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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007417.3: 7605279..7608369
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_07853

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 70.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 7 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult nutritional state potentially bad (cachectic) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC032093 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC032093 RA
      atgaccgac caaaaggac gacgagagc attgaagaa 
      atcgacaga gacatgctt ttcaaatac atagagacg 
      aaagagttc cttgctgtc attttctac aaggaagaa 
      gacccggac agtccccga atcctgcga cacgtcgaa 
      ctgatcgac gacgaagcc gccgaatac ggaatcaaa 
      atcgtcaaa atgcgcgac cgcctaatg gccaaaaaa 
      tacggcttc cgggaccct cccggaatc acctacttc 
      cgcaaaggc aagccgatt aaatacgac ggcgacatt 
      gacgatgaa gaagagata ctcgattgg ctcaccgac 
      cctgaaaac atggaacta acggaccac atcgaacgt 
      gtgaaccga aaaatgttc gaaaaaatc cgccaaagg 
      tccgactac gtcgccgtt ttcctctac agcaacgac 
      tgcaaacag tgtccgaaa gtcctcgcc gaagtggag 
      cacatcgac gacgaagcc gacgctgct ggaatcaat 
      ttcgtcaaa atcgacgac aagcaaatg gcgagacaa 
      ttcggagtg tttgctctc ccagctatt ctcttcttc 
      aaactaggg tcaaaagaa ccggtcatc tatgccggg 
      gatttgtac gacgagcag cagattttg cagtggctg 
      ttgacacag caagacccg tcaggtgat gtgattgag 
      gcgactgaa ggcaatgag ttgttacga ctgattgag 
      gaagaagac gcgttggct gtttatttc tggaacaag 
      actctgtgt gatttgtgc agtgcacag gaacagcaa 
      catgggagg aaggcgcac aaagttagg accacttcg 
      gacgaggaa gaagatgcg aaagacgat aacgatgag 
      tgtgaacaa tgtgcccac attttggaa gagttggag 
      aatatcgac gacgattgc gaacgccac ggaattctc 
      ttcgtcaag acgcaggat ttgaaaatt gccgaacag 
      tacggagcg accgacttc ccagttttg atgtatttc 
      gaaagtggg gttgggggc gtatttgag ggcgacctg 
      gaagaggag gaggaagtc ctccaatgg cttatccag 
      caacgaacc gaagaccga atcgagtta attacaaga 
      gtcatgttg gaaaaccta gtccaagac acacaatac 
      ttggctgtc tacttctac aagcagaat tgccacatt 
      tgtgagcag attttggaa gatttggaa aaaatcgac 
      gatgagtgt gatgtctac ggaattcat ttggtccgg 
      attcaagac ccgcaatta gcgaaacgc tacagtatc 
      aaaacattc cctgcactt gtctatttc agaaacggc 
      aatccgttg ctgtttgaa ggcgacctc cagaacgaa 
      gactcagtg ctcgaatgg ctaatagac gacgacaac 
      cgcgagctt gctgatgag atcgaatca gtcaatgaa 
      agaatgtta acaagactg ctcaacgag tctccattt 
      ctcgcagtc ttcttctac gatgaagat tgtcccgaa 
      tgcgacgaa attctggaa aatttggaa gaaatcgac 
      ggggaagcc gacatgttc ggaatcgac tttgtcaaa 
      atatgcagc gctgaggcc gcagctgag caagggttg 
      cacacgctt cccgcactg atgtatttc cggaagaag 
      accccgatg gtgtacgaa ggcgacttg acccaatcc 
      gacaaagtg ctcgactgg ctgacctct caagacgtt 
      ttcgaaatc aaaaatgag atcgaagaa gtgaacaaa 
      aaaatgttg gagaaactc ttggaagag aacgagttc 
      gtcacggtg tttttctat gaaattaat tcggaagag 
      agcaaggca attatggaa aagctggag aatattgac 
      agcgagacg gacaacttt gatatcacg tttgtcaag 
      atggcggat ccgcggtac gccagaaaa tggggcgtg 
      acgaatctt cccgccatc gtgtacttc cgaagacgt 
      ttcccgagc atataccgc ggagatatg cattccgaa 
      gctgatgtt ttggaatgg ttgcgaaag aatcgtttc 
      cgacaaccc gaactgaac attttcatg tacgcgtta 
      ttcgccatt agcatcgct tttgtcatt tacacagct 
      tttctcctc caatgtttc aagactcaa ccgcaagct 
      gtggtcccc catcccaag cagtcctaa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC032093 RA
      acccggtaa gttacaacg agccattcc ataatctgt 
      ctctctcca aaatacggc aaattaaaa aatcaacag 
      tcatttcct cacaggaaa cctgctcga cgaaaccga 
      agtcctaga ctggatgac cgaccaaaa ggacgacga 
      gagcattga agaaatcga cagagacat gcttttcaa 
      atacataga gacgaaaga gttccttgc tgtcatttt 
      ctacaagga agaagaccc ggacagtcc ccgaatcct 
      gcgacacgt cgaactgat cgacgacga agccgccga 
      atacggaat caaaatcgt caaaatgcg cgaccgcct 
      aatggccaa aaaatacgg cttccggga ccctcccgg 
      aatcaccta cttccgcaa aggcaagcc gattaaata 
      cgacggcga cattgacga tgaagaaga gatactcga 
      ttggctcac cgaccctga aaacatgga actaacgga 
      ccacatcga acgtgtgaa ccgaaaaat gttcgaaaa 
      aatccgcca aaggtccga ctacgtcgc cgttttcct 
      ctacagcaa cgactgcaa acagtgtcc gaaagtcct 
      cgccgaagt ggagcacat cgacgacga agccgacgc 
      tgctggaat caatttcgt caaaatcga cgacaagca 
      aatggcgag acaattcgg agtgtttgc tctcccagc 
      tattctctt cttcaaact agggtcaaa agaaccggt 
      catctatgc cggggattt gtacgacga gcagcagat 
      tttgcagtg gctgttgac acagcaaga cccgtcagg 
      tgatgtgat tgaggcgac tgaaggcaa tgagttgtt 
      acgactgat tgaggaaga agacgcgtt ggctgttta 
      tttctggaa caagactct gtgtgattt gtgcagtgc 
      acaggaaca gcaacatgg gaggaaggc gcacaaagt 
      taggaccac ttcggacga ggaagaaga tgcgaaaga 
      cgataacga tgagtgtga acaatgtgc ccacatttt 
      ggaagagtt ggagaatat cgacgacga ttgcgaacg 
      ccacggaat tctcttcgt caagacgca ggatttgaa 
      aattgccga acagtacgg agcgaccga cttcccagt 
      tttgatgta tttcgaaag tggggttgg gggcgtatt 
      tgagggcga cctggaaga ggaggagga agtcctcca 
      atggcttat ccagcaacg aaccgaaga ccgaatcga 
      gttaattac aagagtcat gttggaaaa cctagtcca 
      agacacaca atacttggc tgtctactt ctacaagca 
      gaattgcca catttgtga gcagatttt ggaagattt 
      ggaaaaaat cgacgatga gtgtgatgt ctacggaat 
      tcatttggt ccggattca agacccgca attagcgaa 
      acgctacag tatcaaaac attccctgc acttgtcta 
      tttcagaaa cggcaatcc gttgctgtt tgaaggcga 
      cctccagaa cgaagactc agtgctcga atggctaat 
      agacgacga caaccgcga gcttgctga tgagatcga 
      atcagtcaa tgaaagaat gttaacaag actgctcaa 
      cgagtctcc atttctcgc agtcttctt ctacgatga 
      agattgtcc cgaatgcga cgaaattct ggaaaattt 
      ggaagaaat cgacgggga agccgacat gttcggaat 
      cgactttgt caaaatatg cagcgctga ggccgcagc 
      tgagcaagg gttgcacac gcttcccgc actgatgta 
      tttccggaa gaagacccc gatggtgta cgaaggcga 
      cttgaccca atccgacaa agtgctcga ctggctgac 
      ctctcaaga cgttttcga aatcaaaaa tgagatcga 
      agaagtgaa caaaaaaat gttggagaa actcttgga 
      agagaacga gttcgtcac ggtgttttt ctatgaaat 
      taattcgga agagagcaa ggcaattat ggaaaagct 
      ggagaatat tgacagcga gacggacaa ctttgatat 
      cacgtttgt caagatggc ggatccgcg gtacgccag 
      aaaatgggg cgtgacgaa tcttcccgc catcgtgta 
      cttccgaag acgtttccc gagcatata ccgcggaga 
      tatgcattc cgaagctga tgttttgga atggttgcg 
      aaagaatcg tttccgaca acccgaact gaacatttt 
      catgtacgc gttattcgc cattagcat cgcttttgt 
      catttacac agcttttct cctccaatg tttcaagac 
      tcaaccgca agctgtggt cccccatcc caagcagtc 
      ctaagtctt gtatgaaag tcgcgtgaa agaagtgtg 
      gtcttgaag cattatcag catccttgt atgaaggga 
      acgttagat caagtcatt ctggtttag ttttttatt 
      tttactaat tgaattccc tttgttata agttgtaat 
      ccattttgt catatcctg gaccaaaga aaaccatga 
      tacatcacc actgaaatg ttcatctag ataatttaa 
      tttgtgtac agcgactgt acaatcatt cccaagaga 
      atttatgga caggaaagt atagataaa cgtattaat 
      atagttatc tacttttag gtgaacatt gtaaatact 
      cttgtaaat aaataaatt aagtttacg taa
    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY