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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007421.3: 652175..654864
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
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    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
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    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_08477

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 10.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC033318 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC033318 RA
      atggtttta aataacgac ttttggcac aattttcgc 
      gacgtgagc atttatccg acgtgtgag gaaattctg 
      ggcaaacgc aaccccgtt gacaagaac ataattcgt 
      ggaaaattc cacaatgtg gggcactac ttggacgtc 
      cagttccgt cttttacgc gaagacttt atcgcaaat 
      ttgcgcgaa ggcatcgag agttatcgg gcaaaagag 
      tccacaaaa gtgcttgac atttacgaa aatgtgcgc 
      atttacaaa gacaggacc cgacgtagc gaagagtgc 
      ctcaaaatc gatataaac gtacaagag gacgactcg 
      aaaaaattc atgaatggc tcactcctc atcttcaca 
      aagaacaat ttcgaccaa atgtttcaa gcaaaagtc 
      gtccaacgt tcaacagaa ccgccccag attatcatt 
      gagttgatc gatgtgtgc cctagtgac ctaaacctg 
      tcccaaagc tacacaatg gccgaatgt agccaatac 
      ttcgacccc tattttaac gttctaacc gccttgaag 
      gccacccct gtcacaaac ttccccatg gagcgctac 
      atcgtccac tgcgacacc tcggcgcgc acccctcca 
      tacctctcg ggcttcgcc cccgagaga tgggggcgc 
      tcgctaaac cgcgcccaa atgcaggcc ttcacggcg 
      gccctaacg cgcgaattc gtcgtgatc cagggcccc 
      ccaggcact ggcaaaacg cacctgggg gtgaaaatc 
      gccaccact ttgctacaa aacgcccac ttgtggcac 
      aaaaacagc cccatgttg gtcatttcg cacaagaac 
      gacgccctt gaccagttc ctcgaaggc ctaatcccc 
      tgcacttcg agactaatc cgagccggg ggccaatca 
      aagagcgag aaattgaaa cagtttaat ttaataacg 
      ggggcgggg gaaaaacgg cgcaagtgg gtggagttt 
      ctcccagcg atgcaacaa tcattggtt gttggcatg 
      acaacgagt gtggcgtca cgctggagg gcggagttt 
      ttggaggag ttacaatca ccgattgtt gtggtcgag 
      gaggcggcg gaagtgctc gaagcgcat gtggtggca 
      gcactgact agtaaatgt caacacttg attttgttg 
      ggcgaccac caacaactc caaccgctc actgctgac 
      aataatatc ggcaaaaat taccattta ggtgtgagt 
      ttattcgaa cgcatggtt ttgaaccac atacagtgc 
      taccaactt gatattcaa catcggatg cggccggaa 
      atcgccgat ctgctccga gtcagaatt tacccgttt 
      ttgaaagac cacgaatcg gttttaaac cggccgggg 
      attcccgga atgcataaa aacgtgttt ttcgttgat 
      cacaaccag ggggaagaa acctctagt ttgacaacg 
      aagaaaaat acgcatgag gcgcgtttt ttggtattt 
      ttggcgcgt tatttgatt ttaaacggc cataaatcg 
      agtgatatt gttattttg gcaacgtat ttgggacaa 
      atgcttgaa attgaaaag ttggttaag agtcagacg 
      tgtctggag ggggttaaa gtatcgacc ttggacggg 
      tttcaagga caggaagct gagattgtt ttgttgtca 
      ctggttcgt agctcacac attggcttc cttaaggcg 
      gaaaatcgc atttgtgtg gcgttatca cgcgccagg 
      agcgggttt tatatcatg ggcaagatg gccttgctg 
      gcggggaag tcccaaatt tggaacggt gtgaaaaga 
      tgtctagca aaacagggc gccattggg cgcaaaatc 
      gcgttagtg tgtcaaaaa cataagact gtcacacaa 
      gtcgaaaca attgacgac ttccaaaat gtccaaaat 
      ggcggttgt catttgaaa tgttgcgaa attatggct 
      tgtggccat aattgcgta cttttgtgt cacaccagt 
      tatttgaaa cataaatgt gaacggaaa tgtgttacg 
      aggtcgact cctgttgtc aaaaaatac gaaattggt 
      gaacctgac ctttggtct aagccacgg actgatggt 
      tatgtgagg cctagggac tttggtgct aactcacaa 
      ttgggtgaa agtgaatcg ttttctttt acaagaatt 
      gtgaggaat ttaattcgg agctttgtg cactttatt 
      gttgagaat ttttttacc taa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC033318 RA
      tgcttacat aacctcagt ttcgcttgt tttattaaa 
      aagatggtt ttaaataac gacttttgg cacaatttt 
      cgcgacgtg agcatttat ccgacgtgt gaggaaatt 
      ctgggcaaa cgcaacccc gttgacaag aacataatt 
      cgtggaaaa ttccacaat gtggggcac tacttggac 
      gtccagttc cgtctttta cgcgaagac tttatcgca 
      aatttgcgc gaaggcatc gagagttat cgggcaaaa 
      gagtccaca aaagtgctt gacatttac gaaaatgtg 
      cgcatttac aaagacagg acccgacgt agcgaagag 
      tgcctcaaa atcgatata aacgtacaa gaggacgac 
      tcgaaaaaa ttcatgaat ggctcactc ctcatcttc 
      acaaagaac aatttcgac caaatgttt caagcaaaa 
      gtcgtccaa cgttcaaca gaaccgccc cagattatc 
      attgagttg atcgatgtg tgccctagt gacctaaac 
      ctgtcccaa agctacaca atggccgaa tgtagccaa 
      tacttcgac ccctatttt aacgttcta accgccttg 
      aaggccacc cctgtcaca aacttcccc atggagcgc 
      tacatcgtc cactgcgac acctcggcg cgcacccct 
      ccatacctc tcgggcttc gcccccgag agatggggg 
      cgctcgcta aaccgcgcc caaatgcag gccttcacg 
      gcggcccta acgcgcgaa ttcgtcgtg atccagggc 
      cccccaggc actggcaaa acgcacctg ggggtgaaa 
      atcgccacc actttgcta caaaacgcc cacttgtgg 
      cacaaaaac agccccatg ttggtcatt tcgcacaag 
      aacgacgcc cttgaccag ttcctcgaa ggcctaatc 
      ccctgcact tcgagacta atccgagcc gggggccaa 
      tcaaagagc gagaaattg aaacagttt aatttaata 
      acgggggcg ggggaaaaa cggcgcaag tgggtggag 
      tttctccca gcgatgcaa caatcattg gttgttggc 
      atgacaacg agtgtggcg tcacgctgg agggcggag 
      tttttggag gagttacaa tcaccgatt gttgtggtc 
      gaggaggcg gcggaagtg ctcgaagcg catgtggtg 
      gcagcactg actagtaaa tgtcaacac ttgattttg 
      ttgggcgac caccaacaa ctccaaccg ctcactgct 
      gacaataat atcggcaaa aattaccat ttaggtgtg 
      agtttattc gaacgcatg gttttgaac cacatacag 
      tgctaccaa cttgatatt caacatcgg atgcggccg 
      gaaatcgcc gatctgctc cgagtcaga atttacccg 
      tttttgaaa gaccacgaa tcggtttta aaccggccg 
      gggattccc ggaatgcat aaaaacgtg tttttcgtt 
      gatcacaac cagggggaa gaaacctct agtttgaca 
      acgaagaaa aatacgcat gaggcgcgt tttttggta 
      tttttggcg cgttatttg attttaaac ggccataaa 
      tcgagtgat attgttatt ttggcaacg tatttggga 
      caaatgctt gaaattgaa aagttggtt aagagtcag 
      acgtgtctg gagggggtt aaagtatcg accttggac 
      gggtttcaa ggacaggaa gctgagatt gttttgttg 
      tcactggtt cgtagctca cacattggc ttccttaag 
      gcggaaaat cgcatttgt gtggcgtta tcacgcgcc 
      aggagcggg ttttatatc atgggcaag atggccttg 
      ctggcgggg aagtcccaa atttggaac ggtgtgaaa 
      agatgtcta gcaaaacag ggcgccatt gggcgcaaa 
      atcgcgtta gtgtgtcaa aaacataag actgtcaca 
      caagtcgaa acaattgac gacttccaa aatgtccaa 
      aatggcggt tgtcatttg aaatgttgc gaaattatg 
      gcttgtggc cataattgc gtacttttg tgtcacacc 
      agttatttg aaacataaa tgtgaacgg aaatgtgtt 
      acgaggtcg actcctgtt gtcaaaaaa tacgaaatt 
      ggtgaacct gacctttgg tctaagcca cggactgat 
      ggttatgtg aggcctagg gactttggt gctaactca 
      caattgggt gaaagtgaa tcgttttct tttacaaga 
      attgtgagg aatttaatt cggagcttt gtgcacttt 
      attgttgag aattttttt acctaactt aatgtattg 
      tgatacagt attttaata cgaaaataa aatataatg 
    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY