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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007422.5: 6850325..6934015
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
      {{ unavailableText }}

    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_06009

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 50.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    pupa eclosion not fulfilled (died as pupa) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: -1.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: -1.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC033672 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC033672 RA
      atgcaggga gaaacaacc aaacactac ctatattcg 
      acggtaaat tcattttct gatattaca gtgcagcac 
      ttgcgagct tttttgccc cagcaaata cagcgcata 
      gtaatatta gactctttg gtcgtgact caagacatt 
      gaagctgtc gaaggaaaa agtgttagt ttaccgtgt 
      gatgtgacg ccgccgaat aaccatgat aaagtatac 
      atggtcttc tggttccag caggggtcg gggtacccc 
      atatacagc ttcgacgtt cgtggcaag cctctgtcc 
      agagcgagt cattggtcc gcaccggat ctgttcggc 
      tctagagcc tacttccgg acggtgtct gagccagca 
      cagctcgtc attgacgac atccggcgt cacgacgaa 
      ggcgtctac cggtgcaga gtggacttc cgcaatgct 
      cagacccgc agcttccga tataatctc accgttatt 
      gttccgccg gagcagccc acaatcctg gacaagtgg 
      ggccgtcag ctgaacggc actgtggga ccacacgaa 
      gagggcgat gacataact ctgacttgt aggacagtc 
      ggggggcac ccccagccc acggttcgt tggttgata 
      aacgcggaa atggtcgac gagcagtcg gagcacaac 
      gcaggggat gtcattgag aaccggctg gtgaagact 
      tcaatttcg aggaaggat ttggacgct atcttcacg 
      tgtcaggct gtcaacacg gttctcacc gagcccaaa 
      gtggcctca gtcgtgctg gatttgcta ctcaagcct 
      ctgacggtc cgtatcttg aaaacggtt agccctctt 
      gtggccgac aagcgctat gaagtcacc tgcgagtct 
      gcagggtct cggccgccg gcgatcatc acctggtat 
      aaaggcaaa cgccccttg cgcaagaca aagcaagaa 
      acgcgagag aatgtaaca ataagtgag ttaactttc 
      attccgacg accgaggac gatggaaaa tccataaca 
      tgcagagct gaaaatccc aacgtcaca ggcctcttt 
      ctcgaaaca tcgtggaaa attgacgtc gtttacccc 
      ccgcaagtg tcgctccat ttggggagc acgcttaat 
      gctgatgac atcaaggaa ggcgacgac gtctacttc 
      gagtgtcga gttaccgcc aacccccag tggaggaaa 
      ctcacttgg ctgcacaac ggcttcgta cttaaccac 
      aacatgtct ggtcgcatc atccacagc aaccaaagt 
      ttagttctc caaaaggta accagacaa agtgccggc 
      cgatatgtc tgctcggtg gtgaacagc gaaggagag 
      acgctcagc aacgagctc aactttcgc gtacaatac 
      gctccaact tgcaaattc gataaattt ctggtggtg 
      ggggcttcc agaggcgaa agcgtggac atcgtctgc 
      gaaatcgag tcggaccct cccgctaag agctaccgg 
      tggaagttt aacaactcg ggagagacg ctcgacgtc 
      gctgcagaa cgctttgca aagaccagt aatggaaca 
      gtgagcgtt ctaaggtac acaccagtg tctgaactg 
      gattacggg tcattatcg tgctgggcc atcaacacg 
      gtgggccat caagttaat ccctgcgtt ttccaagtt 
      gttgcagca ggcaagccg ttccccgta cgaaactgc 
      tctttgtct aaccaaacg agcagttcg gtggaggtg 
      acatgtctc gctggcttt gacggcggt cttccgcaa 
      cactttctt ctggagttg tacacggca aactcgctc 
      gttccgcgc tacaacatg acgtcgttc cgagacccg 
      gagttcttc ctcgacaat ttagagcca gatgttacc 
      ttccgaatt gttgttttc gccgtcaac gcgaaggga 
      cgcagccag ggagtggtg ctggaggaa gtcaccttc 
      actgacgcc gaaaagcgg acagcttcg gacggcgac 
      ttgcccttc tcccccatc ctggggatc ctaatcggg 
      gccaccctc accataatc attgtgatc ctcgtggtg 
      ataattaga gtccggagg tctcaaagc cagcccgag 
      gtcacaata gagcaaaaa gtattaggt gctcctcac 
      cacaacaca atgtcttct gcaaagcca ctcttgagg 
      agctcctct ccacgtgac accgacgag aaggatccc 
      gatgtaatt cccgctaaa tacggctct cccgacgga 
      gagtgtgcc aggaaccta gggtcgctg aacggtccc 
      caaagtctt cctctgggc tcccttgcg acgtctccg 
      aattacgct cagacagct gttccgggc ccccaatgg 
      gtcagtccc gtcgctccc accaccgag ccgatgtat 
      catctgtat aataatcct gtggcgatg gtgggcacg 
      ttttctagg gattccagg ccaaaggaa cttcgttta 
      ggaaacgga agctcggcc acgcttcaa agggccaca 
      gatttggag ttaaacgga ttagccatt aaagagaga 
      ctgatggcg aaccggcta ccggagagt tgtgtttaa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC033672 RA
      tgttaaaag attaataaa atccatata aatcattgg 
      tttccagta atttcacga aattggaat taaaatttt 
      cgcagttat ctgatgtgt ggttgaaac aatgtttga 
      ttatcgtat tattacatg ttttgcggt tggagtcgt 
      aaatgtaga gaagagttt agtggtgta aatgtaaat 
      ttacacaag gataagatt actcggcgc tccataaaa 
      tccggttgt aataaagtg acataatta aaatataat 
      tgaaaatcg ttacattct cgataaatg cgccgttat 
      ggccactac acatgcaat attttaatt tgttgtaaa 
      atacggttt taaatgtaa tttaagtca taaatccgg 
      attaagttg tgaataatt ctcgtgtaa tgtaattaa 
      atttcgtga aatggttgt atttacttg tactctaat 
      ttgaaaaag tccgttcta aataatgaa aagtattgt 
      ttgtcagtt tattctgtc ccttttatt caaatgaaa 
      gcttgtgaa tttaaaatt gtatttttt acaaaaatc 
      ttttcagga ttattttta tgaatgaat atcattctt 
      tgcatacaa aagaaacac tggaacaaa acaaattac 
      ccacaggcc attcatact ttattcagt tattgaaat 
      tctgaatag gttttgtga gcggaaaat ctaagacga 
      tttttcttt ttttttgag cgaaatcac ttaattttt 
      tgcagtggt gacagcgaa ggaaatccg tgtctgtgt 
      aaaatgtgg cagtcaaca tgtgtttgt tgttaaaaa 
      tcagacaag caattctcg tgggttgca actgcaatg 
      aattttaca acgtcccga gctcatgtg aaatttaaa 
      aagaagcaa tctataatt tgtgctgca gcagttttc 
      atttccaat ccggctgaa tcagtgaca aaatacgca 
      atctatttt tccgatgat aaatagcga atatctagt 
      acaacgtaa tgaacgaat atggcatca actttataa 
      atggaacgg aatccagaa gcagtccct gtggaagtc 
      ctcgcatag ccaccacta tgaactcat atatcatgc 
      agagtgttc gttgtttta attaagagc accatgaat 
      tcgaatatg gatctctgt ataaatatt cataaatta 
      tgaacgatc gagccggcc ctaattgca tttttccct 
      taagcttgt caataataa aattaccat taatcattg 
      tctcaagtc tttgctgtt aaacgaatt tgttttcga 
      ttaaaattc aattgcttt ttgaggttt attaatcag 
      cggtacctg ccgttaatt aacttgtta ttcaaacgc 
      atgcatgcc gggaattaa aaccgcaaa aagattaac 
      acactgcac actgtttga ttctcgtta caggttaat 
      ttttaatta aaaagtcaa caagattcg aggcaaatg 
      cagggagaa acaaccaaa cactaccta tattcgacg 
      gtaaattca ttttctgat attacagtg cagcacttg 
      cgagctttt ttgccccag caaatacag cgcatagta 
      atattagac tctttggtc gtgactcaa gacattgaa 
      gctgtcgaa ggaaaaagt gttagttta ccgtgtgat 
      gtgacgccg ccgaataac catgataaa gtatacatg 
      gtcttctgg ttccagcag gggtcgggg taccccata 
      tacagcttc gacgttcgt ggcaagcct ctgtccaga 
      gcgagtcat tggtccgca ccggatctg ttcggctct 
      agagcctac ttccggacg gtgtctgag ccagcacag 
      ctcgtcatt gacgacatc cggcgtcac gacgaaggc 
      gtctaccgg tgcagagtg gacttccgc aatgctcag 
      acccgcagc ttccgatat aatctcacc gttattgtt 
      ccgccggag cagcccaca atcctggac aagtggggc 
      cgtcagctg aacggcact gtgggacca cacgaagag 
      ggcgatgac ataactctg acttgtagg acagtcggg 
      gggcacccc cagcccacg gttcgttgg ttgataaac 
      gcggaaatg gtcgacgag cagtcggag cacaacgca 
      ggggatgtc attgagaac cggctggtg aagacttca 
      atttcgagg aaggatttg gacgctatc ttcacgtgt 
      caggctgtc aacacggtt ctcaccgag cccaaagtg 
      gcctcagtc gtgctggat ttgctactc aagcctctg 
      acggtccgt atcttgaaa acggttagc cctcttgtg 
      gccgacaag cgctatgaa gtcacctgc gagtctgca 
      gggtctcgg ccgccggcg atcatcacc tggtataaa 
      ggcaaacgc cccttgcgc aagacaaag caagaaacg 
      cgagagaat gtaacaata agtgagtta actttcatt 
      ccgacgacc gaggacgat ggaaaatcc ataacatgc 
      agagctgaa aatcccaac gtcacaggc ctctttctc 
      gaaacatcg tggaaaatt gacgtcgtt taccccccg 
      caagtgtcg ctccatttg gggagcacg cttaatgct 
      gatgacatc aaggaaggc gacgacgtc tacttcgag 
      tgtcgagtt accgccaac ccccagtgg aggaaactc 
      acttggctg cacaacggc ttcgtactt aaccacaac 
      atgtctggt cgcatcatc cacagcaac caaagttta 
      gttctccaa aaggtaacc agacaaagt gccggccga 
      tatgtctgc tcggtggtg aacagcgaa ggagagacg 
      ctcagcaac gagctcaac tttcgcgta caatacgct 
      ccaacttgc aaattcgat aaatttctg gtggtgggg 
      gcttccaga ggcgaaagc gtggacatc gtctgcgaa 
      atcgagtcg gaccctccc gctaagagc taccggtgg 
      aagtttaac aactcggga gagacgctc gacgtcgct 
      gcagaacgc tttgcaaag accagtaat ggaacagtg 
      agcgttcta aggtacaca ccagtgtct gaactggat 
      tacgggtca ttatcgtgc tgggccatc aacacggtg 
      ggccatcaa gttaatccc tgcgttttc caagttgtt 
      gcagcaggc aagccgttc cccgtacga aactgctct 
      ttgtctaac caaacgagc agttcggtg gaggtgaca 
      tgtctcgct ggctttgac ggcggtctt ccgcaacac 
      tttcttctg gagttgtac acggcaaac tcgctcgtt 
      ccgcgctac aacatgacg tcgttccga gacccggag 
      ttcttcctc gacaattta gagccagat gttaccttc 
      cgaattgtt gttttcgcc gtcaacgcg aagggacgc 
      agccaggga gtggtgctg gaggaagtc accttcact 
      gacgccgaa aagcggaca gcttcggac ggcgacttg 
      cccttctcc cccatcctg gggatccta atcggggcc 
      accctcacc ataatcatt gtgatcctc gtggtgata 
      attagagtc cggaggtct caaagccag cccgaggtc 
      acaatagag caaaaagta ttaggtgct cctcaccac 
      aacacaatg tcttctgca aagccactc ttgaggagc 
      tcctctcca cgtgacacc gacgagaag gatcccgat 
      gtaattccc gctaaatac ggctctccc gacggagag 
      tgtgccagg aacctaggg tcgctgaac ggtccccaa 
      agtcttcct ctgggctcc cttgcgacg tctccgaat 
      tacgctcag acagctgtt ccgggcccc caatgggtc 
      agtcccgtc gctcccacc accgagccg atgtatcat 
      ctgtataat aatcctgtg gcgatggtg ggcacgttt 
      tctagggat tccaggcca aaggaactt cgtttagga 
      aacggaagc tcggccacg cttcaaagg gccacagat 
      ttggagtta aacggatta gccattaaa gagagactg 
      atggcgaac cggctaccg gagagttgt gtttaaaac 
      aagtgtctt ttgtatcgt ttggtcgta cgcaaaatt 
      actttaagg accgtccaa agcgttacg gcaatggcg 
      aggggactg catttaaca aaaaacact accatatca 
      ctttgccaa attgttgcc accagtcaa ctttggaca 
      ctggataag tactggtgg caatttttt ccgattttt 
      taaaccatg ttcctcgct gcatccgac tttccgcca 
      aactcgcca actgccgtt gcacaaaga gttatcgtt 
      ttctaaatg taaattgtg tctaaagat agactgagt 
      tagctaagc gatgtaaat atgtttaaa tctgagtgt 
      tcgtgttat cggtggaag agtggacac ctcatacag 
      acaatccgt agctgaacc taactaaat ttctatgaa 
      gacttgtaa atatcattg ttgcatatc gtgcagatg 
      gttggttgt tttgtaacc agtaactga atgcttttt 
      gataaaaaa ttaacatac gaaataagt gaaacgaat 
      ttgattatc tagagtgtt ctattgctc acattttgc 
      tagaaagtt tatctcgtt tatcaccaa attgtttga 
      gtaattttg tttgccaaa attggcgtg tcttccatg 
      tccctacgg tttgatttg agtagagtc ggacaatgt 
      gaacaataa aaccgcaat gaggatgaa caaggaata 
      agtgttttg ttaaatttt tgagaaact cgattcgtt 
      tctgtgtac atgtagata tcaaaaa

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY