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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007424.3: 10487753..10493133
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_06365

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 30.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 0.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 0.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC034365 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC034365 RA
      atggcgaac acatacgta aaagtactt aaaggattc 
      aatgtaaaa actgtgcag aatgtaact gcggaaatc 
      ctcaacatg acatataag tcgctatct actgttgaa 
      aaacattac attgttggc gcatctttc tacgaagac 
      ataataact gcctggttt aatattcac ctctaccat 
      gcagctcct ctttcgctt agtctagtt ctaaatacg 
      ctttacgaa gaagttcta cacaaaaat aaatctatt 
      actttcttt aactatcct ttacctcgc agaacgagt 
      tcgcagcag ctcaaaaat tatggagaa tctaatgat 
      ctatcccgc ctcgaatat ggactgaag tctagcata 
      ggaattgct actggcact tatatcttg ttttacatt 
      cgggaacga atgagtaaa tgcaagcat ttacagata 
      atttcaggc gtaaacgct ttcatattc tggagtatt 
      gctttttta tgtgatcta ataacctat ctcattaca 
      gttatttct ctccttatt gtaatgacc acatttgaa 
      ggtggattt gaaactttt gaactaggt cttttaatt 
      ttgttattt gtgtgcttc tgctttttt gttttacct 
      cttacttac ttaatgtct tactgcttt aaaattccg 
      tctactgga tgtggtgtt atggttgtt tttggcgtc 
      tgcatggtt tttattcca actatggtc tactcggtt 
      ttggaggaa tctgatgct tcacattca acgagaatt 
      ttttttgaa tgggtattt attttcact ccgtattat 
      tccgttgtt aacggaatt actgccatt attacaatg 
      cggaacata agaaaagag tgtgacatg aatacaaag 
      ctacctcgt gaggtacta tgtgaggtt gttaaagaa 
      tgttgctgc gttaaccct tccgaatgc tttggattg 
      ttgggtgta aacggtgct ggcaaaacc accactttc 
      aaaatgatg accggtgat gaaagcatt acgtttggc 
      gatgcttgg attcatgga atgagtgta acaactcaa 
      cagaagcaa gttcaaaca tttatcgga tactgccca 
      caatttgac gctttacta gaggatctt accgtcaaa 
      gaaacctta ttaattttt gctctcatt agaggagtc 
      tcttttgac aaatgcatt gctctggtg gaaagtctt 
      gctcaaaca ttcgatttt tttgagcac attaataaa 
      aagataaaa cacctcagc ggtggcaac aagaggaaa 
      gtaagcaca gctcttgcc ataatcgga gatcctcct 
      ataattttt ctcgacgaa ccaagcgct ggaatggat 
      ccagtgacg aaacgattt ctctggaac aatctcata 
      agactgaga gacgccgga aaatgcatc gtattgaca 
      tcgcacagt atggaagaa tgtgaggcc ttgtgcacc 
      agaatcgct ataatggtt aacggcact tttcaatgc 
      cttggatct acccagcga ttaaaaagc aaatttgct 
      cagggatac actcttaaa ataaaaatc aaaaaactc 
      gatgatcaa acgcttacc gataatcgt gtatctgct 
      gtaaaaaaa tttgttcaa aaacatttt ccgggatct 
      gaattgaaa gaaaggtac caagagctg gtaacctac 
      cacttggtc aatcctaaa tcgttgagt ttgtcacaa 
      atgtttgga atgatagaa gcttcaaga caacaactt 
      aaaatccaa gattattct ttgggacag tgcagtttg 
      gaagaagtg tttttaaaa tttgccaaa aatcaaagg 
      gaatatagt tcttaa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC034365 RA
      tcccaagtc aacttcctg ataatatca aaatttata 
      ttcggagga cattggaat aatttgttt gaaagctca 
      tggctagat aataaggct tcccttggc gtaattttt 
      gttatactt atcttagat acagtctta tatatggtt 
      attgccctt tacttggaa gcggtaatt ccaggagaa 
      tttggagta ccacgacct tggtatttt ccgttcaca 
      cgaaccttt tggtgtaaa agccttccg gaaaaaagt 
      acaagtcta cattttttc tttgagtaa attaatttt 
      ttgtttcct tcaaacagc tacagaaga atctagtca 
      aaaggacac agaacaatt tgaaaagtt tactgataa 
      tcttccagt tggaataaa attatataa actttcaaa 
      aagttttgg aagtagtaa cgcagtcaa agaccttaa 
      tttagacat gtatgaagg acatatcac tgttttgct 
      tggtcataa cggtgctgg aaaatcgac gacaatgtc 
      catgatttg cggaatgtg cttgcctac atctgggac 
      agccattgt aaatggtta tgatgtaag aactaatat 
      acacaatgt tcgcgaaag tatgggtct gtgtcctca 
      acacaacct tctatttga tgatttaac tgtttatga 
      acatctgta tttctttgg caaactgaa agatctgga 
      aaatgatga aatcaagaa ggaaattga ctattacct 
      cacaatttt agaactaga aaataaggt aatgttgat 
      cgcagtttc tcataaata taatgtcag ataataata 
      tcaacaaca catagagaa aacagttat caaaaactt 
      tatctggag gcatgaaaa gaaaactaa gcgttgcta 
      tcgcgttgt gtggaaagt cgaaagtga ttatgcttg 
      atgaaccaa ctgcgggaa tggatccct ctgctagaa 
      gaactgttt gggatttgc ttcaacaac aaaaaaacg 
      gtaagctat cacaagaaa ttatcttca tattcagac 
      attcttagg acgaactat tttgctaac aacgcatta 
      tatggacga agctgattt gttaggtga caggattgc 
      tataatgac agcgggtga actacaatg ttgcggatc 
      tagtttttt tttaagaaa gaaatatgg ttcagacta 
      ttatctaat tttggaagt tacaccaaa atgtcgacc 
      gtttgaagt tacagatct gcttgcaaa gtatgtacc 
      aaatataca aatccactc ccatgtagg ttccgaact 
      tacttacat cctacctga taaagcatc ggaaaaatt 
      tgaaatatt attagaaga tttagaata taataaagc 
      tactctggg gatccaaaa tttgggaat ctcattggc 
      aactttaga agaagtttt tttaaagtg agatgctac 
      aaatatagt ttaactaaa ttaaaaaat gtaaaaaca 
      tttatagag tggcagcag cccacgata tggaaattt 
      ctgaaaaat tcaataaaa agacgacag acagtgaaa 
      gtattggtt agtacgatt tctaatttt aattttcaa 
      ttgataata tatttaagt gcccaaaaa ggaaaaaat 
      aagctatca gcgtggttt caagttaat gcgaaatca 
      aatggtggc aatgatgct gaagaaaaa cttgtctct 
      tcttagatc atggcttct gctcgtatt ccaaattat 
      tttgcccag tgtactttt atatctcgc tttagcaaa 
      aagaccttt gcttgtacg taaggagtt tagaacgtt 
      ttcttcttt gaagctatc tttaagttc ttacaacaa 
      tccaataac actacttga aaatggtag ttctatggc 
      gaacacata cgtaaaagt acttaaagg attcaatgt 
      aaaaactgt gcagaatgt aactgcgga aatcctcaa 
      catgacata taagtcgct atctactgt tgaaaaaca 
      ttacattgt tggcgcatc tttctacga agacataat 
      aactgcctg gtttaatat tcacctcta ccatgcagc 
      tcctctttc gcttagtct agttctaaa tacgcttta 
      cgaagaagt tctacacaa aaataaatc tattacttt 
      ctttaacta tcctttacc tcgcagaac gagttcgca 
      gcagctcaa aaattatgg agaatctaa tgatctatc 
      ccgcctcga atatggact gaagtctag cataggaat 
      tgctactgg cacttatat cttgtttta cattcggga 
      acgaatgag taaatgcaa gcatttaca gataatttc 
      aggcgtaaa cgctttcat attctggag tattgcttt 
      tttatgtga tctaataac ctatctcat tacagttat 
      ttctctcct tattgtaat gaccacatt tgaaggtgg 
      atttgaaac ttttgaact aggtctttt aattttgtt 
      atttgtgtg cttctgctt ttttgtttt acctcttac 
      ttacttaat gtcttactg ctttaaaat tccgtctac 
      tggatgtgg tgttatggt tgtttttgg cgtctgcat 
      ggtttttat tccaactat ggtctactc ggttttgga 
      ggaatctga tgcttcaca ttcaacgag aattttttt 
      tgaatgggt atttatttt cactccgta ttattccgt 
      tgttaacgg aattactgc cattattac aatgcggaa 
      cataagaaa agagtgtga catgaatac aaagctacc 
      tcgtgaggt actatgtga ggttgttaa agaatgttg 
      ctgcgttaa cccttccga atgctttgg attgttggg 
      tgtaaacgg tgctggcaa aaccaccac tttcaaaat 
      gatgaccgg tgatgaaag cattacgtt tggcgatgc 
      ttggattca tggaatgag tgtaacaac tcaacagaa 
      gcaagttca aacatttat cggatactg cccacaatt 
      tgacgcttt actagagga tcttaccgt caaagaaac 
      cttattaat ttttgctct cattagagg agtctcttt 
      tgacaaatg cattgctct ggtggaaag tcttgctca 
      aacattcga tttttttga gcacattaa taaaaagat 
      aaaacacct cagcggtgg caacaagag gaaagtaag 
      cacagctct tgccataat cggagatcc tcctataat 
      ttttctcga cgaaccaag cgctggaat ggatccagt 
      gacgaaacg atttctctg gaacaatct cataagact 
      gagagacgc cggaaaatg catcgtatt gacatcgca 
      cagtatgga agaatgtga ggccttgtg caccagaat 
      cgctataat ggttaacgg cacttttca atgccttgg 
      atctaccca gcgattaaa aagcaaatt tgctcaggg 
      atacactct taaaataaa aatcaaaaa actcgatga 
      tcaaacgct taccgataa tcgtgtatc tgctgtaaa 
      aaaatttgt tcaaaaaca ttttccggg atctgaatt 
      gaaagaaag gtaccaaga gctggtaac ctaccactt 
      ggtcaatcc taaatcgtt gagtttgtc acaaatgtt 
      tggaatgat agaagcttc aagacaaca acttaaaat 
      ccaagatta ttctttggg acagtgcag tttggaaga 
      agtgttttt aaaatttgc caaaaatca aagggaata 
      tagttctta accttgaca tgtagcata aaagagaaa 
      tttaatata ttacttaat taaaa
    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY