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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007420.3: 1535151..1542504
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_06018

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 20.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: -1.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: -1.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC033011 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC033011 RA
      atgagaact ggaagtaac attttagat aggaattta 
      cgaataatt ggaggttcg cctgcaacg atccatcag 
      taccctttt gctgcagct attgatgtc cacacttcg 
      agcagtaaa cacttttgt ggtggttct ctgtacacg 
      aatcaattt atccttact gctggtcaa tgtgtcgat 
      ggagcaatt ttgtttaca atttattta ggttcagca 
      aaccgatca gaccccaac atccaaacg gtggcagct 
      tctgattat attttgcat cctgattac aatccccaa 
      actttagac aatgatatc ggcttgata aaactacgc 
      atgcctgtc acatttaca gattccatc aagtctatt 
      aattatttg gctcttgaa cctttgctg caagctcat 
      aaagttcga gcaattggt tgggggcaa actagtgat 
      gaaaatgcg caatattcg gatgttctc cagtacgtt 
      tatgtggct ccgataaag aatgactat tgcaaagag 
      atttacgga tcacaaatt accgataat atggtttgt 
      gttgaggga aattacaac gagggagct tgtcatggc 
      gatactggg agtcctttg atagatgtt tacagcatt 
      tactacact gttcacgtc ggaattgct agttttgtc 
      agtggaaat ggatgcgag agtactgac ccatctggc 
      ctaagcatc gtgatatca gtagcacaa cagaaagta 
      aacaaaatc atcacaatg aaaacgctt tctttatac 
      tatctaatt ctgtattgc tttgcattt caggaaagt 
      tttgcatat gcagccatt tccccacgt attatagga 
      ggacatatc gcacatact ggccaattt ccatttgct 
      gcagccatt gaggttcaa actgccaac agcaaattt 
      ttttgtgga ggaacactt tatacccaa cagtgggta 
      attacagca ggacagtgt gtcaatgga gctatcctt 
      tttacaatt aatttagga tcagttagc ttaacagca 
      gatgatcca acccgcttg actgtcgca acatctgag 
      tatttcctc catcctgat tttgaccct cttaccctt 
      gacaacgat ataggtttg attaaacta cgaatggca 
      attcagtat tctgacgac atcaaaccc attagttct 
      ctagctttg tatcctcta tcagatggg gtgtacgct 
      cgggcactt ggctggggc caaactagt gataatgat 
      tcttcttta tccgatctt ttgcggtac gtgtttgta 
      acgtcattg tcaaaccaa gaatgtaaa ttagtttac 
      ggaaaccaa attactgaa aatatggtg tgcattgag 
      ggaaattac aatgaagga agctgccat ggtgatact 
      ggaagtccc ttgattgaa gtttttggc caaagcgtg 
      tttgttcac gtcggtatt gccagtttt gtcagtgga 
      aatgggtgc gaaagtacc gacccttca ggatacaca 
      agaacgtat ccttatgtt gattggccg gcaactatt 
      attggtgac agtagcaat catctcgca atgttcttc 
      tatattttg atccttttc tttgtatca tcatcaatt 
      caaaaggag ctcgccaat gggaacgtt cgaattata 
      ggaggacat acagcacat atcagccag gtgcctttc 
      gttgcagct atcaatgtt gaaggttcc ggttatacc 
      tggttttgt ggaggagca ttgtatgga agccagtgg 
      attatcaca gctggtcaa tgtgtaaat ggtgccatt 
      cttttcaca attcgtttg ggatcaatc agtttgact 
      gaaccggac gcaaatcgt gaaacactt tcaacttca 
      acttatttc atacatcct gaatttgat cctgaaact 
      ttggagaat gatattggg cttattaag cttcgaatg 
      cctgttaca cataccagt tacattaaa tcaatcaat 
      tatttggct ttgaacgag ctttggaat aacacacat 
      gtctatgtg atgggctgg ggacaaacc agtgatgac 
      gatggatcg ttatcagat gatttaaaa atggctttg 
      gtcactact ttgcccaat gaagaatgt aagttaacc 
      ttcggcaat caaattaaa gaaaccatg gtttgtgtt 
      gatggacaa tacaacgaa ggagcctgc catggtgat 
      actggaagt ccactgata cttctgcac cctcgtggt 
      ataacagaa cacgtagga atttcaagt tttgtaagc 
      tttaacggg tgtgagact ccagaaccg tctggctat 
      acaaggact tacccttat aatgactgg attaataat 
      attacaaag agtaatgac tga
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC033011 RA
      ggtaaatta ttttggttt aagttttga aataactta 
      taattttta gatgagaac tggaagtaa cattttaga 
      taggaattt acgaataat tggaggttc gcctgcaac 
      gatccatca gtacccttt tgctgcagc tattgatgt 
      ccacacttc gagcagtaa acacttttg tggtggttc 
      tctgtacac gaatcaatt tatccttac tgctggtca 
      atgtgtcga tggagcaat tttgtttac aatttattt 
      aggttcagc aaaccgatc agaccccaa catccaaac 
      ggtggcagc ttctgatta tattttgca tcctgatta 
      caatcccca aactttaga caatgatat cggcttgat 
      aaaactacg catgcctgt cacatttac agattccat 
      caagtctat taattattt ggctcttga acctttgct 
      gcaagctca taaagttcg agcaattgg ttgggggca 
      aactagtga tgaaaatgc gcaatattc ggatgttct 
      ccagtacgt ttatgtggc tccgataaa gaatgacta 
      ttgcaaaga gatttacgg atcacaaat taccgataa 
      tatggtttg tgttgaggg aaattacaa cgagggagc 
      ttgtcatgg cgatactgg gagtccttt gatagatgt 
      ttacagcat ttactacac tgttcacgt cggaattgc 
      tagttttgt cagtggaaa tggatgcga gagtactga 
      cccatctgg cctaagcat cgtgatatc agtagcaca 
      acagaaagt aaacaaaat catcacaat gaaaacgct 
      ttctttata ctatctaat tctgtattg ctttgcatt 
      tcaggaaag ttttgcata tgcagccat ttccccacg 
      tattatagg aggacatat cgcacatac tggccaatt 
      tccatttgc tgcagccat tgaggttca aactgccaa 
      cagcaaatt tttttgtgg aggaacact ttataccca 
      acagtgggt aattacagc aggacagtg tgtcaatgg 
      agctatcct ttttacaat taatttagg atcagttag 
      cttaacagc agatgatcc aacccgctt gactgtcgc 
      aacatctga gtatttcct ccatcctga ttttgaccc 
      tcttaccct tgacaacga tataggttt gattaaact 
      acgaatggc aattcagta ttctgacga catcaaacc 
      cattagttc tctagcttt gtatcctct atcagatgg 
      ggtgtacgc tcgggcact tggctgggg ccaaactag 
      tgataatga ttcttcttt atccgatct tttgcggta 
      cgtgtttgt aacgtcatt gtcaaacca agaatgtaa 
      attagttta cggaaacca aattactga aaatatggt 
      gtgcattga gggaaatta caatgaagg aagctgcca 
      tggtgatac tggaagtcc cttgattga agtttttgg 
      ccaaagcgt gtttgttca cgtcggtat tgccagttt 
      tgtcagtgg aaatgggtg cgaaagtac cgacccttc 
      aggatacac aagaacgta tccttatgt tgattggcc 
      ggcaactat tattggtga cagtagcaa tcatctcgc 
      aatgttctt ctatatttt gatcctttt ctttgtatc 
      atcatcaat tcaaaagga gctcgccaa tgggaacgt 
      tcgaattat aggaggaca tacagcaca tatcagcca 
      ggtgccttt cgttgcagc tatcaatgt tgaaggttc 
      cggttatac ctggttttg tggaggagc attgtatgg 
      aagccagtg gattatcac agctggtca atgtgtaaa 
      tggtgccat tcttttcac aattcgttt gggatcaat 
      cagtttgac tgaaccgga cgcaaatcg tgaaacact 
      ttcaacttc aacttattt catacatcc tgaatttga 
      tcctgaaac tttggagaa tgatattgg gcttattaa 
      gcttcgaat gcctgttac acataccag ttacattaa 
      atcaatcaa ttatttggc tttgaacga gctttggaa 
      taacacaca tgtctatgt gatgggctg gggacaaac 
      cagtgatga cgatggatc gttatcaga tgatttaaa 
      aatggcttt ggtcactac tttgcccaa tgaagaatg 
      taagttaac cttcggcaa tcaaattaa agaaaccat 
      ggtttgtgt tgatggaca atacaacga aggagcctg 
      ccatggtga tactggaag tccactgat acttctgca 
      ccctcgtgg tataacaga acacgtagg aatttcaag 
      ttttgtaag ctttaacgg gtgtgagac tccagaacc 
      gtctggcta tacaaggac ttaccctta taatgactg 
      gattaataa tattacaaa gagtaatga ctgaaaact 
      taaaaatgt attctcatg ttatattag tgcaataaa 
      gagatttga tataa

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY