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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007424.3: 54637..69324
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
      {{ unavailableText }}

    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_07592

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 0.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC034224 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC034224 RA
      atgaaagtt tttatagtg tcccaagct ggaaaagct 
      gccgacgtc acgttccag gcgtcgtgt cattcggag 
      gacgacagt gtgttaaag gtttcctca tcgtgcagc 
      tctgtttac gtggacgga agtgaggcc cgcggttcc 
      gttaacggt tcagttctc gtaaaatac ggcacttat 
      attggcctc gcccgcttc actgtctgg atgcccgaa 
      ttccccttg gacctccaa gtgaccgac acgaggctg 
      tctcagctc aagtcgtgg cgcgtcccg gattaccat 
      cccagcggt gttaaatcc cgccggaag aagcgatcc 
      tacgccagt aattgggga ggctctaat ccccccgat 
      gacttgggg aatgtggta gaaaagccg atttgccgg 
      ctgaggtat cagcagagc ccagtggac gtttatgcc 
      cacttcatg gccgtggac cacgactcc ggaaggatc 
      agttatctg atcaatcgg aggacgtgg ttaagggtc 
      acggacttg gtcttgccc ttgttaagg gtgagcgac 
      ccccggatt gcaagcctg cacgggagg atactccaa 
      gggcgcagc atgggccgg accgaggtg caggttctg 
      agccccatc acgggacgt gtcattgga gccaaggaa 
      atcagagtc gggaatgac aaagtggga ttatcgcgg 
      cttctggtc caagttgtc tcaggatta caactaaat 
      atctcgccc gatagttcg atcgaaaac ggctacata 
      gccgagaca agtgttaca aggaaatta acagctcaa 
      taccaggag ggcctgctt gacatcgag ctggaattt 
      tccgatggg actagaacc ccactcagg gatattgca 
      gactcggat tatcacctc gtggtcgag agtctggac 
      ccagaggtg gtggcgttt gcccccatg gtggcgtcc 
      caccaccca cgcgtgata gcagtgggt gaaggcaac 
      ggagacttg ctacaagtt actctattg ttagctgaa 
      gaatgtaga actagcaat aggccaaaa atgaagggc 
      gctgggcct ctggccact gcctcagct tcggttact 
      gtagacttt acttcaagt gacttacaa cacaggccc 
      gatatttta cagaatgac ggggggtcg tatgggggc 
      tccaagagg gaatttcag gacctccag gacatttta 
      aaaggcact cctttgaaa gacgacgac tcgcaggag 
      cccaacgtg caggcccgc caataccaa gggggcaaa 
      ggggtgctg cggcagcac tccccccag cacatgacg 
      ccgctcgaa atcagcatg tacatcctc ctgggcacg 
      ttctgctgc gccatcgtt gttttcgtg gtatcgtgc 
      gtggtctac gcgtccaag ttcaaggcg gaagaaggc 
      gcgattgct ccgggtgag agggccgct ccggtggcc 
      cccggaagc ctggtagtg catcgcaaa cctagagaa 
      accacgaca aacgcccac gattgggtc tggctaggt 
      cgtgccact ttggacagt tcgaatcga aattcctca 
      gttacgaac acaaacgga aacgaaatg agaattaca 
      gcgaatccg ctcaatttg aattattgc gatccggat 
      gattgtcta gcgacgagt tttagtaat cctagtcat 
      atcgagctg ccgagctcg tcgcaggcc gatattaat 
      tccaatagg ccgatcgat agcaacacc tattgcaag 
      agcaagagt ggaggcagc aacaatgag gatctacaa 
      gtgtggaac aaaccaacg ccgcctcca ccgctcccc 
      ccgcacggc gtgcccctc cagccgaag cccccgcag 
      ccggtggag gactaccgg ccccctgtt ccgccccat 
      cgcaacatt ggagtgact tccgaagcc acccctccc 
      cgcaagcat caccaccac caccatcac aggaacagc 
      aaacaccaa gacaagcac caccacgac tacggatgg 
      gccgtcaac ggctggtcc aaggaccag gaggaggaa 
      gacgaagac ttagtaatg acagcgagc caggaaccc 
      atgcgcagc gtgttcgag ttcgacgac gagcctccg 
      aaggaggaa gagaagccg gaagaggtg aagctgcgg 
      agcaagccc ccgaagccc gacgaggag gaggtccag 
      ttcgtgcag tacccgaag tcgccgaac gcgaacgga 
      aacgggcgc agcagcgcg gaggtgaag cgcgccacc 
      attgtgggg aaccccatg ttcagcagc gcggacgcg 
      cccccttcc ggcgacctg ccggggctc gacgacctg 
      cagctggac atggactac gaccagatc atgcactat 
      ttcgataat ctgaaggaa tcaaacgcc tga
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC034224 RA
      atgaaatct gagcagtta ttgttgcat tttattgtt 
      gcagaactg ggaagtact aaacactgc ggttttaac 
      tggtcgcca ggtttctca agcaatgaa agtttttat 
      agtgtccca agctggaaa agctgccga cgtcacgtt 
      ccaggcgtc gtgtcattc ggaggacga cagtgtgtt 
      aaaggtttc ctcatcgtg cagctctgt ttacgtgga 
      cggaagtga ggcccgcgg ttccgttaa cggttcagt 
      tctcgtaaa atacggcac ttatattgg cctcgcccg 
      cttcactgt ctggatgcc cgaattccc cttggacct 
      ccaagtgac cgacacgag gctgtctca gctcaagtc 
      gtggcgcgt cccggatta ccatcccag cggtgttaa 
      atcccgccg gaagaagcg atcctacgc cagtaattg 
      gggaggctc taatccccc cgatgactt ggggaatgt 
      ggtagaaaa gccgatttg ccggctgag gtatcagca 
      gagcccagt ggacgttta tgcccactt catggccgt 
      ggaccacga ctccggaag gatcagtta tctgatcaa 
      tcggaggac gtggttaag ggtcacgga cttggtctt 
      gcccttgtt aagggtgag cgacccccg gattgcaag 
      cctgcacgg gaggatact ccaagggcg cagcatggg 
      ccggaccga ggtgcaggt tctgagccc catcacggg 
      acgtgtcat tggagccaa ggaaatcag agtcgggaa 
      tgacaaagt gggattatc gcggcttct ggtccaagt 
      tgtctcagg attacaact aaatatctc gcccgatag 
      ttcgatcga aaacggcta catagccga gacaagtgt 
      tacaaggaa attaacagc tcaatacca ggagggcct 
      gcttgacat cgagctgga attttccga tgggactag 
      aaccccact cagggatat tgcagactc ggattatca 
      cctcgtggt cgagagtct ggacccaga ggtggtggc 
      gtttgcccc catggtggc gtcccacca cccacgcgt 
      gatagcagt gggtgaagg caacggaga cttgctaca 
      agttactct attgttagc tgaagaatg tagaactag 
      caataggcc aaaaatgaa gggcgctgg gcctctggc 
      cactgcctc agcttcggt tactgtaga ctttacttc 
      aagtgactt acaacacag gcccgatat tttacagaa 
      tgacggggg gtcgtatgg gggctccaa gagggaatt 
      tcaggacct ccaggacat tttaaaagg cactccttt 
      gaaagacga cgactcgca ggagcccaa cgtgcaggc 
      ccgccaata ccaaggggg caaaggggt gctgcggca 
      gcactcccc ccagcacat gacgccgct cgaaatcag 
      catgtacat cctcctggg cacgttctg ctgcgccat 
      cgttgtttt cgtggtatc gtgcgtggt ctacgcgtc 
      caagttcaa ggcggaaga aggcgcgat tgctccggg 
      tgagagggc cgctccggt ggcccccgg aagcctggt 
      agtgcatcg caaacctag agaaaccac gacaaacgc 
      ccacgattg ggtctggct aggtcgtgc cactttgga 
      cagttcgaa tcgaaattc ctcagttac gaacacaaa 
      cggaaacga aatgagaat tacagcgaa tccgctcaa 
      tttgaatta ttgcgatcc ggatgattg tctagcgac 
      gagttttag taatcctag tcatatcga gctgccgag 
      ctcgtcgca ggccgatat taattccaa taggccgat 
      cgatagcaa cacctattg caagagcaa gagtggagg 
      cagcaacaa tgaggatct acaagtgtg gaacaaacc 
      aacgccgcc tccaccgct ccccccgca cggcgtgcc 
      cctccagcc gaagccccc gcagccggt ggaggacta 
      ccggccccc tgttccgcc ccatcgcaa cattggagt 
      gacttccga agccacccc tccccgcaa gcatcacca 
      ccaccacca tcacaggaa cagcaaaca ccaagacaa 
      gcaccacca cgactacgg atgggccgt caacggctg 
      gtccaagga ccaggagga ggaagacga agacttagt 
      aatgacagc gagccagga acccatgcg cagcgtgtt 
      cgagttcga cgacgagcc tccgaagga ggaagagaa 
      gccggaaga ggtgaagct gcggagcaa gcccccgaa 
      gcccgacga ggaggaggt ccagttcgt gcagtaccc 
      gaagtcgcc gaacgcgaa cggaaacgg gcgcagcag 
      cgcggaggt gaagcgcgc caccattgt ggggaaccc 
      catgttcag cagcgcgga cgcgccccc ttccggcga 
      cctgccggg gctcgacga cctgcagct ggacatgga 
      ctacgacca gatcatgca ctatttcga taatctgaa 
      ggaatcaaa cgcctgagt agaggagat cattgcaaa 
      aatccgaga cattttatt gtcgttcag tgagcaata 
      ccgcgctag cgcactcaa cggcaacgt cagcccaaa 
      ccacgtgat gaatattaa ccaaagttt cgattactt 
      ctttgacca tctgagtga gtcgtacgc ttaatatac 
      acctcgatt agggtcaat taagaatag agagccttc 
      gccttcttc taatcgtat caatatgta tacccgtac 
      taatacatg caatctgca agactgaat atttagctt 
      gttatttag ttgaacaac ggttgtggc ctaaacacc 
      attcgcccg ctggagcgt tggtttcca ggccacaac 
      accttgtct ttatctact acctagtgt tagtcgatt 
      catgtgtag gacctagtg ttaacgcaa tattgtttc 
      ccgggtgca acatcgaaa cgactatga aatgtttgg 
      aggaggttt gcagtgatc tgaaatgta ataatctag 
      tcaaaactg tttagcttt atttaaagt attttgtac 
      gaaacaatg ccatactta atgtataag cacaaatat 
      ggttcctga tgttacttt gtgtttgaa acacatttg 
      gttaattta tcgaagcga gacgctgtt ttcttttat 
      tatttcacg agttcgaat tgtgtacag ttttgtata 
      attgtgtaa atagtagat tgtatattc cccgagggg 
      ttttacgtt gatagtatt atatttttc aaagtgggg 
      tatgttttt ttaatgcat ggatactcg ttttagtgt 
      aaataaata gactgcttt gaagagtat aagtaagct 
      gtagacgat ttatcggtt ctagtccac ctctactaa 
      gcgcaaaat ttcaatgtt taggaagaa cgcttcaga 
      cttctagca ctatggcaa gcttctagg taatctagt 
      acatgtttc cagttttcg tacgggtgc tcacttttt 
      ttgagatca tcttccatg acactacag tattagtaa 
      ggtttcttg tttgtgttc actctaccg agggtatat 
      attcttttc gcttatgaa tgtatatat taatataaa 
      aagttatta ttgttaatg gacataaaa tgttagaac 
      ttcccttga gaatattgt gctttctaa ataaaacaa 
      acctaagtg tttattaac atcgtagtt tcgaagctg 
      tattcacgt ttagtgcat tttatacat aacattccc 
      tcctgcgct agcttgttt taggtatag aattttgta 
      taaaaccga cttttagtt ttatttgac cgaaccaaa 
      gccacgatc gatttatga gtgattaac atatca

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY