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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007418.3: 5692907..5698534
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
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    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
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    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_07969

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 10.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC032390 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC032390 RA
      atggaatcg cccccttca agcacaaca tggtccgaa 
      gcttttgtt ttaagtgat gacagtggt cttttgctg 
      acaaatagt tctatatct agcggtagt atgagtgga 
      gatagtaga agtggcccc aaccgttta cacatagag 
      gatagtgat tgtgaagaa aagtccttc tcgcaagac 
      tctttagat ggcatgtca gacattatg tgtggagag 
      aacttcaac acgttaaag aaaggccct aactggatg 
      gactactcc ctgaagcac tcctccccc atagagccc 
      cctttagag tttcaagac aagcccccc gacgtactg 
      gacagcttc ttcgatcat ttagcaaac caaatcctg 
      agcaaggct tttgaagaa tacaaagac attgagtta 
      cgaaggatg aaaatcttg aatcatttc caccgcccc 
      tcgcaccat ttattacta ggtcggccg tactacacc 
      tctgagttc atctcatac agtccgtgc cacggcagg 
      ccgggctcg aggagctcc cttggttct tcacgtctt 
      tcaagttcg cataactct ctgtccgtc cctgccgca 
      cacaaagtt gacgattcg agcttcata acgcaggca 
      gtctcgcat gatacgctt tcgtcaaac caaataagc 
      gacctgtac aacgtaccc ttcgacagt gatatgtat 
      gccgttccg gtggacgtt attaaaccg ccactaaag 
      cccaaaaga catcagcag aacaagaag aggcggagg 
      aatacgtcg tcagggtgc cgagaaatt gaagccagg 
      cagtgcagg attatctca agcaagaaa aacacactc 
      aaggctgaa aggtaccat tggtgtttg cataaagag 
      aacaaacgg cacagtgtt gctggaacg tccgcacca 
      atcgaaggg gaaccgatt cacatgact ttgcaagaa 
      gtgcggcat tatctccaa acgctgtat tcaagttcg 
      tctgattca tccgatcac aaagagcgc agctgcaga 
      ccgaaacat ccgctgata gtggccgaa aacaaatac 
      gcaacggaa cagaacaac tcgccagtg aagagagaa 
      acgatctgt gtggcggca aacacgaac ggaagaaca 
      aaaaagagc acattcctt attaacatt aagaataaa 
      aaagttaaa gactcctgt gataacgtc ggcaaacaa 
      ataaatatc tcgcaaacg agcaaacca gacaagcgc 
      aaaaagaca ccagcgaag ctgttctcg ttcaagcag 
      actttatgc aatatgttt aggtttaag cggtttcta 
      tcgcccgag cacgtcaag tgtgatgtc agcgacgtg 
      caggaaaag tcgaattac atcagcaac gccagtctg 
      gcggaggaa gcacacaat aacatatcc agtagggct 
      ctgccgccc ttgcctttc aaagaggag gagaaagca 
      gacgagcag attttagac ttcgccact agtatccaa 
      agagttaaa gactacggc tggtattgg ggtccattg 
      ccgagcgag gttgccgaa aaaatactg tccaacgaa 
      ccagacgga tcctttatc gtacgtgat agtagcgac 
      gatcattat attttttca ctaactttt aagctgaat 
      aattgtgtt agacacgtt cgaattgat cacgatcag 
      ggtaatttt agtttcggt agttgtaca aagttcaag 
      tcgcaaaca atcgtagaa tttatagaa aatgcggtt 
      gaacattct cgtagcggt aggtatttg ttctttttg 
      catcgaagg ccggtgatt ggtccggtg agagtgcag 
      ctgttacat ccggtgtcg aggtttaag caagtgcag 
      agcctacag cacatttgc agatttgca atccacaaa 
      gtggttcgc agggatctg atccccagt cttccattg 
      ccgaggaga atgatcgac tacttgaac actccgcat 
      tattattca gagcatctg atagatgta gaagataca 
      agtaatgaa caagtccct cctagaatc cctactcca 
      gcgatacga cgcgattat caggaagaa gaagtccaa 
      gcacctatc gtttccaac atacctctg aacaattac 
      attgttttg aataacaca aatcctcgg cagtcctga
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC032390 RA
      atacatttg ccagatgac agcgattgt cacttgaga 
      cgatggcga aggttgttt ttaagatat taaaattag 
      aataaaaat acacgaaac aaatataaa caactgacc 
      agaagcaac aaaatggta attacaaat ccgaaaagc 
      taaattaat tatggaatc gcccccttc aagcacaac 
      atggtccga agcttttgt tttaagtga tgacagtgg 
      tcttttgct gacaaatag ttctatatc tagcggtag 
      tatgagtgg agatagtag aagtggccc caaccgttt 
      acacataga ggatagtga ttgtgaaga aaagtcctt 
      ctcgcaaga ctctttaga tggcatgtc agacattat 
      gtgtggaga gaacttcaa cacgttaaa gaaaggccc 
      taactggat ggactactc cctgaagca ctcctcccc 
      catagagcc ccctttaga gtttcaaga caagccccc 
      cgacgtact ggacagctt cttcgatca tttagcaaa 
      ccaaatcct gagcaaggc ttttgaaga atacaaaga 
      cattgagtt acgaaggat gaaaatctt gaatcattt 
      ccaccgccc ctcgcacca tttattact aggtcggcc 
      gtactacac ctctgagtt catctcata cagtccgtg 
      ccacggcag gccgggctc gaggagctc ccttggttc 
      ttcacgtct ttcaagttc gcataactc tctgtccgt 
      ccctgccgc acacaaagt tgacgattc gagcttcat 
      aacgcaggc agtctcgca tgatacgct ttcgtcaaa 
      ccaaataag cgacctgta caacgtacc cttcgacag 
      tgatatgta tgccgttcc ggtggacgt tattaaacc 
      gccactaaa gcccaaaag acatcagca gaacaagaa 
      gaggcggag gaatacgtc gtcagggtg ccgagaaat 
      tgaagccag gcagtgcag gattatctc aagcaagaa 
      aaacacact caaggctga aaggtacca ttggtgttt 
      gcataaaga gaacaaacg gcacagtgt tgctggaac 
      gtccgcacc aatcgaagg ggaaccgat tcacatgac 
      tttgcaaga agtgcggca ttatctcca aacgctgta 
      ttcaagttc gtctgattc atccgatca caaagagcg 
      cagctgcag accgaaaca tccgctgat agtggccga 
      aaacaaata cgcaacgga acagaacaa ctcgccagt 
      gaagagaga aacgatctg tgtggcggc aaacacgaa 
      cggaagaac aaaaaagag cacattcct tattaacat 
      taagaataa aaaagttaa agactcctg tgataacgt 
      cggcaaaca aataaatat ctcgcaaac gagcaaacc 
      agacaagcg caaaaagac accagcgaa gctgttctc 
      gttcaagca gactttatg caatatgtt taggtttaa 
      gcggtttct atcgcccga gcacgtcaa gtgtgatgt 
      cagcgacgt gcaggaaaa gtcgaatta catcagcaa 
      cgccagtct ggcggagga agcacacaa taacatatc 
      cagtagggc tctgccgcc cttgccttt caaagagga 
      ggagaaagc agacgagca gattttaga cttcgccac 
      tagtatcca aagagttaa agactacgg ctggtattg 
      gggtccatt gccgagcga ggttgccga aaaaatact 
      gtccaacga accagacgg atcctttat cgtacgtga 
      tagtagcga cgatcatta tattttttc actaacttt 
      taagctgaa taattgtgt tagacacgt tcgaattga 
      tcacgatca gggtaattt tagtttcgg tagttgtac 
      aaagttcaa gtcgcaaac aatcgtaga atttataga 
      aaatgcggt tgaacattc tcgtagcgg taggtattt 
      gttcttttt gcatcgaag gccggtgat tggtccggt 
      gagagtgca gctgttaca tccggtgtc gaggtttaa 
      gcaagtgca gagcctaca gcacatttg cagatttgc 
      aatccacaa agtggttcg cagggatct gatccccag 
      tcttccatt gccgaggag aatgatcga ctacttgaa 
      cactccgca ttattattc agagcatct gatagatgt 
      agaagatac aagtaatga acaagtccc tcctagaat 
      ccctactcc agcgatacg acgcgatta tcaggaaga 
      agaagtcca agcacctat cgtttccaa catacctct 
      gaacaatta cattgtttt gaataacac aaatcctcg 
      gcagtcctg aggttttca ctttctttt tcatattta 
      tagttattt attttgttg ttttgttaa atttgtgca 
      attaacttt cagaccaaa gttttaatg tgattttag 
      tattgttat gcttggaaa gtcagctgt agtttttaa 
      gccaataac ttatttata aggaagcaa acgcacatg 
      atagtagtt aagccagaa aataacgta tttcttatt 
      aggttgtga atatgttag tcataaaac ggggttttg 
      cgctagaca agactaaga ctcctga

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY