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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007421.3: 398261..402515
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_10151

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 0.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC033312 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC033312 RA
      atggacgaa agcacgata aaagcggcc ctaaaatcg 
      gcttttaag ttcgattcc ttcaagtcg gagctgcag 
      caagccgcc gttacggaa atatgccaa aggcagcac 
      gacgtgctg gtgtcaatg cccacgggc tcgggcaag 
      tccctatgt taccaattg cccgcggtt ttgcgcccc 
      aaccaaacc accatcgtt ttttcgccc cttctagcc 
      ctaatcaag gaccaaatc gaccacttg aacgccctc 
      aaaatccgc gccaagtcc ctcaactca aaaacctca 
      aagtcggac cgcgacgcg ctcatcgcc gacctcaaa 
      tccacgcag cccctcacg cgcctcctc tacataacg 
      cccgaacaa gccgccacg aaaaccttc aaatccctg 
      tacgataat ttggttaaa ttcgataaa gtcgcgttt 
      gttgtggta gacgaggcg cattgtgtg agccaatgg 
      gggcacgac tttcgcccc gattacctc aaactgggg 
      gaattacgc gccaaaaaa atccccttt gttgcgcta 
      actgcaaca gcaggcgcc gaagtcacc aaagacatc 
      atcacgagt ctcaaactc gccgattta aaactgttc 
      aaaacgtcg tgttttcgc gccaatttg tactacgat 
      gttttgttt caaaatttg atcgaaaac gagtttttg 
      catttgaaa aaattcatc gttgggtgt cttgaagac 
      agtcaagac tgcggtatt gtctattgt cgcacgcgc 
      gaacaaacc gaagccgtg accttcaaa ctgaatagt 
      ttggggctc aaggctagg gcttaccac gcggggctc 
      aaaaatacc gaacggttg caatgccaa gaggagtgg 
      caaaggggc gactcacag gtcatttgc gccacaatt 
      agcttcggc atgggggtt gataaggca acagtgcgg 
      ttcgtggtg cattggggg gttcccaaa gacccagct 
      tcgttctat caggagtcg ggtcgagca ggccgtgac 
      ggcaagccg gccaaatgc cgcatttat tacaatcga 
      ggcgatagc cgtgccatt ttatttcac ctaaaccat 
      gaccttggc aaagccaag gataaacaa tcgaggaaa 
      attaaggcc gaaaatgcg ttaaaaagt tttaaaaaa 
      atggtagaa ttttgcgaa aatagtgac tattgtcgc 
      cataagtta ttcagtgat catttcggg gaaccaccg 
      cctaaatgt atcaacaag tgtgattat tgtacggat 
      aagaaggct gtgaaaaaa atggtggag gagtttcat 
      gtacgaaat atcgaatat aatacggtt ggcttgagt 
      gtgcaaagt gaggattat tccgatttg tatggaggt 
      ggtcgcaag gggatggag gatttttac gcaaatgag 
      acgggttct gatagtggg gaacgtgag attaaggca 
      cggaacgaa tcaaatcaa ttgatacaa aagcaattt 
      gcacttaga cgtagcgca caggacgtg tcgcaaaaa 
      acagtcgag aagttgttt gcgaaacac tcacgtgtg 
      agggcgcca gcgtccaca tctagtaaa gttaaaggc 
      ttgacgttg gcaactcgt gaacagtat ttaagcaaa 
      atggtcgag gttttgcac gataattac accaaatgt 
      gcagaggag caaattttc gaccgcaag gacgtggag 
      gattgtgca attgacgtc gaatacggc gttttttcc 
      gccaatacc aacatgaca atgtaccgt agctccatt 
      gcccgaatc atttcggcg ataaaacgc tcaactgat 
      gataatgtt gtgtacgag gcattggtg agtttcgcc 
      ccaaaaccg gccaaatat gcgacactc accgatctg 
      ttccgcaac atcgaaaaa gagcaaaga cagcaggca 
      aagactgaa gtgaaaggg gctgcgttt caaacggcg 
      gcacaggtc taccaagtg caacagacg tttaaaagt 
      gagggcatg ggggagaaa aaacgcgat ctggccaat 
      ttgttcggc gacgagtcg gacgatgaa acggccaaa 
      agtaaggag gagaataac gagaagaag gagcggaaa 
      cggaagcat gaggacagg cataggcgg cacgaaaag 
      aaacagaag actggcggc gagtcttcc attgataaa 
      gagtacgaa aagtttgtc gaatcggta gaaagtagc 
      accaacaaa atcaaaaaa aataaactc aaaaagacg 
      gaaattgga aatctcgtt gtcaaatta ctaacacca 
      gcctacgtc gaaaagcga tttgagtcg agagacacg 
      ttcaaaagc acggcgaga aacatctca cacgcttta 
      attgacaaa gacgagagt gaaattaag gagtacgtt 
      gaagacttt ctgaagaaa aacgacgaa atcacgtca 
      caaaccgca ttataa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC033312 RA
      tcatgtttg ttattgttt gtttataca tatttatgt 
      agttacccg attgtgcac tgattagga ttgtatgcg 
      aaatcacca aagtcaatt tttctaaat gtagatttt 
      ttatgtgag tgccttagc acctgattg ttgattttg 
      ccacagccg tggactatt tcagcactt atgttaata 
      aaatgttac aaaaccgga cattcttat tccaaaacc 
      ccccaaaaa aacaaattt tcaaatttc gcgccgcgt 
      caacacgca aaatgaacg ccgcaagcc cgccaatga 
      aacttaata attcgtata aataatcgg ttcacaaac 
      aaattccca tgtaactaa acgtttgga ttaaatcag 
      ggtcgagaa ttgcgccag attttggcc cttttctct 
      taaaatcgt aaaaatcgc cgaaatggt gctaccggt 
      aatacagtt ccctgtgcc agtttttta ggttagttt 
      gaaaaagcg tccgaaatg gacgaaagc acgataaaa 
      gcggcccta aaatcggct tttaagttc gattccttc 
      aagtcggag ctgcagcaa gccgccgtt acggaaata 
      tgccaaagg cagcacgac gtgctggtg tcaatgccc 
      acgggctcg ggcaagtcc ctatgttac caattgccc 
      gcggttttg cgccccaac caaaccacc atcgttttt 
      tcgcccctt ctagcccta atcaaggac caaatcgac 
      cacttgaac gccctcaaa atccgcgcc aagtccctc 
      aactcaaaa acctcaaag tcggaccgc gacgcgctc 
      atcgccgac ctcaaatcc acgcagccc ctcacgcgc 
      ctcctctac ataacgccc gaacaagcc gccacgaaa 
      accttcaaa tccctgtac gataatttg gttaaattc 
      gataaagtc gcgtttgtt gtggtagac gaggcgcat 
      tgtgtgagc caatggggg cacgacttt cgccccgat 
      tacctcaaa ctgggggaa ttacgcgcc aaaaaaatc 
      ccctttgtt gcgctaact gcaacagca ggcgccgaa 
      gtcaccaaa gacatcatc acgagtctc aaactcgcc 
      gatttaaaa ctgttcaaa acgtcgtgt tttcgcgcc 
      aatttgtac tacgatgtt ttgtttcaa aatttgatc 
      gaaaacgag tttttgcat ttgaaaaaa ttcatcgtt 
      gggtgtctt gaagacagt caagactgc ggtattgtc 
      tattgtcgc acgcgcgaa caaaccgaa gccgtgacc 
      ttcaaactg aatagtttg gggctcaag gctagggct 
      taccacgcg gggctcaaa aataccgaa cggttgcaa 
      tgccaagag gagtggcaa aggggcgac tcacaggtc 
      atttgcgcc acaattagc ttcggcatg ggggttgat 
      aaggcaaca gtgcggttc gtggtgcat tggggggtt 
      cccaaagac ccagcttcg ttctatcag gagtcgggt 
      cgagcaggc cgtgacggc aagccggcc aaatgccgc 
      atttattac aatcgaggc gatagccgt gccatttta 
      tttcaccta aaccatgac cttggcaaa gccaaggat 
      aaacaatcg aggaaaatt aaggccgaa aatgcgtta 
      aaaagtttt aaaaaaatg gtagaattt tgcgaaaat 
      agtgactat tgtcgccat aagttattc agtgatcat 
      ttcggggaa ccaccgcct aaatgtatc aacaagtgt 
      gattattgt acggataag aaggctgtg aaaaaaatg 
      gtggaggag tttcatgta cgaaatatc gaatataat 
      acggttggc ttgagtgtg caaagtgag gattattcc 
      gatttgtat ggaggtggt cgcaagggg atggaggat 
      ttttacgca aatgagacg ggttctgat agtggggaa 
      cgtgagatt aaggcacgg aacgaatca aatcaattg 
      atacaaaag caatttgca cttagacgt agcgcacag 
      gacgtgtcg caaaaaaca gtcgagaag ttgtttgcg 
      aaacactca cgtgtgagg gcgccagcg tccacatct 
      agtaaagtt aaaggcttg acgttggca actcgtgaa 
      cagtattta agcaaaatg gtcgaggtt ttgcacgat 
      aattacacc aaatgtgca gaggagcaa attttcgac 
      cgcaaggac gtggaggat tgtgcaatt gacgtcgaa 
      tacggcgtt ttttccgcc aataccaac atgacaatg 
      taccgtagc tccattgcc cgaatcatt tcggcgata 
      aaacgctca actgatgat aatgttgtg tacgaggca 
      ttggtgagt ttcgcccca aaaccggcc aaatatgcg 
      acactcacc gatctgttc cgcaacatc gaaaaagag 
      caaagacag caggcaaag actgaagtg aaaggggct 
      gcgtttcaa acggcggca caggtctac caagtgcaa 
      cagacgttt aaaagtgag ggcatgggg gagaaaaaa 
      cgcgatctg gccaatttg ttcggcgac gagtcggac 
      gatgaaacg gccaaaagt aaggaggag aataacgag 
      aagaaggag cggaaacgg aagcatgag gacaggcat 
      aggcggcac gaaaagaaa cagaagact ggcggcgag 
      tcttccatt gataaagag tacgaaaag tttgtcgaa 
      tcggtagaa agtagcacc aacaaaatc aaaaaaaat 
      aaactcaaa aagacggaa attggaaat ctcgttgtc 
      aaattacta acaccagcc tacgtcgaa aagcgattt 
      gagtcgaga gacacgttc aaaagcacg gcgagaaac 
      atctcacac gctttaatt gacaaagac gagagtgaa 
      attaaggag tacgttgaa gactttctg aagaaaaac 
      gacgaaatc acgtcacaa accgcatta taagtttta 
      gttgttttt gtgttacat aactatttt gttttcatt 
      tgtgtaaca attgccaca gtaatgcga ctacaagcg 
      agtcctgat acgaataaa taaacgtgt tttattcac

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY