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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007418.3: 20310675..20318214
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_07072

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 10.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC032610 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC032610 RA
      atggatgag aaacctata aattatgat tccttaaaa 
      aaagtttat atgttgggc gaaaaaaac acaaggatt 
      gggccaaca aatcacttg caaaacttc aaggcatta 
      cgagatgat catttgaaa aataaaaca ctttttaat 
      gacgagaat tttcctatt ggctgtaaa attttaagg 
      gaaaacgaa ggagaagtg gtttggaaa agacctttt 
      gaaatctct ggaggaact gcaagattt attaacaat 
      gaagccact cgattcgac atcaaccag ggccgactg 
      aaagactgt tggtttctg tctgctgta tcaaactta 
      acacaaaac caacaactg ttttcaaca gtcgttccc 
      ccagatcaa agttttacc gaaaattat gcggggata 
      tttcatttc agattctgg tactacgga cattgggtg 
      gatgttgtt gtggatgat cagttgcca acaattaac 
      gatgaatta atttatgcc aaatcagga gatccgact 
      gaattttgg ccttcactt ctggaaaaa gcctacgca 
      aaattatat ggctcctat aaaaatatt gaaagtggg 
      aaaatcaat gaagctttt gaagattta tttggaggc 
      ttatctgaa gtttatgaa gcaaatgct ggaaatatc 
      cacgatact atgcagaag tgttacgag aaatcggct 
      tttatgggc tgctatata gctactgat gacacaaga 
      aggcgtcct gacggttta attaattcg catgtttac 
      agtatcatc cagttatgt tctgtggaa tcaaacaat 
      tgtgttgta aatttgata aaattaaga aatccttgg 
      tcaggacca gctgaatgg aatggacga tgtagtgac 
      gataacgat ttttggaat tcgattcca gaaaaaaca 
      agagacgag ttgtgggtt aaaaaagac agtggtgaa 
      ttttggatg gacgctgag gattttcaa aaatgtttc 
      acttttgtc gaaatttgt tacccaaat ccttgccta 
      cttcctcca aataatgct caaaactgg aacttttac 
      atgtttgaa gactgctgg gttccaaat ctttcatct 
      aaaagaagg ccactggac gataaagaa acatactgt 
      cataatccc cagtatttt acaactgtt agtgcacct 
      gaagacaag ttaggttgg atcattgta ggactgatg 
      caaaagaga aggcgtgaa atgggggaa aagttctta 
      ccacttcag ctcgattta tttaatgtg cctgctgag 
      tataaagga aagcttctt gataaagaa ttttttgct 
      aacaatgaa ccaatgatg acgatcaag gaaactgga 
      gttcgtcaa atactgatg tcagttttt gtaccgtcc 
      ggaaattac tgcgtaata cctaacatt gttcagaaa 
      aactcatat gggagttat ttattaaga atgtatttg 
      gacgaatat ggaaatatc gaggaaaat gacgatgaa 
      atcggatat tctcctcca gcaatctca aatctattt 
      aagggttct caaagtcaa ccttggttg gaggttttt 
      aaaaaaata tcacataat ggcaacgaa attggaatt 
      gacggtgtc aggaaagct ctcaaccac caatttggc 
      gaaaaaagg cttttggga ttaataaag tctaaaata 
      gaattttca aaagaaaca tgtaaaaat attctagct 
      ttgtgggat cttgatcat tctggaaaa ctggactta 
      aatgaattt gaatgtttg atgcaggat gtgtacgag 
      cttcagcaa aaattcaaa aaatatgat accgatgat 
      actggaaaa ttaagtgga ttcgacctc agaaatatt 
      ctaaatgat tgtggtttc aaagttaat cccaatatt 
      ttgacgcaa cttatgttc agatacgga gacaagggt 
      tccatgaaa tttgcaaac cttgttgtc tgtattttt 
      aaacttaaa acaataata gtcgagttt agcagaagg 
      caaagccag gaaacaacc gatcacatt gttctgaat 
      caaaaggac ttgttagcg atcacactt catttataa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC032610 RA
      gatttattg ttttctaat aataataat tgtgagaga 
      aagagatcc ataaaatat taataagta gtaacagtt 
      actgaatca ctatggatg agaaaccta taaattatg 
      attccttaa aaaaagttt atatgttgg gcgaaaaaa 
      acacaagga ttgggccaa caaatcact tgcaaaact 
      tcaaggcat tacgagatg atcatttga aaaataaaa 
      cacttttta atgacgaga attttccta ttggctgta 
      aaattttaa gggaaaacg aaggagaag tggtttgga 
      aaagacctt ttgaaatct ctggaggaa ctgcaagat 
      ttattaaca atgaagcca ctcgattcg acatcaacc 
      agggccgac tgaaagact gttggtttc tgtctgctg 
      tatcaaact taacacaaa accaacaac tgttttcaa 
      cagtcgttc ccccagatc aaagtttta ccgaaaatt 
      atgcgggga tatttcatt tcagattct ggtactacg 
      gacattggg tggatgttg ttgtggatg atcagttgc 
      caacaatta acgatgaat taatttatg ccaaatcag 
      gagatccga ctgaatttt ggccttcac ttctggaaa 
      aagcctacg caaaattat atggctcct ataaaaata 
      ttgaaagtg ggaaaatca atgaagctt ttgaagatt 
      tatttggag gcttatctg aagtttatg aagcaaatg 
      ctggaaata tccacgata ctatgcaga agtgttacg 
      agaaatcgg cttttatgg gctgctata tagctactg 
      atgacacaa gaaggcgtc ctgacggtt taattaatt 
      cgcatgttt acagtatca tccagttat gttctgtgg 
      aatcaaaca attgtgttg taaatttga taaaattaa 
      gaaatcctt ggtcaggac cagctgaat ggaatggac 
      gatgtagtg acgataacg atttttgga attcgattc 
      cagaaaaaa caagagacg agttgtggg ttaaaaaag 
      acagtggtg aattttgga tggacgctg aggattttc 
      aaaaatgtt tcacttttg tcgaaattt gttacccaa 
      atccttgcc tacttcctc caaataatg ctcaaaact 
      ggaactttt acatgtttg aagactgct gggttccaa 
      atctttcat ctaaaagaa ggccactgg acgataaag 
      aaacatact gtcataatc cccagtatt ttacaactg 
      ttagtgcac ctgaagaca agttaggtt ggatcattg 
      taggactga tgcaaaaga gaaggcgtg aaatggggg 
      aaaagttct taccacttc agctcgatt tatttaatg 
      tgcctgctg agtataaag gaaagcttc ttgataaag 
      aattttttg ctaacaatg aaccaatga tgacgatca 
      aggaaactg gagttcgtc aaatactga tgtcagttt 
      ttgtaccgt ccggaaatt actgcgtaa tacctaaca 
      ttgttcaga aaaactcat atgggagtt atttattaa 
      gaatgtatt tggacgaat atggaaata tcgaggaaa 
      atgacgatg aaatcggat attctcctc cagcaatct 
      caaatctat ttaagggtt ctcaaagtc aaccttggt 
      tggaggttt ttaaaaaaa tatcacata atggcaacg 
      aaattggaa ttgacggtg tcaggaaag ctctcaacc 
      accaatttg gcgaaaaaa ggcttttgg gattaataa 
      agtctaaaa tagaatttt caaaagaaa catgtaaaa 
      atattctag ctttgtggg atcttgatc attctggaa 
      aactggact taaatgaat ttgaatgtt tgatgcagg 
      atgtgtacg agcttcagc aaaaattca aaaaatatg 
      ataccgatg atactggaa aattaagtg gattcgacc 
      tcagaaata ttctaaatg attgtggtt tcaaagtta 
      atcccaata ttttgacgc aacttatgt tcagatacg 
      gagacaagg gttccatga aatttgcaa accttgttg 
      tctgtattt ttaaactta aaacaataa tagtcgagt 
      ttagcagaa ggcaaagcc aggaaacaa ccgatcaca 
      ttgttctga atcaaaagg acttgttag cgatcacac 
      ttcatttat aaaaattaa aattttatt tacaaatat 
      tataatata gactgattc tttaa

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY