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Gene information
General information
TC014422 Gene

The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007420.3: 10260197..10267441
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
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    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
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    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_09101

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 0.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC014422 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC014422 RA
      atgcaaaaa gtgctgttg tttctggtc gccggcgtg 
      ctggcggcc cacgccaag ttccactgg aaccgcacg 
      agttttccc cgagtgccc gtctggaat ttcaccatc 
      gaggagaaa acgctactg aatgctgag caaacggga 
      aaactgtgc ctgaaaaac gtcgacaag tgcatggag 
      gaagacttc aactatgaa acgaccgct aatcgactc 
      gccgatttc gtcttcggg atcgtccca ccattcgac 
      ttgagtcag gtcgagggg gtcgccgag gattgcaaa 
      aggcagagc gagaagtac gtcgaagag ctactcaaa 
      ttcaagctg tgggcactc aaaatgtac gatgcctcg 
      gccaaatta cccacgggg attttgaac gggaatgtt 
      aaccagtta ggcgatttc gacttgtgt ctgcaagcc 
      aatgaaagg aggctgggt atcaggggg aaatactgc 
      cttgcttct atgcaggta gaagcagga gcagcgagt 
      ccctatatt ctagcgctg cataggctg gcacagtcg 
      caccaccat ttcaggagt cagctcgac gacccaggg 
      catcgcgtc ccccgcttt tcgagcgtc aactgggcc 
      ctttgtgtc cccagcgcc tgctcctct gcggacgtc 
      cagctggcc ctccggacc aaaatcaac acaatctcc 
      aaaaacacc gacttagca gtgcgagtc ctggtagag 
      ccagacatg tgccaatca agccaaaaa gaaccgttg 
      ccgacctcg accatcata gtctcaggg attttcgcc 
      ggaatcgtc cttctggtg gctgtgagc acggggtac 
      gactgttat gctctcggg gagaaaaac aggtggatg 
      gtggcgttt tccttgcgg aaaaactgg accactctg 
      gtcaccatc aagcggtcg agcgatgat attgaggcc 
      atccacggg attcggttt ttgaacgcg tttctgctg 
      gttttggcc cataaaagc atggccatg tttttcacg 
      ccgtacatg aaccggacc gagatgatc gagtttgtt 
      tcgcggccc tggaccgtg atagggcgc gcggccagt 
      ctctacacc gaccctttc atcctcatt tcggggacg 
      cttacggcc tactcgctc ctcggcaaa ttgaaaaag 
      aacggcagg attagcgtc cgggaagag tacatttct 
      cgcctgttc cgcattttg ccgaccttt gccgctcta 
      atcgcattt tgtactttt gtcctgccg tggatgaac 
      cagggcccc atgtggaac caagtcgtg acgcatcat 
      tccgaccta tgcaaacaa tactggtgg aggaattta 
      ctatttatt cacaattat ttcggtttt aaggacatg 
      tgtttgacg cacacacac cacgtggga atcgacact 
      cagctgttt ttcgtttcg ccccttttc gccctattg 
      ttgtggaag tggcctaaa aggggtgtc tacgttttg 
      gcggtcctg gcactcgct tcgaccgct tggcgctat 
      tacgtcacg tatactatg aaactatcg aattatatt 
      cattttggg acttcaatc actcagtta tttgcgacc 
      gccgacaac atgtacatt attccgctc catagagcg 
      acggtctat atcatgggc gtcttactt gggtacatt 
      ttgaggaat tataggaac atttcgtta agcaaaagc 
      cagctccgg tttggcaat actgtggcc ctgcttagt 
      ttcatagcg tccctgttc ggcccagcc ttcatgggg 
      agtatagac tacgtgtac aaccccacg gatgcggcg 
      tggtatgcg gctttcgcc cccatcctc tggtgtttc 
      tccttcggt tggattatc tttactagt cacttgggg 
      tacaaagga cttgtcgaa cggtttttc tcatggccc 
      ccattttcg ctctggacc aagatctcc tacactgtc 
      tacttgacg caattccct gttttcttc tacaatgtt 
      gggatcacc aggacaacg caacattac ggattcttc 
      aaaatttta ctcaacttg caggaactg gcttgggtc 
      tggttcttg tccgttgtt ttaactcta ctaatagag 
      atgccattc caaaacatt agaaatatt gtatttaag 
      aaagagagg acgccggag ccgctccac aagaagatt 
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC014422 RA
      ctctttgac aattgtgtg tacggtcat acaacgttc 
      cgtcgtgac cgggggtgc cccaaaaat gcaaaaagt 
      gctgttgtt tctggtcgc cggcgtgct ggcggccca 
      cgccaagtt ccactggaa ccgcacgag ttttccccg 
      agtgcccgt ctggaattt caccatcga ggagaaaac 
      gctactgaa tgctgagca aacgggaaa actgtgcct 
      gaaaaacgt cgacaagtg catggagga agacttcaa 
      ctatgaaac gaccgctaa tcgactcgc cgatttcgt 
      cttcgggat cgtcccacc attcgactt gagtcaggt 
      cgagggggt cgccgagga ttgcaaaag gcagagcga 
      gaagtacgt cgaagagct actcaaatt caagctgtg 
      ggcactcaa aatgtacga tgcctcggc caaattacc 
      cacggggat tttgaacgg gaatgttaa ccagttagg 
      cgatttcga cttgtgtct gcaagccaa tgaaaggag 
      gctgggtat cagggggaa atactgcct tgcttctat 
      gcaggtaga agcaggagc agcgagtcc ctatattct 
      agcgctgca taggctggc acagtcgca ccaccattt 
      caggagtca gctcgacga cccagggca tcgcgtccc 
      ccgcttttc gagcgtcaa ctgggccct ttgtgtccc 
      cagcgcctg ctcctctgc ggacgtcca gctggccct 
      ccggaccaa aatcaacac aatctccaa aaacaccga 
      cttagcagt gcgagtcct ggtagagcc agacatgtg 
      ccaatcaag ccaaaaaga accgttgcc gacctcgac 
      catcatagt ctcagggat tttcgccgg aatcgtcct 
      tctggtggc tgtgagcac ggggtacga ctgttatgc 
      tctcgggga gaaaaacag gtggatggt ggcgttttc 
      cttgcggaa aaactggac cactctggt caccatcaa 
      gcggtcgag cgatgatat tgaggccat ccacgggat 
      tcggttttt gaacgcgtt tctgctggt tttggccca 
      taaaagcat ggccatgtt tttcacgcc gtacatgaa 
      ccggaccga gatgatcga gtttgtttc gcggccctg 
      gaccgtgat agggcgcgc ggccagtct ctacaccga 
      ccctttcat cctcatttc ggggacgct tacggccta 
      ctcgctcct cggcaaatt gaaaaagaa cggcaggat 
      tagcgtccg ggaagagta catttctcg cctgttccg 
      cattttgcc gacctttgc cgctctaat cgcattttg 
      tacttttgt cctgccgtg gatgaacca gggccccat 
      gtggaacca agtcgtgac gcatcattc cgacctatg 
      caaacaata ctggtggag gaatttact atttattca 
      caattattt cggttttaa ggacatgtg tttgacgca 
      cacacacca cgtgggaat cgacactca gctgttttt 
      cgtttcgcc ccttttcgc cctattgtt gtggaagtg 
      gcctaaaag gggtgtcta cgttttggc ggtcctggc 
      actcgcttc gaccgcttg gcgctatta cgtcacgta 
      tactatgaa actatcgaa ttatattca ttttgggac 
      ttcaatcac tcagttatt tgcgaccgc cgacaacat 
      gtacattat tccgctcca tagagcgac ggtctatat 
      catgggcgt cttacttgg gtacatttt gaggaatta 
      taggaacat ttcgttaag caaaagcca gctccggtt 
      tggcaatac tgtggccct gcttagttt catagcgtc 
      cctgttcgg cccagcctt catggggag tatagacta 
      cgtgtacaa ccccacgga tgcggcgtg gtatgcggc 
      tttcgcccc catcctctg gtgtttctc cttcggttg 
      gattatctt tactagtca cttggggta caaaggact 
      tgtcgaacg gtttttctc atggccccc attttcgct 
      ctggaccaa gatctccta cactgtcta cttgacgca 
      attccctgt tttcttcta caatgttgg gatcaccag 
      gacaacgca acattacgg attcttcaa aattttact 
      caacttgca ggaactggc ttgggtctg gttcttgtc 
      cgttgtttt aactctact aatagagat gccattcca 
      aaacattag aaatattgt atttaagaa agagaggac 
      gccggagcc gctccacaa gaagattag ttgatctag 
      ttgtaggtt tttaattta tttagttaa gttgttgag 
      aataaaaaa tg

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY