Status
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Gene information
General information
TC034108
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.

TC005614,TC005613
Gene

The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007423.3: 10617791..10621348
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (3) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB http://www.orthodb.org/. The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    TC034108
    iBeetle screen iB_06196

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    inside-out
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: -1.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 9 (16 dpi)
    Days post injection



    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 9 (19 dpi)
    Days post injection


    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 9 (41 dpi)
    Days post injection


    RNAi sequence
    Primers
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC034108 RA
      MYISKYNRF VDNIIGRIN KILGKSYDP VRVKLQSNN 
      DAKKKKTTP NKKTNKRKT NKKRTNTKR TAGMTNKMA 
      EISIARSTE SESREPAFI LISKTSDSK PAVRNVPVQ 
      RATNTKKTT KRKNNKNSK NKTKATTGA KKPGPKARA 
      TLFGLSSIK RDGDVSVNM MPDHTTVKT NFILGPLTL 
      RVEREMAKG AKREVKSAT ATTAEMHGR LNLRIVHGG 
      AATLHSIRV LQPKQVRVE SLDDHDKTK EFMWRKSPH 
      IASLVSQKL VSAARSMLK PPPAA
    • >TC034108 RB
      MRLYLFGAL LCLALAQCL CNPIVTREG KSEQSVQTE 
      GIKKEETTG VTSVEGPTT EAPKKLKET GRQSSDDDD 
      DDDDDDDDL GLDIGDDDD DDDDADDDD DDDDYFDRF 
      FDDILGGDD DDDDDDDDD TVAEDAPAP APAEPVVAA 
      ASEQAAEEV AEEDTLEEH SAGDLENET NGTAVEAPD 
      SETFVDKNP TESSEPVVV EEVPANDAE DDDDDDDDD 
      DDDDDGDAL EGLTDDDDD DDDDDDTDD DDDDDDETD 
      LDDVIEAKR SRAMQTPQM PAMYISKYN RFVDNIIGR 
      INKILGKSY DPVRVKLQS NNDAKKKKT TPNKKTNKR 
      KTNKKRTNT KRTAGMTNK MAEISIARS TESESREPA 
      FILISKTSD SKPAVRNVP VQRATNTKK TTKRKNNKN 
      SKNKTKATT GAKKPGPKA RATLFGLSS IKRDGDVSV 
      NMMPDHTTV KTNFILGPL TLRVEREMA KGAKREVKS 
      ATATTAEMH GRLNLRIVH GGAATLHSI RVLQPKQVR 
      VESLDDHDK TKEFMWRKS PHIASLVSQ KLVSAARSM 
      LKPPPAA
    • >TC034108 RC
      MRLYLFGAL LCLALAQCL CNPIVTREG KSEQSVQTE 
      GIKKEETTG VTSVEGPTT EAPKKLKET GRQSSDDDD 
      DDDDDDDDL GLDIGDDDD DDDDADDDD DDDDYFDRF 
      FDDILGGDD DDDDDDDDD TVAEDAPAP APAEPVVAA 
      ASEQAAEEV AEEDTLEEH SAGDLENET NGTAVEAPD 
      SETFVDKNP TESSEPVVV EEVPANDAE DDDDDDDDD 
      DDDDDGDAL EGLTDDDDD DDDDDDTDD DDDDDDETD 
      LDDVIEAKR SRESKNRKH KKSKKARKQ HKTANKVR
    CDS sequence
    • >TC034108 RA
      atgtacatt tcaaagtac aacagattc gtcgataac 
      ataatcggc cgtattaac aaaatcctc ggcaagtcg 
      tacgacccc gtccgtgtg aaactccag tcaaacaac 
      gacgccaaa aagaagaaa accacgccg aacaagaag 
      accaacaaa cgcaaaacc aacaaaaaa cggaccaat 
      accaaacga acggctgga atgaccaat aaaatggcc 
      gaaatttcc atcgcccgg tccacggag agcgagagt 
      cgggaaccc gcctttatc ctcatttcg aaaaccagc 
      gattctaag ccggcagtt agaaacgtg cccgttcaa 
      agggcaaca aatacgaag aaaacgaca aaaaggaag 
      aacaataaa aacagtaaa aataagact aaggccaca 
      actggggcc aaaaagccg ggccctaaa gcccgggcc 
      acgcttttc ggcctgagc tcgatcaag cgagacggc 
      gacgttagt gtgaacatg atgccagac cacaccact 
      gttaagaca aattttatc ctcgggccc ctaacgctt 
      cgagttgag cgcgagatg gccaaaggg gccaaacgt 
      gaagtcaag agtgccacg gccacgact gcggaaatg 
      cacggccga ctgaacctt aggatagtg cacggaggg 
      gctgccacg ctccactcg atccgggtc ctccagcct 
      aaacaagtc cgggtggaa agtctcgac gatcatgat 
      aagaccaag gagttcatg tggcggaaa agcccacat 
      atagcctcg ctagtgtcg cagaagttg gtctcagcg 
      gctcggtcg atgctcaag ccgccaccg gcagcgtag
    • >TC034108 RB
      atgcggtta tacctcttc ggagcgctg ctatgcctg 
      gccttggcc cagtgcctt tgcaaccct atagtgaca 
      cgtgagggg aaatcagaa cagtcggtc cagactgaa 
      gggattaaa aaggaggaa acgactggt gttacgagt 
      gttgagggc ccaaccacc gaagccccg aagaagttg 
      aaagagact ggtcgccag tcgtccgat gacgacgac 
      gatgatgac gacgacgac gacgatttg ggcctagac 
      atcggcgac gacgacgat gatgacgac gacgccgat 
      gacgacgac gacgacgat gactatttc gaccggttc 
      tttgacgat attctcgga ggtgacgat gatgatgac 
      gacgacgat gacgacgac accgtggcc gaggacgcg 
      cccgcgccc gctcccgcc gagcccgtg gttgccgca 
      gccagcgag caagccgcc gaagaggtg gccgaagag 
      gacactctg gaggagcac tccgctggg gatttggaa 
      aacgagact aacggtacg gctgttgag gcccctgac 
      agtgagact ttcgtcgac aaaaacccg actgaaagc 
      agcgaaccc gtcgttgtc gaggaggtg ccagcgaat 
      gacgctgag gacgacgac gacgatgat gacgacgac 
      gacgatgat gacgatggc gacgccctc gaaggcctg 
      actgacgac gatgacgac gacgacgac gacgatgat 
      actgacgac gatgacgat gacgatgac gagactgat 
      ctcgacgat gtcattgaa gccaaacga tcacgtgcc 
      atgcaaacc ccgcaaatg cccgccatg tacatttca 
      aagtacaac agattcgtc gataacata atcggccgt 
      attaacaaa atcctcggc aagtcgtac gaccccgtc 
      cgtgtgaaa ctccagtca aacaacgac gccaaaaag 
      aagaaaacc acgccgaac aagaagacc aacaaacgc 
      aaaaccaac aaaaaacgg accaatacc aaacgaacg 
      gctggaatg accaataaa atggccgaa atttccatc 
      gcccggtcc acggagagc gagagtcgg gaacccgcc 
      tttatcctc atttcgaaa accagcgat tctaagccg 
      gcagttaga aacgtgccc gttcaaagg gcaacaaat 
      acgaagaaa acgacaaaa aggaagaac aataaaaac 
      agtaaaaat aagactaag gccacaact ggggccaaa 
      aagccgggc cctaaagcc cgggccacg cttttcggc 
      ctgagctcg atcaagcga gacggcgac gttagtgtg 
      aacatgatg ccagaccac accactgtt aagacaaat 
      tttatcctc gggccccta acgcttcga gttgagcgc 
      gagatggcc aaaggggcc aaacgtgaa gtcaagagt 
      gccacggcc acgactgcg gaaatgcac ggccgactg 
      aaccttagg atagtgcac ggaggggct gccacgctc 
      cactcgatc cgggtcctc cagcctaaa caagtccgg 
      gtggaaagt ctcgacgat catgataag accaaggag 
      ttcatgtgg cggaaaagc ccacatata gcctcgcta 
      gtgtcgcag aagttggtc tcagcggct cggtcgatg 
      ctcaagccg ccaccggca gcgtag
    • >TC034108 RC
      atgcggtta tacctcttc ggagcgctg ctatgcctg 
      gccttggcc cagtgcctt tgcaaccct atagtgaca 
      cgtgagggg aaatcagaa cagtcggtc cagactgaa 
      gggattaaa aaggaggaa acgactggt gttacgagt 
      gttgagggc ccaaccacc gaagccccg aagaagttg 
      aaagagact ggtcgccag tcgtccgat gacgacgac 
      gatgatgac gacgacgac gacgatttg ggcctagac 
      atcggcgac gacgacgat gatgacgac gacgccgat 
      gacgacgac gacgacgat gactatttc gaccggttc 
      tttgacgat attctcgga ggtgacgat gatgatgac 
      gacgacgat gacgacgac accgtggcc gaggacgcg 
      cccgcgccc gctcccgcc gagcccgtg gttgccgca 
      gccagcgag caagccgcc gaagaggtg gccgaagag 
      gacactctg gaggagcac tccgctggg gatttggaa 
      aacgagact aacggtacg gctgttgag gcccctgac 
      agtgagact ttcgtcgac aaaaacccg actgaaagc 
      agcgaaccc gtcgttgtc gaggaggtg ccagcgaat 
      gacgctgag gacgacgac gacgatgat gacgacgac 
      gacgatgat gacgatggc gacgccctc gaaggcctg 
      actgacgac gatgacgac gacgacgac gacgatgat 
      actgacgac gatgacgat gacgatgac gagactgat 
      ctcgacgat gtcattgaa gccaaacga tcacgtgag 
      tccaaaaat cgtaaacat aagaaatca aaaaaagcc 
      agaaaacaa cacaaaaca gctaacaaa gtgagatag
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC034108 RA
      cgagatttt cgatttaaa ttcaaatcg agcgctcac 
      ccggacatt ccctaatca ccaaatcgc tgttctatc 
      attttttca actagaaag ttgcacagg aaacacagt 
      gaaaaactg caggttttt gcaattcaa tctattttc 
      actttgtga tttatcaaa cagtttaat aataatact 
      gaagaaagg aagcgtttt taatgtcaa gaacattaa 
      tccggcatt ctcgccgtt tacggcgcg aataaaccc 
      aaatcaagc gcccaccgg aagtccaaa tcaatttta 
      acgactgtg acacaatta ttttaccgt tgttttgtt 
      ccgaaccgc aagtgagtc agtgaacca caggtggtt 
      ctagttttg ctcaaaata atttgtgta aacccccga 
      ctacaacat gtttcaata ggtgccatg caaaccccg 
      caaatgccc gccatgtac atttcaaag tacaacaga 
      ttcgtcgat aacataatc ggccgtatt aacaaaatc 
      ctcggcaag tcgtacgac cccgtccgt gtgaaactc 
      cagtcaaac aacgacgcc aaaaagaag aaaaccacg 
      ccgaacaag aagaccaac aaacgcaaa accaacaaa 
      aaacggacc aataccaaa cgaacggct ggaatgacc 
      aataaaatg gccgaaatt tccatcgcc cggtccacg 
      gagagcgag agtcgggaa cccgccttt atcctcatt 
      tcgaaaacc agcgattct aagccggca gttagaaac 
      gtgcccgtt caaagggca acaaatacg aagaaaacg 
      acaaaaagg aagaacaat aaaaacagt aaaaataag 
      actaaggcc acaactggg gccaaaaag ccgggccct 
      aaagcccgg gccacgctt ttcggcctg agctcgatc 
      aagcgagac ggcgacgtt agtgtgaac atgatgcca 
      gaccacacc actgttaag acaaatttt atcctcggg 
      cccctaacg cttcgagtt gagcgcgag atggccaaa 
      ggggccaaa cgtgaagtc aagagtgcc acggccacg 
      actgcggaa atgcacggc cgactgaac cttaggata 
      gtgcacgga ggggctgcc acgctccac tcgatccgg 
      gtcctccag cctaaacaa gtccgggtg gaaagtctc 
      gacgatcat gataagacc aaggagttc atgtggcgg 
      aaaagccca catatagcc tcgctagtg tcgcagaag 
      ttggtctca gcggctcgg tcgatgctc aagccgcca 
      ccggcagcg tagatctca cgggaaatc atcagtagt 
      gcctaaact tatttattt tatttattg tatagtaga 
      gttagtgtg tggagtgcg aggtggaaa taaatttta 
      attcgttcc
    • >TC034108 RB
      aggagttaa gttgttagt ctgtcatcc gcctcacgg 
      tcagcacag gtcatagct ctgcacata acagtgtta 
      cacggtgtg attaataag tgtgctcca gtgtgacct 
      acaatcggg cactatgcg gttatacct cttcggagc 
      gctgctatg cctggcctt ggcccagtg cctttgcaa 
      ccctatagt gacacgtga ggggaaatc agaacagtc 
      ggtccagac tgaagggat taaaaagga ggaaacgac 
      tggtgttac gagtgttga gggcccaac caccgaagc 
      cccgaagaa gttgaaaga gactggtcg ccagtcgtc 
      cgatgacga cgacgatga tgacgacga cgacgacga 
      tttgggcct agacatcgg cgacgacga cgatgatga 
      cgacgacgc cgatgacga cgacgacga cgatgacta 
      tttcgaccg gttctttga cgatattct cggaggtga 
      cgatgatga tgacgacga cgatgacga cgacaccgt 
      ggccgagga cgcgcccgc gcccgctcc cgccgagcc 
      cgtggttgc cgcagccag cgagcaagc cgccgaaga 
      ggtggccga agaggacac tctggagga gcactccgc 
      tggggattt ggaaaacga gactaacgg tacggctgt 
      tgaggcccc tgacagtga gactttcgt cgacaaaaa 
      cccgactga aagcagcga acccgtcgt tgtcgagga 
      ggtgccagc gaatgacgc tgaggacga cgacgacga 
      tgatgacga cgacgacga tgatgacga tggcgacgc 
      cctcgaagg cctgactga cgacgatga cgacgacga 
      cgacgacga tgatactga cgacgatga cgatgacga 
      tgacgagac tgatctcga cgatgtcat tgaagccaa 
      acgatcacg tgccatgca aaccccgca aatgcccgc 
      catgtacat ttcaaagta caacagatt cgtcgataa 
      cataatcgg ccgtattaa caaaatcct cggcaagtc 
      gtacgaccc cgtccgtgt gaaactcca gtcaaacaa 
      cgacgccaa aaagaagaa aaccacgcc gaacaagaa 
      gaccaacaa acgcaaaac caacaaaaa acggaccaa 
      taccaaacg aacggctgg aatgaccaa taaaatggc 
      cgaaatttc catcgcccg gtccacgga gagcgagag 
      tcgggaacc cgcctttat cctcatttc gaaaaccag 
      cgattctaa gccggcagt tagaaacgt gcccgttca 
      aagggcaac aaatacgaa gaaaacgac aaaaaggaa 
      gaacaataa aaacagtaa aaataagac taaggccac 
      aactggggc caaaaagcc gggccctaa agcccgggc 
      cacgctttt cggcctgag ctcgatcaa gcgagacgg 
      cgacgttag tgtgaacat gatgccaga ccacaccac 
      tgttaagac aaattttat cctcgggcc cctaacgct 
      tcgagttga gcgcgagat ggccaaagg ggccaaacg 
      tgaagtcaa gagtgccac ggccacgac tgcggaaat 
      gcacggccg actgaacct taggatagt gcacggagg 
      ggctgccac gctccactc gatccgggt cctccagcc 
      taaacaagt ccgggtgga aagtctcga cgatcatga 
      taagaccaa ggagttcat gtggcggaa aagcccaca 
      tatagcctc gctagtgtc gcagaagtt ggtctcagc 
      ggctcggtc gatgctcaa gccgccacc ggcagcgta 
      gatctcacg ggaaatcat cagtagtgc ctaaactta 
      tttatttta tttattgta tagtagagt tagtgtgtg 
      gagtgcgag gtggaaata aattttaat tcgttcc
    • >TC034108 RC
      aggagttaa gttgttagt ctgtcatcc gcctcacgg 
      tcagcacag gtcatagct ctgcacata acagtgtta 
      cacggtgtg attaataag tgtgctcca gtgtgacct 
      acaatcggg cactatgcg gttatacct cttcggagc 
      gctgctatg cctggcctt ggcccagtg cctttgcaa 
      ccctatagt gacacgtga ggggaaatc agaacagtc 
      ggtccagac tgaagggat taaaaagga ggaaacgac 
      tggtgttac gagtgttga gggcccaac caccgaagc 
      cccgaagaa gttgaaaga gactggtcg ccagtcgtc 
      cgatgacga cgacgatga tgacgacga cgacgacga 
      tttgggcct agacatcgg cgacgacga cgatgatga 
      cgacgacgc cgatgacga cgacgacga cgatgacta 
      tttcgaccg gttctttga cgatattct cggaggtga 
      cgatgatga tgacgacga cgatgacga cgacaccgt 
      ggccgagga cgcgcccgc gcccgctcc cgccgagcc 
      cgtggttgc cgcagccag cgagcaagc cgccgaaga 
      ggtggccga agaggacac tctggagga gcactccgc 
      tggggattt ggaaaacga gactaacgg tacggctgt 
      tgaggcccc tgacagtga gactttcgt cgacaaaaa 
      cccgactga aagcagcga acccgtcgt tgtcgagga 
      ggtgccagc gaatgacgc tgaggacga cgacgacga 
      tgatgacga cgacgacga tgatgacga tggcgacgc 
      cctcgaagg cctgactga cgacgatga cgacgacga 
      cgacgacga tgatactga cgacgatga cgatgacga 
      tgacgagac tgatctcga cgatgtcat tgaagccaa 
      acgatcacg tgagtccaa aaatcgtaa acataagaa 
      atcaaaaaa agccagaaa acaacacaa aacagctaa 
      caaagtgag ataggtagt gaggctgaa tgtcaaaga 
      ctttcgtcc atcctgtac aaatctgta gttgcgtag 
      ttcggtttc tgctcttct ccaaaaatt agtgccagt 
      ttgtaccct cttatttat ttaaacgtt ttatttatt 
      tatttattt aaatgcttt tgcattata ctaggtata 
      tgtcacagt ctcgtgacc caaatctgt atcaatttg 
      tacaaaaac attaaaaca gtacaatcc aa
    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY