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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NW_015451971.1: 161445..168161
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
      Gene ontology

      GO terms for Tribolium

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      There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

      GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

      Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

      {{ goGene }}
      The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
      GO ID *
      {{ blurIdResult }}
      The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
      {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
      The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
      Reference *
      {{ blurReferenceResult }}
      The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
      If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
      You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
      We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
      Publish name
      If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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      * : mandatory fields
      For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
      iBeetle screen iB_06753

      Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

      iB sequence
      Phenotype after pupal injection
      Usually 10 injected animals

      Pupal injection procedure

      Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

      3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

      9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

      11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

      Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

      13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
      The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

      14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
      Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

      15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
      Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

      22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
      Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

      Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

      larval pantagmatic defects
      At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
      empty eggs
      Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
      strong defects
      L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
      strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
      No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
      cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
      Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
      cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
      At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
      number of eggs on slide
      affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
      For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
      total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
      Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
      The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
      Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
      eclosion not fulfilled
      The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
      Please see the help page for more information
      Metamorphosis and survival

      Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 50.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

      eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (3 dpi)
      Days post injection

      adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (9 dpi)
      Days post injection

      Analysis of embryonic musculature and early development
      low validity due to technical reasons - should be repeated: musculature not scorable,
      Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
      number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
      Phenotype after larval injection
      Usually 10 injected animals

      Larval injection procedure

      Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

      11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

      16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

      19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

      22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

      41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

      Terms used in the larval injection procedure

      pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
      At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
      pupal molt not fulfilled
      The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
      eclosion not fulfilled
      The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
      Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
      Metamorphosis and survival

      Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
      Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

      RNAi sequence
      Left: Right:
      Protein sequence
      • >TC031821 RA
      CDS sequence
      • >TC031821 RA
        atggcggtt cccttcgtc ctcccggag gacgaaata 
        aacaatctt atcgtagca gtgattttt attttgtcg 
        cagactcgc cttcaaagg aacgaagag aatcgcgag 
        ctccaagag tgtatggag gaactggtg agacttctt 
        gccgaagaa ctccagcga agatcgcgt tcttccgaa 
        tacgataat cagctcaaa cagacgctc ttattactt 
        cgacagagt ctaagccac ttcacgcca accttatcc 
        aggatacag aggagatcg aattttgaa tcctgttgt 
        gacgactgc aaaatttca cttcacgaa gactgtgcg 
        actaaagac tgcagtcag gttggtctc atacttcga 
        aagattgac gacgacgaa acgtccgcg atatttaag 
        gagggagtg gaagaagaa aaagaagga tttgtcgaa 
        gaaagtttg ttatcgcgt ttggtgccc cgagtaagg 
        acgttttgg aaagcagta ccattgata tgtgtagtg 
        ggactccac ctattccaa attagttat tctatgtag
      mRNA sequence
      • >TC031821 RA
        gttgttgca tttccccga gaacaaagg acaatataa 
        actgtatta tgacgtttt aaaaccgaa tgttgcgca 
        attttaacg ctagacata caaagatat tgtcaactg 
        tttggatgg ctgccacac aactctact catcacggc 
        tctactaca aaaatctta atttattga cgaacacat 
        aaaatgacc cgacacgac atgcgatca cacgacacc 
        taaatattt catcaaaac cgttgccac gtggcaaac 
        aaagaactg atcttcttt aaatttcac cttgtctta 
        tcgcatagc acaattact acgatattt aagtttgtg 
        tccatgtgt ttttttctg ataggtcat ttgtggtca 
        gtgatagtt tctgtatca ttgttatat gttccaact 
        ttctttgta tctacataa caaagcgaa taacactga 
        ccttgacat ttaaaagct gcatcttgg ttagaaata 
        catattaga ggaaactat ttatgtata tttatgtaa 
        ctaggacaa atctatatt tgctgaatt tttacatta 
        cctaccaga ttggaacgc aaacaaata acacagctt 
        tgttaccta ttgttgatg ctgtctctg attcaaaaa 
        tttcattgg tgctttctg tttattgac aatacaaaa 
        atgataaaa atagtgata agtgataaa agtaaaaac 
        cgaagataa attgccaaa caagagaaa tgatgacat 
        atgtgtatt accttgagg tacaaacta ggtatatgg 
        ggtgattta tttttaaga tatttgcta gaaaaatca 
        gtattcaga aaagtttga atcatcgca taaataagg 
        tcaataaac tgagatttc acaaatgag cggaatctt 
        aatgtacaa tatcaaata cattacttg gggcatctt 
        tatcattat ttattatgt gataacatt gacataatt 
        taaaacgta caatttgtc cggttgtta ttttaatta 
        gagattatt aatacacac tggtttctc caatctgtc 
        tgttgcgtt caaggttac gtgttatac ctacatcaa 
        aagtgcctt tccaggcat taacccaaa attagacag 
        gagtacatc ttggaacaa aacatcaat ttccatgca 
        agagtgcat ttttgcaaa aaataaaat catcgaaaa 
        gagctggaa gtggacgag tcattgaac caaaatcaa 
        ggccgttac cgaaaatcg catcttttg ttacaccta 
        cctatctgc aattcatcg gttacccct ttggtgata 
        aaaatggct tagagacat cagtcagtt tagataacc 
        ggaatttga ttaccggcc ttcgaatta agaggtcga 
        tactgttat cactatcag caatactac gttttactt 
        ttcgctgct gaagacgaa actggagag gtaaaaaac 
        ggcaccaca gcggagtgg acacctgca tctcaaatt 
        aagagaaaa aaaaaatag gattaagac aggttagaa 
        cctgtctta aaccactag aaatcgatt aggacgata 
        taaacaaaa caaatcctc gaggcgtgt gccacttga 
        atatcaatt aagagtgcc gtttatcaa aattgttct 
        tatttattt tgttcacac tgctaaaaa cttgatttt 
        ccagcatcg ataatgaag atctttaat gataaacat 
        cgacttcga actacgacg tagattttc aatattgag 
        gtctctgca gcttcaggt gcaaaatga tattttgca 
        atatttgag aatattcaa gtgggttgt gacgttgta 
        aacaatgct ctattatct acttttcct aaacctata 
        gttcaagtt catccgttt ccgagtgct taattattt 
        atgcacctt ctaaaacat aaatcaatt tctttcctt 
        atttataaa agtaattta tgattcaat aatgagcaa 
        aaactcgtc taaaccctt ctatttctg aattaaaca 
        aaaccaggt acaacttgt ataattttt cttttgtat 
        tttttccgt tttttattg tctgtttct gttgttaaa 
        gatatttcg tttatcgcc actactact gaatatacc 
        tatagaaac aatcaaatg gctaatttg gggatcaaa 
        aaaggaatc tagtacaaa ttacaatct tggtaatac 
        cgttatgaa tacacctat acgtaatac aatattttt 
        gcttttgca caaacgcca cttctaatt attgtttgt 
        gtaagtgag aagtgaata ctgatgtca gatattttt 
        atgtagata tgagttttt ttgtctgta aaaaaaaac 
        aaaatatag ctatgaggt cgcttacaa aagttgacc 
        atggtcgta atagcttat attttcgaa aatttgcgt 
        aaacgaaat tgttatgag ttatgactg tatcagtgt 
        tattgggca ttcagtcac taatttttc catgtcttg 
        taattatgg ggttaaggt cagattgtt ggttttaat 
        aaatattta ggtatgtat atgtgtaga aataagttg 
        gtaagttcg tgaacatta tagtttatt aaaagaggt 
        agccaatct ccattggtg cggataatc ataaaccag 
        tgatccgtt ctttgttga cgtaaccat tatccagca 
        gaagaaaca gagtcgtat cgatttata aaattttac 
        cttaacaag tcaagtcgt agataaata aaaaaacta 
        aaagtcaag aggtagttg gagtacagt tatttccca 
        taaatagtg agagtgaaa gatgatgta ttgtttaca 
        gttcaattg tcaaggtgc acgtggaga ttttgtaaa 
        cacgtgaga acaaagtcc catatttcc cagtttcgg 
        cataaattt caaagttac aagtcgcct catgtgcga 
        gcaaaatcg agagaaaaa ttaatttaa taccgttaa 
        atcacgtcg tcacccggt caggctttt taaaaatat 
        gtgcatcac tcgtttgga gtgggggtc agatgtgta 
        ttcgcaatc tttgcttga cactcattt cggcaagct 
        attattgta tttttggtg tattcaggt ttgagtgta 
        gccagtaca acttaatac ttgaccaat attaagcag 
        cgtttttgg tagacacgc ctatgtcgt tcgtctatt 
        ggtcgtcga gtgggtttc agttttgtg ttctatagc 
        cgtgtattt tgggggtaa gttcccgtg tcgcgggca 
        aaatgtgac ggtggaact gctggcagt ctatcatct 
        gatagcttt gtgtcgcct aggcaagca cctaagcac 
        cagtcgacg ctgaagtgt ggagcggtt cgggtgtgt 
        ttcctcaat tcaggcgca catcgcctc gtgttcact 
        tgttgtgtt ttgtgttac gtaattttg ttatcgacg 
        acgacgacg acgctacca caaggattt ctcacaatg 
        gcggttccc ttcgtcctc ccggaggac gaaataaac 
        aatcttatc gtagcagtg atttttatt ttgtcgcag 
        actcgcctt caaaggaac gaagagaat cgcgagctc 
        caagagtgt atggaggaa ctggtgaga cttcttgcc 
        gaagaactc cagcgaaga tcgcgttct tccgaatac 
        gataatcag ctcaaacag acgctctta ttacttcga 
        cagagtcta agccacttc acgccaacc ttatccagg 
        atacagagg agatcgaat tttgaatcc tgttgtgac 
        gactgcaaa atttcactt cacgaagac tgtgcgact 
        aaagactgc agtcaggtt ggtctcata cttcgaaag 
        attgacgac gacgaaacg tccgcgata tttaaggag 
        ggagtggaa gaagaaaaa gaaggattt gtcgaagaa 
        agtttgtta tcgcgtttg gtgccccga gtaaggacg 
        ttttggaaa gcagtacca ttgatatgt gtagtggga 
        ctccaccta ttccaaatt agttattct atgtaggtt 
        aagagatat acgtaggtc atttgcgca ctgcctgtg 
        ttatgtgtg ttgtccaaa gaggagcaa aacaaatca 
        aagaattga tctcattta gtacgaaac gaaagcgta 
        ctctcagga attttttat atggtattt gatttgaga 
        agagaataa tttgtaaat taatgtgta catatgcat 
        aaagattct aaagttgga ttcagtata gccaaagat 
        tgaatggtg ccaaaaggc ctgagctaa gcaggtggg 
        cgggacgtc gtccctttg ttcgctttc gctaccatg 
        agtctgact gtactgtag taagttaag tgtggtgca 
        gcactgcag cagtctggt caggtctgg ttctgatgc 
        agtcggctg ccctaaggt tttcaaatg atctccgta 
        gttagaata gcccggtgc ggcgaaagg tggacacgt 
        gccgatcca aagtgccga tcagcccgc acctgaatt 
        gtaaatatt cgcggcgga ggccggcta ttcttcaac 
        accggccag ctacagctt tttttactt ttttatata 
        ctatattat ataggagtt cgtgtacat acatacata 
        aatactgat atttttaaa tgaatttaa agcaattgt 
        aactagttt agcttagta gtaagtaga tttagtatg 
        ttgcgcgct ctagatggc tcttcaaag cgtctctgt 
        gatttgccg aagaggcag ttttgtgct ttacagcac 
        ttcaatcct gttaattga tctccgaat acatttttg 
        tcaaaatgt ttttgttcg tagttatta ttccctagt 
        cagtatagt agtttattt aagtgttga ctaggtttc 
        tcattatta atttcgtaa atttttagg gttagtgtg 
        ttattgttt agttgtttt ttttatgaa ctgataatg 
        ccatatgtt cttaattgt cttgtttat tatgttcgc 
        cttgtaaat tacctgatc tgagctgga ccaagccgg 
        ccaccgagg cccttgtgt gatattaaa agccctcgg 
        cagaccaat aaaccaatt cagttagaa ttgcttatg 
        tattatatt ttttatttc aaataaatg tcataagtt 
        ttatacatg tttataaac atatagcta tataatatt 
        atatttttt gtgaagtat ggaaagagt atatgttgc 
        cgcgaattt tagcagcca gtctattat atgccatac 
        tcacatcta ctcccgatg gtctttcac ttgtaactt 
        tttcacttt tatatagtt gatttgaaa taaatataa 

      If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
      Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

      The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY