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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007424.3: 10278308..10422001
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_05988

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 20.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: -1.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: -1.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC034367 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC034367 RA
      atggatgtt cgatggttc gtcttcttc actcacttc 
      gctatcgtc ctgccttgt tttttccac ctcactgct 
      actttcaaa caacaaggg ggctgctat ttcccggag 
      cgatgggag gggacgtgg ttccagtcg ggggtccgt 
      cagcccatc atcatagaa gggccacga ctcagcagt 
      aaaggacga tgtctggga tcggagggc gacaagttc 
      ttggtcgtg gatgacaaa agggcgtgc taccgttgc 
      gtcgtgatt cacgaaaaa cacgcaaac gttctgcaa 
      tacaaagaa acgttctgc cacagtcga gattccctt 
      ccgacgctg tgcagccta ataacaggg gacgcgttg 
      ctcttttcc atgttcaga gagaatgca gcccctgtg 
      ccttgtccg ttccgaggg cccttcact ttcacctac 
      aaccggggc cacggcgag tgccgcact cccgtgtcc 
      agcatcgat acttgcacc gaagacagc aggcttttg 
      ctgagctac caggcgtgt cctgatgta tacggctcg 
      gaaagcacc gtggaagag ctccagtgc ctggcggta 
      tggaaagaa ggtagttcg aggtattta gtaggcaaa 
      gtgcaccac aaccatgcg acgtccaac gaggaccgt 
      ttcagatgc tttgtgtat gaaaaggca tcaccggcg 
      tcggaagct ttggatggt gtcgattat agagtcgca 
      caaagcgga gacgcgacc tgtaatgga ctcttcagt 
      gccaccgag ggaagcagg actatgatt cttaaaaga 
      gctccctcg ttgaataag tgccgtttc ccttcctgg 
      gtggtaaat tatatccac tggcacact ttggattac 
      tcggcaact tacaatttt catcatagg aactccacc 
      ctcaggata accaattca tccggactc gaaatgaaa 
      gtcgtctgt gcccagctg aaaccttcg tcgagggat 
      gaaaactcc gtcgtgctt ctgacacat ttcacaatg 
      ggatgccaa agcggattc acttgtatg tcgttctac 
      aagcgcgac aagcacgtc atggaggtc cagataggc 
      gcgcacacc aaacgacaa gaggaagcc tgcaatcct 
      gcttacttc aacaggacc aatttgcca tacgtcacg 
      ctagtcacg accagtccc gagacgcgg gcctgtccc 
      tacactggc aaattcgaa gttagcaac ttgatcaga 
      agcgagaat tcccatcaa ccggactct cgttattac 
      gacaacaac tattacgtt aacaagttc cccaggtcg 
      gtccgcgga gactccgac catatgaag cgaatcaag 
      aggctggac caaaatctg gactgtgac agcaacggc 
      ttcaccagt ctcgttatc ggctgcaat tccatcgat 
      acgatggaa tttcgagca cagtgctct tcaccagac 
      atcatcacc tcttactcg tgccacgga ggatggaag 
      gagaacggc accaactac ttgataacg actccgctg 
      agtcgggca tcgcacggc tctcggcga tactgcttc 
      atctacaag gagtccact cctgatttg gtgctcttt 
      tcgacatct gccgataac tgtgatcgc atcgtcaga 
      ccgggaatc accggagag ctggttttt aacgtcacg 
      agtaccggc aagtgcgtc gaaaccagc aaatcagag 
      cgaactaaa gcactccta ctactcacc ctcttctct 
      tatattcta aaatttgcc atcacagcg cttattcag 
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC034367 RA
      cccgtccga agagaaggg agaagcggc tgctctctc 
      agccggacc agataagtt atttcgttc ccgggcctc 
      aaaggctaa cacactcgc cgcgccgtc aaatgctcg 
      actttccag cgtttttgc aataatatc gcgggtgat 
      cggtgccgg aactgtgaa agctcgctc gagcgcttt 
      gtcctggac ttcgagcct gggtctcga cgcagaggc 
      ccatgctag cgcggtcaa tgtgattgt tttgcacga 
      tgacttagt tccgagctt tatgggagt aataaataa 
      tctataggt acaaagtgc tacaatgta acccgcagc 
      aataaagct tcactatgg atgttcgat ggttcgtct 
      tcttcactc acttcgcta tcgtcctgc cttgttttt 
      tccacctca ctgctactt tcaaacaac aagggggct 
      gctatttcc cggagcgat gggagggga cgtggttcc 
      agtcggggg tccgtcagc ccatcatca tagaagggc 
      cacgactca gcagtaaag gacgatgtc tgggatcgg 
      agggcgaca agttcttgg tcgtggatg acaaaaggg 
      cgtgctacc gttgcgtcg tgattcacg aaaaacacg 
      caaacgttc tgcaataca aagaaacgt tctgccaca 
      gtcgagatt cccttccga cgctgtgca gcctaataa 
      caggggacg cgttgctct tttccatgt tcagagaga 
      atgcagccc ctgtgcctt gtccgttcc gagggccct 
      tcactttca cctacaacc ggggccacg gcgagtgcc 
      gcactcccg tgtccagca tcgatactt gcaccgaag 
      acagcaggc ttttgctga gctaccagg cgtgtcctg 
      atgtatacg gctcggaaa gcaccgtgg aagagctcc 
      agtgcctgg cggtatgga aagaaggta gttcgaggt 
      atttagtag gcaaagtgc accacaacc atgcgacgt 
      ccaacgagg accgtttca gatgctttg tgtatgaaa 
      aggcatcac cggcgtcgg aagctttgg atggtgtcg 
      attatagag tcgcacaaa gcggagacg cgacctgta 
      atggactct tcagtgcca ccgagggaa gcaggacta 
      tgattctta aaagagctc cctcgttga ataagtgcc 
      gtttccctt cctgggtgg taaattata tccactggc 
      acactttgg attactcgg caacttaca attttcatc 
      ataggaact ccaccctca ggataacca attcatccg 
      gactcgaaa tgaaagtcg tctgtgccc agctgaaac 
      cttcgtcga gggatgaaa actccgtcg tgcttctga 
      cacatttca caatgggat gccaaagcg gattcactt 
      gtatgtcgt tctacaagc gcgacaagc acgtcatgg 
      aggtccaga taggcgcgc acaccaaac gacaagagg 
      aagcctgca atcctgctt acttcaaca ggaccaatt 
      tgccatacg tcacgctag tcacgacca gtcccgaga 
      cgcgggcct gtccctaca ctggcaaat tcgaagtta 
      gcaacttga tcagaagcg agaattccc atcaaccgg 
      actctcgtt attacgaca acaactatt acgttaaca 
      agttcccca ggtcggtcc gcggagact ccgaccata 
      tgaagcgaa tcaagaggc tggaccaaa atctggact 
      gtgacagca acggcttca ccagtctcg ttatcggct 
      gcaattcca tcgatacga tggaatttc gagcacagt 
      gctcttcac cagacatca tcacctctt actcgtgcc 
      acggaggat ggaaggaga acggcacca actacttga 
      taacgactc cgctgagtc gggcatcgc acggctctc 
      ggcgatact gcttcatct acaaggagt ccactcctg 
      atttggtgc tcttttcga catctgccg ataactgtg 
      atcgcatcg tcagaccgg gaatcaccg gagagctgg 
      tttttaacg tcacgagta ccggcaagt gcgtcgaaa 
      ccagcaaat cagagcgaa ctaaagcac tcctactac 
      tcaccctct tctcttata ttctaaaat ttgccatca 
      cagcgctta ttcagagat gatctacat attcgtaag 
      ttaggaaat tttcaaatg atgagactg gaattatta 
      ggtcctcgc cggtccgat ttttgttgt gaaacggaa 
      tatcttggt tgtgttttg ttgttaaat atgtaataa 
      gtagaagtg attaaagtt caaattgta cagctgcac 
      ccatcctca attattatt ttttgacaa ccttcagtc 
      ggatgggtt tagtgccgc ttacggagg actgaaata 
      acagtgggt agcaaaact actgaattt cattaaaac 
      tgttctgtt ttgacaaaa attctgaaa tggtctttt 
      ttctttttg aaaagtact ataggtaca tactttttt 
      ctgaggagc tacatcaac gacattttt ttaaagaaa 
      cttttaatt tgtttagcc attgggaca tatctttta 
      ttttattat taaatgtgt gccacatac actattttt 
      tctaggacc ccaccgatt ataataaag tcttttttt 
      tcaaaaact aagattttt ttaaaatag tactacatt 
      ttgtctgtg acaagcgtg cacaaaatg tatctagaa 
      cggtgcaat cttagacac aatttatac aaaacatct 
      taaaaatac aaaagttac atctcacac attacacgt 
      tatgatttt caatcacct actactgat ttttaccga 
      attttcatc gtttctctt ccatttatt tcacaataa 
      attttaatg acatctgtc aaagttaaa atcctaaaa 
      gttaaaatt gacgttaaa gatgttgcg atgaaaaaa 
      tttaaattg gttttactt tggcattaa gttcaaatt 
      ttgtcacca taatgatag aaaaaaatt tgtagacca 
      ctcgttgtt aatggagaa ttaataatc tctgttaaa 
      tccaattac tcgcatcgc tcgttcgta ctttaaaca 
      tcaacaaat tagcctatt aaattactt aatcaaatt 
      agtttttgt caaaacaaa atatttcat ttttaatgc 
      atttattgc ataattttg tcactcact gtataagga 
      gatgttaca gaactaaat attagaagg tgaaacgaa 
      ataataact cgatttact gtactcaaa aatttagtg 
      cagtagctc caaattgtt tacaatgaa tttagactc 
      tgatagaca ggaacgtga atcacattc ttaagataa 
      aaaatgtcg actgactaa aactttcgc atgaga

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY