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Gene information
General information
TC032474
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.

TC000053
Gene

The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007418.3: 10809405..10810291
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB http://www.orthodb.org/. The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    TC032474
    iBeetle screen iB_09776

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    inside-out
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 20.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection


    Analysis of embryonic musculature and early development
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50 embryo/egg with embryonic tissue, no cuticle, no fluorescence - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%

    larval musculature pattern irregular - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%

    affected eggs/embryos/larvae - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%
    remarks: muscle pattern potentially obscured by segmentation defect,
    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50
    embryo/egg without visible larval cuticle in cuticle preparation - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%
    head appendages number decreased - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%

    affected eggs/embryos/larvae - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): more than 80%
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Primers
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC032474 RA
      MNRIQWKSR RTLYLVISL VSFYLTVRI 
      KTYEHKASV VLPETHPND AWEFVADFS 
      NMKLLNPTI IDFTILAES GNYDHWKYS 
      TQYSEFLSH WPYLRNVAV AHFEVKAKP 
      KENIYLINS VHKTCLLFG FFCLDSESE 
      FKFSQNDTL KGALCEENI SYQCPAIMS 
      SFCRREVLF QRTAIMNNL KMHFRKKHR 
      S
    CDS sequence
    • >TC032474 RA
      atgaacaga attcagtgg aaatcgaga cgaaccctc 
      taccttgta atctccctc gtttctttt tacctgacc 
      gtccgaatc aaaacttac gaacacaaa gcttcggtc 
      gtactccct gaaacccac cctaatgat gcgtgggag 
      tttgtggcc gactttagc aacatgaag ttattaaac 
      ccgacaata atcgatttt acaatcttg gcagaaagt 
      ggcaattac gaccattgg aagtactca acgcaatat 
      tccgaattt ttgtcgcat tggccgtac ttgcgaaac 
      gtggcagtt gcacatttt gaagttaaa gccaaaccg 
      aaggaaaac atttacttg attaattcg gtgcacaag 
      acttgtctc ttgtttgga tttttttgt ctcgattca 
      gaaagtgag tttaaattc tcacagaat gatacacta 
      aaaggggca ctttgtgaa gaaaatatt tcgtatcag 
      tgcccggcg atcatgtct tcgttttgt agacgagaa 
      gttctcttc cagaggacg gcaattatg aacaattta 
      aaaatgcat tttaggaaa aaacacagg tcatga
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC032474 RA
      aaccgctct ttgcgtagg ctgctggtt tatcttaac 
      ctctctccg ataaacaaa cctaattat aatagtcac 
      tgcttcagt aagctccga tttcaattt aaaatcagt 
      cctccagac aatgtttta tgtatcccc agttcatta 
      aagtcggcc aagatgaac agaattcag tggaaatcg 
      agacgaacc ctctacctt gtaatctcc ctcgtttct 
      ttttacctg accgtccga atcaaaact tacgaacac 
      aaagcttcg gtcgtactc cctgaaacc caccctaat 
      gatgcgtgg gagtttgtg gccgacttt agcaacatg 
      aagttatta aacccgaca ataatcgat tttacaatc 
      ttggcagaa agtggcaat tacgaccat tggaagtac 
      tcaacgcaa tattccgaa tttttgtcg cattggccg 
      tacttgcga aacgtggca gttgcacat tttgaagtt 
      aaagccaaa ccgaaggaa aacatttac ttgattaat 
      tcggtgcac aagacttgt ctcttgttt ggatttttt 
      tgtctcgat tcagaaagt gagtttaaa ttctcacag 
      aatgataca ctaaaaggg gcactttgt gaagaaaat 
      atttcgtat cagtgcccg gcgatcatg tcttcgttt 
      tgtagacga gaagttctc ttccagagg acggcaatt 
      atgaacaat ttaaaaatg cattttagg aaaaaacac 
      aggtcatga acgatttac ggatttttt atttaagtt 
      ttataatca gagcaaata aatgataaa aataatt
    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY