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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007420.3: 15371398..15376625
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_09137

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 20.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC033275 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC033275 RA
      atgtcttta tcaaagtta tgtgcaagt ttagtgaga 
      caacgaaac cttcccgtg cttgcaaca caagtgaaa 
      tatttccat acgaataat tatttgtgc accaagtta 
      gcacaggaa aagaaacct gactggaac cgagctgta 
      agtgaagcg gagaaaatc gtcggatat ccaacttct 
      ttcctgagt ctgcggtgg ttattaagc gacgaaatc 
      gcaaatgtg gccctacat ttgaggaaa ctggtcggc 
      tccaaccac ccgctcctc aaaactgcc aaaaactta 
      ctttacaat ggtaaaaac aacatgcaa gcgtggggc 
      ctcatcgtc ctcctggtc tccaaggct gcaggtcac 
      tcctccgac atccccgac ctggagcag gacaaggcc 
      gctggagtc ctccacagc caaagagca cttgctgaa 
      gtcactgaa atgatacgt acaagtcat ttagtgcac 
      aaaggcctc gtcaatctg cagccttct gcggccaca 
      gacgcctcc ggagatatg atgttcggc aataaaatc 
      gccctttta agcggtgat tacctactg agtaacagt 
      tgcacggaa ttggccaat ttacgcaac caagattta 
      gtcgagtta atgagttct gctgtgcgt gatttggct 
      gaagctgaa tttgtgggg cctagagac aagcagaac 
      aatcctctg ccggcaaag ccccgctct gatatcgtg 
      gagtataag caattcact gacaagact ttggagcct 
      ttggttgtg agcgaagct ctggggaac gccagggct 
      gagtggacg ctgagacac gtcttgaat gcaggtagt 
      ttattgggt aaatcctgc caaggcact ttgaaactg 
      gcaggtcac cctcttgag cttcaagag cagggctat 
      ttgtttggc aaacacttg gccttggct tggcaagct 
      tgtctggac cgtgaaccg ttccttcct ggcactaat 
      gggccattt agtttggta tgtgcccct gttatgttt 
      acgctccag gatgaccca tctctgtat gaagagatt 
      gaaaaaggg caggaaact gtagatgat gttgattat 
      gagactgtt aggaaggca gttctagct gggcctgga 
      cttgacttg accaaaaaa ttgcaaaag gaacattcc 
      actgccgct ttggaggtt aagatgagc aatctgaac 
      aaatcgttg aatttttac ttaaagaga gggatatca 
      tgtagaaat ttgtcattt ttgactcgc aaagttgac 
      gacaattcc aaacggaac agtgtggtt aaagaagct 
      gaacgagtt gttggttat ccaacatca tttctaagc 
      ctcagatgg attttaaac gacgaaatt gcaaatgtt 
      gccactcat atcaggaaa ttaatcgga acaaatcac 
      cccctcctt aaaacagca aaaaattta attctaagg 
      aatgaacaa ccgacttgg ggtcttatt gtacttctg 
      gtgtcaaaa ctggccggc ttaaactca aaattttct 
      gaactcgag tgtgacaga actgctgat attttacac 
      agccaaagg ataattgcg gaagtcaca gaaatgata 
      agaactagt cacttgatt cacaaaggc cttatcaac 
      ctcgaacct cacgataaa aacttctcc gacttgaat 
      ttcggcaac aaattagct ttattatct ggagattat 
      ttactcagt agtagtttt aatgaagtc gcaaaactg 
      aaaaacttt cacgtacaa gagacaatt tcgtccact 
      ttgagagac ttggctgag tcagaattc attggtttg 
      aggaacaaa cacaacgaa ccaatcccg tccaaacca 
      cttcctgtg caagaaaat attaacata ccacttgaa 
      tttggagtc aaaccgttt aaattagag cacgttttg 
      ggtaatatg agggcagaa tggaccctc agaaatgtt 
      ttatcaggc ggtagttta cttggaaag tgttgtcaa 
      tgtgcatta attttggca aatcatgag tctcgagtc 
      caggaattg gggtatagt tttgggagg aatttagcc 
      ttggcctgg caggcggct ttagaaaaa gaactcttt 
      agggaagaa aaatttagt ctagtttca gcacctgta 
      atgcttcac ctcgaaact gattcgagt ttttacaaa 
      gaaatagaa aaggggttg tctgaagac catgaaata 
      aattacgat caacgaatt cacagagga ggccttgga 
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC033275 RA
      gtggttgtc cttataatc ttttttatt gaagttttt 
      ccccctttt acgctgaaa tgtctatca gggtggagt 
      cgcaacacc gaatatttt ccaaaactc gtaagtcaa 
      agggagtaa gtttgtggg gttgttgta aaaacagca 
      caacgttca acactagtg tttcgcctt agcatccaa 
      cacgaaact tagttcatc tttgttcag gtgccttct 
      tccgagtga aaattttca ttgataagt cgtgaaaaa 
      tggggtcac acaattaag gccaacttt cacttgcca 
      agtgaatac atacgaacg aaaacttgt aataggaaa 
      gtgggttca acagattga agccagtgt ctgggcaca 
      tttttttcc aacatcatg tctttatca aagttatgt 
      gcaagttta gtgagacaa cgaaacctt cccgtgctt 
      gcaacacaa gtgaaatat ttccatacg aataattat 
      ttgtgcacc aagttagca caggaaaag aaacctgac 
      tggaaccga gctgtaagt gaagcggag aaaatcgtc 
      ggatatcca acttctttc ctgagtctg cggtggtta 
      ttaagcgac gaaatcgca aatgtggcc ctacatttg 
      aggaaactg gtcggctcc aaccacccg ctcctcaaa 
      actgccaaa aacttactt tacaatggt aaaaacaac 
      atgcaagcg tggggcctc atcgtcctc ctggtctcc 
      aaggctgca ggtcactcc tccgacatc cccgacctg 
      gagcaggac aaggccgct ggagtcctc cacagccaa 
      agagcactt gctgaagtc actgaaatg atacgtaca 
      agtcattta gtgcacaaa ggcctcgtc aatctgcag 
      ccttctgcg gccacagac gcctccgga gatatgatg 
      ttcggcaat aaaatcgcc cttttaagc ggtgattac 
      ctactgagt aacagttgc acggaattg gccaattta 
      cgcaaccaa gatttagtc gagttaatg agttctgct 
      gtgcgtgat ttggctgaa gctgaattt gtggggcct 
      agagacaag cagaacaat cctctgccg gcaaagccc 
      cgctctgat atcgtggag tataagcaa ttcactgac 
      aagactttg gagcctttg gttgtgagc gaagctctg 
      gggaacgcc agggctgag tggacgctg agacacgtc 
      ttgaatgca ggtagttta ttgggtaaa tcctgccaa 
      ggcactttg aaactggca ggtcaccct cttgagctt 
      caagagcag ggctatttg tttggcaaa cacttggcc 
      ttggcttgg caagcttgt ctggaccgt gaaccgttc 
      cttcctggc actaatggg ccatttagt ttggtatgt 
      gcccctgtt atgtttacg ctccaggat gacccatct 
      ctgtatgaa gagattgaa aaagggcag gaaactgta 
      gatgatgtt gattatgag actgttagg aaggcagtt 
      ctagctggg cctggactt gacttgacc aaaaaattg 
      caaaaggaa cattccact gccgctttg gaggttaag 
      atgagcaat ctgaacaaa tcgttgaat ttttactta 
      aagagaggg atatcatgt agaaatttg tcatttttg 
      actcgcaaa gttgacgac aattccaaa cggaacagt 
      gtggttaaa gaagctgaa cgagttgtt ggttatcca 
      acatcattt ctaagcctc agatggatt ttaaacgac 
      gaaattgca aatgttgcc actcatatc aggaaatta 
      atcggaaca aatcacccc ctccttaaa acagcaaaa 
      aatttaatt ctaaggaat gaacaaccg acttggggt 
      cttattgta cttctggtg tcaaaactg gccggctta 
      aactcaaaa ttttctgaa ctcgagtgt gacagaact 
      gctgatatt ttacacagc caaaggata attgcggaa 
      gtcacagaa atgataaga actagtcac ttgattcac 
      aaaggcctt atcaacctc gaacctcac gataaaaac 
      ttctccgac ttgaatttc ggcaacaaa ttagcttta 
      ttatctgga gattattta ctcagtagt agttttaat 
      gaagtcgca aaactgaaa aactttcac gtacaagag 
      acaatttcg tccactttg agagacttg gctgagtca 
      gaattcatt ggtttgagg aacaaacac aacgaacca 
      atcccgtcc aaaccactt cctgtgcaa gaaaatatt 
      aacatacca cttgaattt ggagtcaaa ccgtttaaa 
      ttagagcac gttttgggt aatatgagg gcagaatgg 
      accctcaga aatgtttta tcaggcggt agtttactt 
      ggaaagtgt tgtcaatgt gcattaatt ttggcaaat 
      catgagtct cgagtccag gaattgggg tatagtttt 
      gggaggaat ttagccttg gcctggcag gcggcttta 
      gaaaaagaa ctctttagg gaagaaaaa tttagtcta 
      gtttcagca cctgtaatg cttcacctc gaaactgat 
      tcgagtttt tacaaagaa atagaaaag gggttgtct 
      gaagaccat gaaataaat tacgatcaa cgaattcac 
      agaggaggc cttggacac tcttgacaa gttccctaa 
      taatgaatc aaaggtggc

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY