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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NW_015451036.1: 166781..175436
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_06114

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 30.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC031811 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC031811 RA
      atgcttatc ttcctccaa aagatggat acagatatg 
      agaaaccct cagtgccat ttcctccac ctcaacctc 
      caagacctc cgtctcctc caactcaac cgccataca 
      ggccaccag tgccaactc aacctcctt acaggccac 
      cagcaccca cacagcccc cttacaggc ctccagcac 
      ccacacagc cccattaca ggcctccag cacccacac 
      aaccccctt atagacctc cagcaccaa ctcaacctc 
      cttatagac caccagctc ccccacaac ctcccagac 
      caacttatg gtccgccaa catcaccac cgtacagac 
      ctccagcac ctccaactc agcctccat acagacccc 
      cagctcctc caactcaac ccccttaca gacccccag 
      caccaccaa ctcaacctc cttatagac caccatcgc 
      caccacaac cacctagac caacctatg gtcctccaa 
      catcaccac cgtaccgac ctccagcac ctccaactc 
      aacccccat accaacctc catcaagac cgccaccag 
      cgactgtac ctccaaagt ttagaccaa ctccacctc 
      cacaaccac caaccggac cacaatact tgccaccac 
      aacgaccag gacctccaa caccacctc cttacaggc 
      ctccttctc caccaagtc cgcctccgt atagaccac 
      catcaccac caacaccac ctccgtaca ggcctccgg 
      cacctccaa cttctccac cttatcgac ctccatctc 
      caccaagtc caccgacat ataggcctc caacaccaa 
      cttatgggc caccaacac ctccacctt acagacctc 
      catctccac caagtccac caacacccc caccttaca 
      gaccgccga ccatcacca acaccgcca ccatacaga 
      ccaactcct ggacctaga cctttgcca ggaccaagt 
      cctggagga gatggatct gaaacccac gatcatcat 
      caccacatg cctggaatg ccttttgat ttcagttat 
      gctgttaaa gatgatcac tacggtaac gattactcc 
      cataatgcc attagtgac ggagatcaa actaaaggg 
      gaatacagg atacaacta cctgatggt agaacccaa 
      gtggttaaa tatacagct gattgggca actggtttc 
      catgcccag ataagttat caaggacaa ccaacttat 
      ccacaatat ccgggacgt cctagtggt ccagtccct 
      agtggacca tcataccca agtggacca tcataccct 
      agtggaccc agcagaccc agcgttcct tcataccct 
      agtggttca agcagacca ccatcattc ccaagcgga 
      cccactggt taccccagt ggcagacca accggacct 
      tcattccct agcacacct agtagacct agcacccca 
      tcattccct agtagacct agcactcct tctttcccc 
      agcacaccc agcagacct agcccatca ttccctagt 
      acacctagc agacctagc accccttcg ttccctagc 
      cctccaagt agacctcct tccttccct agtccatcc 
      cctggtggt taccccagt ggacgacct gcaggtccc 
      tcgttccca accccaagt aaaccatcg ttccctggt 
      acaagtacg aaccaaatc aaccaacaa tacgctcct 
      gatggtgga tacaaatac taa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC031811 RA
      tcccatcgc tctgtgtac aggtgacga attttaatt 
      taaaaaggg ttttaagtg gcgtgttgg tttttgcat 
      ggtttgtgt caaaaccag gacatgata attaagatt 
      tcagcagct ttatgctgc ttgatagca gcaaattat 
      gctgcaata gctcccggt cagaatgct tatcttcct 
      ccaaaagat ggatacaga tatgagaaa ccctcagtg 
      ccatttcct ccacctcaa cctccaaga cctccgtct 
      cctccaact caaccgcca tacaggcca ccagtgcca 
      actcaacct ccttacagg ccaccagca cccacacag 
      cccccttac aggcctcca gcacccaca cagccccat 
      tacaggcct ccagcaccc acacaaccc ccttataga 
      cctccagca ccaactcaa cctccttat agaccacca 
      gctccccca caacctccc agaccaact tatggtccg 
      ccaacatca ccaccgtac agacctcca gcacctcca 
      actcagcct ccatacaga cccccagct cctccaact 
      caaccccct tacagaccc ccagcacca ccaactcaa 
      cctccttat agaccacca tcgccacca caaccacct 
      agaccaacc tatggtcct ccaacatca ccaccgtac 
      cgacctcca gcacctcca actcaaccc ccataccaa 
      cctccatca agaccgcca ccagcgact gtacctcca 
      aagtttaga ccaactcca cctccacaa ccaccaacc 
      ggaccacaa tacttgcca ccacaacga ccaggacct 
      ccaacacca cctccttac aggcctcct tctccacca 
      agtccgcct ccgtataga ccaccatca ccaccaaca 
      ccacctccg tacaggcct ccggcacct ccaacttct 
      ccaccttat cgacctcca tctccacca agtccaccg 
      acatatagg cctccaaca ccaacttat gggccacca 
      acacctcca ccttacaga cctccatct ccaccaagt 
      ccaccaaca cccccacct tacagaccg ccgaccatc 
      accaacacc gccaccata cagaccaac tcctggacc 
      tagaccttt gccaggacc aagtcctgg aggagatgg 
      atctgaaac ccacgatca tcatcacca catgcctgg 
      aatgccttt tgatttcag ttatgctgt taaagatga 
      tcactacgg taacgatta ctcccataa tgccattag 
      tgacggaga tcaaactaa aggggaata caggataca 
      actacctga tggtagaac ccaagtggt taaatatac 
      agctgattg ggcaactgg tttccatgc ccagataag 
      ttatcaagg acaaccaac ttatccaca atatccggg 
      acgtcctag tggtccagt ccctagtgg accatcata 
      cccaagtgg accatcata ccctagtgg acccagcag 
      acccagcgt tccttcata ccctagtgg ttcaagcag 
      accaccatc attcccaag cggacccac tggttaccc 
      cagtggcag accaaccgg accttcatt ccctagcac 
      acctagtag acctagcac cccatcatt ccctagtag 
      acctagcac tccttcttt ccccagcac acccagcag 
      acctagccc atcattccc tagtacacc tagcagacc 
      tagcacccc ttcgttccc tagccctcc aagtagacc 
      tccttcctt ccctagtcc atcccctgg tggttaccc 
      cagtggacg acctgcagg tccctcgtt cccaacccc 
      aagtaaacc atcgttccc tggtacaag tacgaacca 
      aatcaacca acaatacgc tcctgatgg tggatacaa 
      atactaaat acgatcaag acacgacaa atccacact 
      gccttaacg agtgttcaa atgaattca agttgcaat 
      agtttttaa tcgcttttt agcaaaact tgtgatgca 
      attttttgt taccctttg tacaggcaa atcttagat 
      taatgattg tatatttta gagtttcat ctatttatt 
      ttagtactt attttttga tgtgaatac tctgcaaat 
      cacttgaat gaagaattt gcctctaga tgctaaacg 
      tttgtacgg tcagttata cagtagttt tttctaaaa 
      tgtttctat ttattcttc gatattgta tcatattgt 
      aaaatgtat tataaaata aacttattt ttatactga 
      taagtcctt catttttgt ggcattttt ttttaattt 
      ctcaaggca agggcaata agtaattct gggagagag 
      gttaaaagt aatggtaaa gtggaaaat taaagacaa 
      tttgaacat ttcgagttt aattttcaa aatggtggt 
      ccacgcttg tgtgaaaat aacacaaaa ttttcatag 
      cgtttaaaa tggcgtccg aagtttcag tttaatgtg 
      taaaatata ccgttatag ggcaatttt ggcgcaatt 
      aataaaagg aaaaactga cctggtact ggagaaaag 
      gaaacaaag caggatttg gtaagagga ggcactgga 
      atcggggcc gttgagtgt ctttgcact ttcgggcac 
      taattgtct cactaaata gtatcaggg ttttgtaac 
      acaatcaca agtatgggg gaatcacac acaaggtaa 
      tgagtttaa gaaaaaaca cacaaaaca

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY