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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007422.5: 8219460..8223288
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_08731

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 0.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC033693 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC033693 RA
      atgtgggac gattggaac aatgatagc cccgtccag 
      acgcaggtt ttcacgaac agtagcgac tactctaac 
      tggcgcgac aattcgcag ccgcggcgt ccccgagac 
      gatagacgg aacaacggt tacagagga ggcaatcgc 
      ggcggcccc cgacgtggg ggcaacgat gacgcgact 
      atgattaaa gtgccgtca aaatttgtt gggaagatt 
      attggaagg ggcggttcg aaagtcaat gatctgcaa 
      ttcgaatct ggggccaaa attaatatt acgaaagag 
      actgaaggg gatgagact tttattagg ctttcgggg 
      accaacgat gctgtctca aaggctgaa agtttgata 
      cgggagttg acgattgag agggacagt tatgtgagg 
      gaggtgaag gaggaagag cctccgccc cagctggac 
      gaaccccaa gaagaaccc aaaattgtt gactggagg 
      gccgttttt gccaagtgt gacgagttg gaagctgaa 
      aagtgggcc gccttaccc cccatcaag aaggaattc 
      tatttcgag catcctgaa gtcactgcc atgactgaa 
      gacgaagtt gaagccttc cgtctcgaa agtaacaac 
      atcgtggtg gagcgaact ttcaaaact gaaaatagc 
      aaaccagtc ccgaaacca gttgtaact tttgagcat 
      gcgtttcac aaatatcct gaaatcctg gaagaaatg 
      aaaaaggca gggtttact agaccttcg cccatccag 
      agccaagca tggccggtt ttactgagc ggagaagac 
      ttgatcggg atcgctcaa accggaacc ggaaaaact 
      ttagcgttt ctgttaccg gcattgatt cacattgac 
      ggtcaaaat atcaagaag tcggagcgt gggggccct 
      gcagtcttg gtcatggct ccaacccga gaactcgcc 
      cttcagatc gacaaagag gtcaagaaa tacgaatat 
      aaggggatc acagcggtt tgcatttac gggggcggt 
      aaccgtcgc gagcaaatc aaagtgctt actgacgga 
      gtcgacata gtgatcgct acgcccggc agactcaac 
      gatttggcc gaagccggc catttggag gtcaaatat 
      gtcacatac gtggtcctc gacgaggcc gaccgtatg 
      ttagacatg ggttttgag ccccaaata cgtaaggtg 
      atgtatagt attagaccc acgagacag actgtgatg 
      acaagtgcg acatggccg ccaggggtt cgaagactg 
      gcccagtcg tacatggtt gaccccata cagatttat 
      gtggggact ttggatctg gctgccact catactgta 
      acccagatc atagaaatt atccctgat gacgaccag 
      gagaagttt agaacgttt atgaatttc gccacaaat 
      ctggacccg tctgaaaaa gtgattgct ttctgtggg 
      aagaaggca cgcgctgat gagttatcg acggagttg 
      actttggca gggctccag tgtcagaca atccacggt 
      gatcgcgat caaagcgat cgagagcaa gctctacta 
      gatattgcc gatggcacc gttcaaata ctcattgcg 
      acggatgtc gcttcacga ggtttagac attgatgat 
      atcactcac gtcatcaat tacgatttt ccaaggaac 
      atagaagag tacgtgcat agggttggc aggactggc 
      cgtgccgga aaatccggg aagtcgatt agttacttc 
      acgcggggc gattgggcc caagccaag gaactaatt 
      gccattttg gaagaagca cagcagtac gtcccagag 
      gagttgtac aaaatggca gatcgctac gcctcctgg 
      aaggaaaag aaggacgct tcaaggccc cccggccgc 
      ggccgtggt gggggcagg cgttggtaa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC033693 RA
      aaaaaacgc aaaacccaa ttttataac ttgatgtta 
      gattttcta aaaaatttt gttgcacat ttccattat 
      cgttaatat attttttat tttaaattc aaatttttg 
      aaaaaacaa ggcgcacgc gcaccacaa ccgttgcgt 
      aggtggcgc caccccgcg gcattttcc gctctcttt 
      gacgttttt cgtcattcg aacgtgttt ttttaattt 
      tccggtttc caacaagtg aaaactttg taaccgatt 
      tccacccta tttggggtg cactaccaa ccccagcga 
      accgcgcac cacattcca tttcccgaa cctgcccaa 
      gcttgccga ttttttctg tttcggaaa aaaacaatt 
      aaaatgtgg gacgattgg aacaatgat agccccgtc 
      cagacgcag gttttcacg aacagtagc gactactct 
      aactggcgc gacaattcg cagccgcgg cgtccccga 
      gacgataga cggaacaac ggttacaga ggaggcaat 
      cgcggcggc ccccgacgt gggggcaac gatgacgcg 
      actatgatt aaagtgccg tcaaaattt gttgggaag 
      attattgga aggggcggt tcgaaagtc aatgatctg 
      caattcgaa tctggggcc aaaattaat attacgaaa 
      gagactgaa ggggatgag acttttatt aggctttcg 
      gggaccaac gatgctgtc tcaaaggct gaaagtttg 
      atacgggag ttgacgatt gagagggac agttatgtg 
      agggaggtg aaggaggaa gagcctccg ccccagctg 
      gacgaaccc caagaagaa cccaaaatt gttgactgg 
      agggccgtt tttgccaag tgtgacgag ttggaagct 
      gaaaagtgg gccgcctta ccccccatc aagaaggaa 
      ttctatttc gagcatcct gaagtcact gccatgact 
      gaagacgaa gttgaagcc ttccgtctc gaaagtaac 
      aacatcgtg gtggagcga actttcaaa actgaaaat 
      agcaaacca gtcccgaaa ccagttgta acttttgag 
      catgcgttt cacaaatat cctgaaatc ctggaagaa 
      atgaaaaag gcagggttt actagacct tcgcccatc 
      cagagccaa gcatggccg gttttactg agcggagaa 
      gacttgatc gggatcgct caaaccgga accggaaaa 
      actttagcg tttctgtta ccggcattg attcacatt 
      gacggtcaa aatatcaag aagtcggag cgtgggggc 
      cctgcagtc ttggtcatg gctccaacc cgagaactc 
      gcccttcag atcgacaaa gaggtcaag aaatacgaa 
      tataagggg atcacagcg gtttgcatt tacgggggc 
      ggtaaccgt cgcgagcaa atcaaagtg cttactgac 
      ggagtcgac atagtgatc gctacgccc ggcagactc 
      aacgatttg gccgaagcc ggccatttg gaggtcaaa 
      tatgtcaca tacgtggtc ctcgacgag gccgaccgt 
      atgttagac atgggtttt gagccccaa atacgtaag 
      gtgatgtat agtattaga cccacgaga cagactgtg 
      atgacaagt gcgacatgg ccgccaggg gttcgaaga 
      ctggcccag tcgtacatg gttgacccc atacagatt 
      tatgtgggg actttggat ctggctgcc actcatact 
      gtaacccag atcatagaa attatccct gatgacgac 
      caggagaag tttagaacg tttatgaat ttcgccaca 
      aatctggac ccgtctgaa aaagtgatt gctttctgt 
      gggaagaag gcacgcgct gatgagtta tcgacggag 
      ttgactttg gcagggctc cagtgtcag acaatccac 
      ggtgatcgc gatcaaagc gatcgagag caagctcta 
      ctagatatt gccgatggc accgttcaa atactcatt 
      gcgacggat gtcgcttca cgaggttta gacattgat 
      gatatcact cacgtcatc aattacgat tttccaagg 
      aacatagaa gagtacgtg catagggtt ggcaggact 
      ggccgtgcc ggaaaatcc gggaagtcg attagttac 
      ttcacgcgg ggcgattgg gcccaagcc aaggaacta 
      attgccatt ttggaagaa gcacagcag tacgtccca 
      gaggagttg tacaaaatg gcagatcgc tacgcctcc 
      tggaaggaa aagaaggac gcttcaagg ccccccggc 
      cgcggccgt ggtgggggc aggcgttgg taactcgat 
      taaggatct ttttttttc tcatagaat tacttgtat 
      ttttgacat tgacgtatt aaagttttg atgatgtc

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY