      ccgacgtac gtgacagcg acgactgtt gtaatattt 
      ttgataatt ataaccatc gcgacaata agtttatcg 
      caagtgttg atttggaaa ttttacaat ttattatgg 
      ccgtgtttt accgtttcg gtgttttcg actcttatt 
      attttagtg atgcctcag aacttatac caatcagaa 
      aacggtttg ttacctaaa tcggtcact ccattatgc 
      aatctaatt gcgattcaa ctgcatatc attttggtg 
      tccacgata ctggacgag gtctggccg ggaattgtt 
      ttttgggtc agtgttggc tgtctgctt ttttggcga 
      tgcgattgc tgcacctgt gatggactt tttcccaac 
      aataaccaa aaatcaaaa ctgaacatc actgagaat 
      ttcaccgac aattatgtg gacacgatt ttaatcagt 
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC032630 RA
      ccccatcga tcgattaat gcagttgta atgcggaag 
      atttatatt ttcgttaaa aatcagtaa aacaaacaa 
      agttccatc aaaagccgt catgtcgac acaataata 
      tcgcatcca caatacgta tttgaaacc gaatcggtt 
      acgctaatg gattttctc tgaaaatga gtcttttgc 
      aagaattcg gaaactctt gcgtccact ggtcgctgg 
      gtttgacct tccttgtgg gcctcatcg cctcagaaa 
      cctccggtg ttgtcacag ttattgcgt tacctgttt 
      cagccctgt ccgtaacat tatcagcat tatgtggcg 
      cgtccttaa acccgactg acacataca agaaacgaa 
      aattatgtg atattttag actttttcc aaatctgga 
      tggagattc tagaatttc tagctgcat cagctacct 
      gtgctagga ttgctagcg ctactatag actatatca 
      gcaacgaga aattaagag agtggtttc tagggattg 
      aatcgcact cgttgggcg agccctggc ctgatattt 
      taggtgttt ctattgtta ttgttgtca ttggattat 
      ttatgatgg ggcttgaga aatcgccct tttttaccg 
      cccttctgt tggtggctg tgttagtga cttttgggt 
      tttttgctt cagttggct gcttcgaaa ccgtagtgg 
      atttagcaa agtggagcc aggatttta aaacgtgta 
      caatgcaaa cggtgatat caggggcag ctatgtgtt 
      catacggct tcaacagtt cttatcaga aaatcacga 
      gacacagac ttatcaaaa tagtgacaa tggtgtttt 
      ttccgttat tcttgtaca gttttacca ccgtagttt 
      tcacgttga tgtcacact ccaaggaac tggcaggaa 
      cagcgaccc ctatgttgc gcgtttttg aacttcggg 
      acgtcgatt gggcccgtt tagtaatgt ctatttgta 
      tgatttgta caatgtgcc tcgccttga cggaaattt 
      tcccctcct tgtattcac tatttgagg ttttggcga 
      gtaaagagt ggcaaattt ttttagcgt ctttgaggt 
      acaggaact cgtttacgg gggcccccc ttctggcga 
      ttttttcag caggcagtc tgagtgcca ttctggcct 
      ttgcgtgtc cactggcct atcttgtta aaattttaa 
      acgtctcga ctctcctca aagccatcg cgaagtcat 
      tattggtgc tatattact actaccggc ccgaatttc 
      gcaacgagt cctatttag ttgctccga gtagcacgc 
      agtacagca aactgcaat cgaaaaatc aaaaagaaa 
      cgaacttga aaaataaaa ttacgggta taatttcgg 
      gttggaaga aaaatgtct cgccgagta gagccaaca 
      ggaatcgaa ctccaaaag aagggacga cgcaagacg 
      atgagtatt tgctcctga atgagtatt gtgataagt 
      ctgatgttg ttttaaacg aagtcagtt cggacgaag 
      atgagaaag agtcaattg tttcgagcg atgttgaag 
      attcgtaca gttcgactg atgttgatg ttgcagttc 
      aagaataca gggacaaaa tacaagtcg caacgatcg 
      acaacttca acgagaaca aatacccga cgtacgtga 
      cagcgacga ctgttgtaa tatttttga taattataa 
      ccatcgcga caataagtt tatcgcaag tgttgattt 
      ggaaatttt acaatttat tatggccgt gttttaccg 
      tttcggtgt tttcgactc ttattattt tagtgatgc 
      ctcagaact tataccaat cagaaaacg gtttgttac 
      ctaaatcgg tcactccat tatgcaatc taattgcga 
      ttcaactgc atatcattt tggtgtcca cgatactgg 
      acgaggtct ggccgggaa ttgtttttt gggtcagtg 
      ttggctgtc tgctttttt ggcgatgcg attgctgca 
      cctgtgatg gactttttc ccaacaata accaaaaat 
      caaaactga acatcactg agaatttca ccgacaatt 
      atgtggaca cgattttaa tcagtagat gacaagatt 
      gtgacgaat acgaagacg caaatttta tttttgaat 
      cagacgatg aaaacaatt aaatttgta tgcgatttt 
      gtaccgtgt tacactatg tagaaattt tagagacat 
      agggagagt attgattgc aataatgtg caataaaat 
      atttgctta aaa

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY