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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007417.3: 2129608..2132535
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_06186

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: -1.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 100.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    pupal molt delayed (still larva) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    larva lethality late (L7) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4 (16 dpi)
    Days post injection

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 5 (16 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Pupal morphology
    elytra dorsal not closed - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 5

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC031969 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC031969 RA
      atgaattta aacaacgat tttgtaagt attcaaggg 
      atagtcgtt aacgctgaa aaaaacgca ggctcgctt 
      aagaaaatc aaataccga ggaggtaat gaatccaca 
      attttgaat attgtggca gagtttcat aagtttttc 
      gattcaaaa agttacatc aaagacaat aagattaat 
      gaaactttt gaaaatcag ttgactgaa atttgtatt 
      ttcctcatt ctcaatact gaattgcgc caacctatt 
      aacaattcc gaatttcaa catttaatt aatatatta 
      cctcaaata tcaccgtgt ttgttagca aatgtgatg 
      atgggtctt gatttaagt ccccatttt tgcaaagca 
      ttgttgcgg tttgatttg gacataatt gaggaactt 
      ttggttgaa atgattcct tgtctcaag aaaagtaaa 
      ccaaaaact cacattcaa aacgcacag gagtacttg 
      aaactgata atcctgaaa ctgtctgcg tcaaacgaa 
      gggtggtct gaaggctgt gaaaaatta tgcgatgct 
      gggtcacaa attttatta aatttgaca ggccttcac 
      ggagatcaa gttcaagac ttgaaaata gactcagtt 
      taccaatgt atgggtctc acaattcac aatctgctg 
      gatttgttg ttaatgtgt gacgataaa aacaaacta 
      gcaccactc gtcgagaag ttcatcaag acatgttgc 
      tccatcatg atggctgtt actctcgac gtattttgt 
      tcatgggca gagtttcag tatgaaggg gagcctttg 
      cagagcgca atcgctggc aaaagttac ctatttata 
      aataaatac caaaaaaac ccactggcc aaagaactg 
      atcacaatg ttgggcacc atagctcag aaacctaaa 
      accatcgac gacctcatt ctgcaagcc gatgtccca 
      acaatgatt tcaaagata aatagagtc gacgttaac 
      caaaaacag tggtttacg gccttgctc aatactcaa 
      gttttgaaa tgcgaaaaa agtattgaa tgcattgag 
      cgttgggcg catttgtgc actgttagc gacgtcaca 
      catttaatt aacatgggg gtgcttagt aaagacccc 
      cgggcaaaa aaattggtc attaagtgt gcctcaacg 
      ttggatttg aacgactta attttagtt acaatccgg 
      cattttcac aaaaatgga attatgagc aattttaat 
      gaagattta cagcaagat ttgatactg tttttcaat 
      aaaatcaaa aataaaagt gtagatgaa gttttttgt 
      aaagaactc catttgtta ctcttgcaa aatcccgaa 
      caaacactg acttatgtt ttcgtcgag tgcttgaaa 
      aatagtttt tatttaact agtttggcg aatgcctgg 
      ccttcgctt aaggaagtc ctaacaata ggcgatttc 
      ggcttgaat ttattgaac actcaaata aataacaat 
      acaccaact gaacagact tataagtat tattcggaa 
      ctactgaac gcactaata agtgccgaa atatttcca 
      attgaaagg ataattggt gttgtggtc ttgccctta 
      ctagaaaac gccaacaag gaggcaaat taccaactt 
      ttgaaaaac ggtttaatt attttaaag gatttgcaa 
      ggacacatt tccgtgaag caagaaaat gaacactta 
      ttcaaactt atttttgaa gttatgaaa aattgcagg 
      tgcactttt ttgaacttt gacagcttg aaacaagaa 
      gttgtgaga caaactgtt gatattatt gaaaagtgc 
      tgcgaccta cgtccgtgt gtgtcatat gtagttaaa 
      cccaacaac tgcgaggac atttttgtg tcattttac 
      tacaaaaaa gtgtttgaa tctggttcc agtagtgat 
      ctattaaaa cattttttt ccaattacc tttaaaaaa 
      catgcagaa atcgttgct caccttaca aaaattttg 
      ccgttgtgt gtgacacct gaatggatg attatttca 
      cgaagtata attgatttg tgtggtgta gagaaaagt 
      atcgaatta atttgcgac gttacaatc cttttatgc 
      gaagttaaa aacagtcag aagacagaa actgacgaa 
      acaaaatgt atgttaagt gctttaaaa tattttctt 
      caaaatgtc ggggttgtg gttaaggaa tgtattcaa 
      ccgaaagtg atccacctt tccgaagat gtttcaatt 
      actagaaac atttgtcgc atgctgaaa caaatccct 
      gatggtaat ttgaagagt gaagaagga ctctcatta 
      gcgaatctt ctatcagat gcatcgtta aaaactctc 
      aaacctgat aaaaaattt gctcgtctg gtggcatca 
      atcaatgaa actcacatt tgtaaaatg ttaacacaa 
      aaaatcctg agttaa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC031969 RA
      aatggtcag gctttttaa attgccggt gtttatcca 
      ctgaaaatg aatttaaac aacgatttt gtaagtatt 
      caagggata gtcgttaac gctgaaaaa aacgcaggc 
      tcgcttaag aaaatcaaa taccgagga ggtaatgaa 
      tccacaatt ttgaatatt gtggcagag tttcataag 
      tttttcgat tcaaaaagt tacatcaaa gacaataag 
      attaatgaa acttttgaa aatcagttg actgaaatt 
      tgtattttc ctcattctc aatactgaa ttgcgccaa 
      cctattaac aattccgaa tttcaacat ttaattaat 
      atattacct caaatatca ccgtgtttg ttagcaaat 
      gtgatgatg ggtcttgat ttaagtccc catttttgc 
      aaagcattg ttgcggttt gatttggac ataattgag 
      gaacttttg gttgaaatg attccttgt ctcaagaaa 
      agtaaacca aaaactcac attcaaaac gcacaggag 
      tacttgaaa ctgataatc ctgaaactg tctgcgtca 
      aacgaaggg tggtctgaa ggctgtgaa aaattatgc 
      gatgctggg tcacaaatt ttattaaat ttgacaggc 
      cttcacgga gatcaagtt caagacttg aaaatagac 
      tcagtttac caatgtatg ggtctcaca attcacaat 
      ctgctggat ttgttgtta atgtgtgac gataaaaac 
      aaactagca ccactcgtc gagaagttc atcaagaca 
      tgttgctcc atcatgatg gctgttact ctcgacgta 
      ttttgttca tgggcagag tttcagtat gaaggggag 
      cctttgcag agcgcaatc gctggcaaa agttaccta 
      tttataaat aaataccaa aaaaaccca ctggccaaa 
      gaactgatc acaatgttg ggcaccata gctcagaaa 
      cctaaaacc atcgacgac ctcattctg caagccgat 
      gtcccaaca atgatttca aagataaat agagtcgac 
      gttaaccaa aaacagtgg tttacggcc ttgctcaat 
      actcaagtt ttgaaatgc gaaaaaagt attgaatgc 
      attgagcgt tgggcgcat ttgtgcact gttagcgac 
      gtcacacat ttaattaac atgggggtg cttagtaaa 
      gacccccgg gcaaaaaaa ttggtcatt aagtgtgcc 
      tcaacgttg gatttgaac gacttaatt ttagttaca 
      atccggcat tttcacaaa aatggaatt atgagcaat 
      tttaatgaa gatttacag caagatttg atactgttt 
      ttcaataaa atcaaaaat aaaagtgta gatgaagtt 
      ttttgtaaa gaactccat ttgttactc ttgcaaaat 
      cccgaacaa acactgact tatgttttc gtcgagtgc 
      ttgaaaaat agtttttat ttaactagt ttggcgaat 
      gcctggcct tcgcttaag gaagtccta acaataggc 
      gatttcggc ttgaattta ttgaacact caaataaat 
      aacaataca ccaactgaa cagacttat aagtattat 
      tcggaacta ctgaacgca ctaataagt gccgaaata 
      tttccaatt gaaaggata attggtgtt gtggtcttg 
      cccttacta gaaaacgcc aacaaggag gcaaattac 
      caacttttg aaaaacggt ttaattatt ttaaaggat 
      ttgcaagga cacatttcc gtgaagcaa gaaaatgaa 
      cacttattc aaacttatt tttgaagtt atgaaaaat 
      tgcaggtgc acttttttg aactttgac agcttgaaa 
      caagaagtt gtgagacaa actgttgat attattgaa 
      aagtgctgc gacctacgt ccgtgtgtg tcatatgta 
      gttaaaccc aacaactgc gaggacatt tttgtgtca 
      ttttactac aaaaaagtg tttgaatct ggttccagt 
      agtgatcta ttaaaacat ttttttcca attaccttt 
      aaaaaacat gcagaaatc gttgctcac cttacaaaa 
      attttgccg ttgtgtgtg acacctgaa tggatgatt 
      atttcacga agtataatt gatttgtgt ggtgtagag 
      aaaagtatc gaattaatt tgcgacgtt acaatcctt 
      ttatgcgaa gttaaaaac agtcagaag acagaaact 
      gacgaaaca aaatgtatg ttaagtgct ttaaaatat 
      tttcttcaa aatgtcggg gttgtggtt aaggaatgt 
      attcaaccg aaagtgatc cacctttcc gaagatgtt 
      tcaattact agaaacatt tgtcgcatg ctgaaacaa 
      atccctgat ggtaatttg aagagtgaa gaaggactc 
      tcattagcg aatcttcta tcagatgca tcgttaaaa 
      actctcaaa cctgataaa aaatttgct cgtctggtg 
      gcatcaatc aatgaaact cacatttgt aaaatgtta 
      acacaaaaa atcctgagt taatttttc catttttat 
      taattaaaa tattttcgt attgacaat gtgtttact 
      ttacgcact tccagcaat tgcaacaac agttcgaat 
      actaaaaaa a

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY