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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007421.3: 2481372..2489365
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_05759

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 30.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of embryonic musculature and early development
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50 larval musculature dorsal irregular - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%

    Comment: Abdomens seem to be the most sensitive.
    larval musculature pattern irregular - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%

    Comment: Only one larva shows true muscle phenotype. Other cases seem to be obscured by segmentation defects.
    affected eggs/embryos/larvae - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%
    remarks: muscle pattern potentially obscured by segmentation defect,
    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50
    legs slightly shape irregular - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%

    abdomen dorsal not closed - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%

    affected eggs/embryos/larvae total percentage of affected eggs/embryos/larvae on slide - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: -1.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: -1.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC033376 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC033376 RA
      atggcctta aagaaggtt aaagggaac attgaacgc 
      atgttcgac aagaatttg accgatttg gtccgcggg 
      atccgcaat aataaggag aatgaggcg aagtacatc 
      tcgcaatgc atggaggat atcaagcag gagctgcga 
      caggataat ctctcagtt aagagtaac gcaatcgcg 
      aaattgact tatttgcaa atgctgggg tacgatatt 
      tcgtgggcc ggctttaac ataatcgaa gtgatgagt 
      tcgagtaaa tttacgctg aaacggatc ggttatctc 
      gcggctagt caatcgttt cattgtgat tcagagttg 
      ctcatgttg accactaat atgattagg aaggagtta 
      aactcgcaa aatcagtac gaatcgggg ctggccttg 
      acgtccctc agctgttac atcagcact gacttggcc 
      agagacctt tcaaacgat attttaact cttttaagt 
      tccactaaa ccctacatt cggaaaaaa gccgttcta 
      atgatgtat aaagtgttc ctcaaatat cccgaagcc 
      ctacgtcct gcctttcct aaactaaaa gaaaagtta 
      gaggacccc gatccgggg gttcagtcg gctgcagtc 
      aatgttgtg tgtgaactg gcacgaaaa aaccccaaa 
      aattatcta agtctggcc ccagttttt ttcaaatta 
      atgaccaca agcaccaat aattggatg ctaattaaa 
      ataatcaaa ctgttcggt gctttaacg cctcttgaa 
      cctaggcta ggtcaaaag ttgattgag cctttgact 
      aatctcata cacagcact tcggcaatg agtctctta 
      tatgagtgt ataaatacg gttatagca gttttgata 
      acaatatcg tcaggaatg cccaatcac gccgctagc 
      atacaactc tgtgtccaa aaactgcgg attttgatt 
      gaagattcc gaccagaat ttgaaatat ttgggcctt 
      ttggcgatg tcaaaaatc ctcaaaacg cacccaaaa 
      agcgtccaa gcccacaaa gacctaata ttgcaatgt 
      ctagaggac aaagacgag tccatccga ctccgcgcc 
      ttagacttg ctatacggc atggtctcg aaaaaaaat 
      ctaatggaa atcgtcaaa aaactaatg gtccatatg 
      gacaaagcc gaaggcacc atctaccga gacgaactt 
      ttaaacaaa ataattcta atttgctcg caaaacaac 
      taccaattc gtcacgaat ttcgaatgg tatgttact 
      gttttggtc gagttggcg cagatggag ttcgggtcg 
      aagcaaggg cacgtgatt ggggcgcaa ttaatggac 
      gtttgtatc cgagttcaa gcgattcgt ccgttcgcc 
      gtctccgaa atggcgcaa cttttggac gtttactcg 
      tcaacttcg caatttacg ataatgcaa gaggtgttg 
      tatgcggcg gcttggctg tgtggggag tttgcctcc 
      gagttgaaa gagccagag aagacgctt cgagcaatg 
      ttgaagtat aaaagtttg cctcagcac attgaggct 
      gtttttata cacaatata atcaagttg tttgctcat 
      gtaatgcga gggtatgag gaggagggg caatatggg 
      gagattttg gggctgtgt gatgagatt tgtgtaaag 
      ttgggggag agtttgaag tcaggggag ttggaggtg 
      caggagagg tcaagtacg tcgcttatt atcgtgcag 
      attgtgaag gaggagatt gagaaggtt atggggggg 
      acgggagaa ggggagaat tcagtgtcg ggggattta 
      ctcgctctg tttacgggg gagttgaat ccggtggcc 
      cccaaagcc cagaagaag gtcccaata ccagaaggg 
      ttagatttg gacgcttgg atcaacgaa ccgcccgaa 
      gattcggac tcgtcaagc gatcacgag gtcttcgac 
      aaccttttc atcaaaacg gaaaaatca gactatggc 
      aattcggtt cggtaccaa ccggaaccg accgaagaa 
      gaaatccgc aaaagtcgc gaagcccga aaatacgaa 
      caacaaaac aatccgcac tatctcaaa acatcagac 
      gttgataaa aatgcaaac gatagcaac attgataac 
      atcccagtt gctgaaatt gatttgaac attccgttg 
      aaagtcgtg ggccaaaaa cgttccgac aaatatttg 
      aacatgaac gcgagccgg aagaagacg aaaaagaag 
      aacaaaaag aagaaacac aagaacgaa agttcctca 
      gacgaggaa aatgcgaat gaaggtcca gtagttgaa 
      gttaaaagg gacttggag ttgcccgaa ggggcgact 
      ttgtcggac tccgacagc agtcacggg cacgttgat 
      gacccccat agggccctc aatatcgat ctagaactg 
      cccccagtt tacgaaact ccagtcaag gcggtcgag 
      gcgaaagag gaggaaaag aaagtgaaa aaatcgaaa 
      aagaacaag ggcgagaag gaggagaag gagaagaag 
      aagaagcac catgacaag ggcgcgaag aaagcgaag 
      aaggagaag aaggagaaa gagggcaag tcgaagaag 
      aagaagccg acgtctggc tacgaggaa gcgctaggt 
      atttcaaca cccagcaag gaattccaa tga
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC033376 RA
      cagttattc agttgcatt tagctagaa tagacgttc 
      gcaatgttc gatagaaag ttagttttt gctctcgtt 
      ttcgtcgtt tttgccact ttagcggtc gaaggcagg 
      tatctacca acgaggtcc aacggggac aggatcgaa 
      aaactccgc gagttgctc aaagacttg ttcgaaaat 
      gaggtcgag aaagaagag taccaggcc gacgcgccc 
      ccgcggtgg caccccgaa agcaagctc ttctacaaa 
      cgcgaggcc cccgcacac tagaccacc cccacaacg 
      acaaggcaa cggacacgg aacacgatt tttaaacat 
      tcaatgtca taggtagac acattttaa actttattt 
      tattaccga caagaacaa ttatttttg taaataagt 
      ggccccctg attgacaat aacgccacg acccttgat 
      aagcaatta tgtagtttt agggaattg tgtcaatta 
      cttgacaat attatcatt ttagaattg attgagaga 
      ccgtcccga gggaggttg tcggtaata aagctcttt 
      attgcaatt tgtgaagca atattttga cgaaacttt 
      taataagtg tgtcatttg taatatcct aaggtgtct 
      tattaaagt gttacatgg aatatgtgc atgggaata 
      aaaatatat gaacatcca atcgctttt tattattta 
      caaactaat agttaagtt attgcgttg tctgctcct 
      cccacggcc ggggccccc tgacctgct cccaattat 
      cgatatcaa tcttcttga tcttctcgt actccgact 
      cgagcgtga cttcgcccg gtttcttca tttcaatcc 
      ccaatttct tcatttctt cgggcttaa cactggaga 
      ctcgtgaaa actgatacc tcaactgtg caaattcac 
      ggagcccga acgaacccc ccaaaacca caagaagaa 
      acggcaaac catatttca ccgaacgtt tattcaaaa 
      actcgttta ttttcgccc ccacgttat gcaacattt 
      tttgaggtt atgtcacca catttggta aaaaacagt 
      tttgggggt aacaaccgg tcggtgaac ctcccccag 
      ggataaaat caccagttt tgatcaatt atacgactc 
      gtcaagggc taggaacgc gtttattgt gtgttattt 
      tgacgagcc gccactgtc atctgtcat taacttgtc 
      agttgtcaa cgtggctac gaaaagtaa aaaactggg 
      gcgaacgct cgagcgccc ctttaaaac atcctgtga 
      tatgaaaga actgaaatt cgggcgatt ctgtgcgga 
      actattgcc ccaattcga acaaactgg tcgggtggc 
      tgtgtcgcc ccctgattt gatttagtc agtttttta 
      cgcaaaatg gccttaaag aaggttaaa gggaacatt 
      gaacgcatg ttcgacaag aatttgacc gatttggtc 
      cgcgggatc cgcaataat aaggagaat gaggcgaag 
      tacatctcg caatgcatg gaggatatc aagcaggag 
      ctgcgacag gataatctc tcagttaag agtaacgca 
      atcgcgaaa ttgacttat ttgcaaatg ctggggtac 
      gatatttcg tgggccggc tttaacata atcgaagtg 
      atgagttcg agtaaattt acgctgaaa cggatcggt 
      tatctcgcg gctagtcaa tcgtttcat tgtgattca 
      gagttgctc atgttgacc actaatatg attaggaag 
      gagttaaac tcgcaaaat cagtacgaa tcggggctg 
      gccttgacg tccctcagc tgttacatc agcactgac 
      ttggccaga gacctttca aacgatatt ttaactctt 
      ttaagttcc actaaaccc tacattcgg aaaaaagcc 
      gttctaatg atgtataaa gtgttcctc aaatatccc 
      gaagcccta cgtcctgcc tttcctaaa ctaaaagaa 
      aagttagag gaccccgat ccgggggtt cagtcggct 
      gcagtcaat gttgtgtgt gaactggca cgaaaaaac 
      cccaaaaat tatctaagt ctggcccca gtttttttc 
      aaattaatg accacaagc accaataat tggatgcta 
      attaaaata atcaaactg ttcggtgct ttaacgcct 
      cttgaacct aggctaggt caaaagttg attgagcct 
      ttgactaat ctcatacac agcacttcg gcaatgagt 
      ctcttatat gagtgtata aatacggtt atagcagtt 
      ttgataaca atatcgtca ggaatgccc aatcacgcc 
      gctagcata caactctgt gtccaaaaa ctgcggatt 
      ttgattgaa gattccgac cagaatttg aaatatttg 
      ggccttttg gcgatgtca aaaatcctc aaaacgcac 
      ccaaaaagc gtccaagcc cacaaagac ctaatattg 
      caatgtcta gaggacaaa gacgagtcc atccgactc 
      cgcgcctta gacttgcta tacggcatg gtctcgaaa 
      aaaaatcta atggaaatc gtcaaaaaa ctaatggtc 
      catatggac aaagccgaa ggcaccatc taccgagac 
      gaactttta aacaaaata attctaatt tgctcgcaa 
      aacaactac caattcgtc acgaatttc gaatggtat 
      gttactgtt ttggtcgag ttggcgcag atggagttc 
      gggtcgaag caagggcac gtgattggg gcgcaatta 
      atggacgtt tgtatccga gttcaagcg attcgtccg 
      ttcgccgtc tccgaaatg gcgcaactt ttggacgtt 
      tactcgtca acttcgcaa tttacgata atgcaagag 
      gtgttgtat gcggcggct tggctgtgt ggggagttt 
      gcctccgag ttgaaagag ccagagaag acgcttcga 
      gcaatgttg aagtataaa agtttgcct cagcacatt 
      gaggctgtt tttatacac aatataatc aagttgttt 
      gctcatgta atgcgaggg tatgaggag gaggggcaa 
      tatggggag attttgggg ctgtgtgat gagatttgt 
      gtaaagttg ggggagagt ttgaagtca ggggagttg 
      gaggtgcag gagaggtca agtacgtcg cttattatc 
      gtgcagatt gtgaaggag gagattgag aaggttatg 
      ggggggacg ggagaaggg gagaattca gtgtcgggg 
      gatttactc gctctgttt acgggggag ttgaatccg 
      gtggccccc aaagcccag aagaaggtc ccaatacca 
      gaagggtta gatttggac gcttggatc aacgaaccg 
      cccgaagat tcggactcg tcaagcgat cacgaggtc 
      ttcgacaac cttttcatc aaaacggaa aaatcagac 
      tatggcaat tcggttcgg taccaaccg gaaccgacc 
      gaagaagaa atccgcaaa agtcgcgaa gcccgaaaa 
      tacgaacaa caaaacaat ccgcactat ctcaaaaca 
      tcagacgtt gataaaaat gcaaacgat agcaacatt 
      gataacatc ccagttgct gaaattgat ttgaacatt 
      ccgttgaaa gtcgtgggc caaaaacgt tccgacaaa 
      tatttgaac atgaacgcg agccggaag aagacgaaa 
      aagaagaac aaaaagaag aaacacaag aacgaaagt 
      tcctcagac gaggaaaat gcgaatgaa ggtccagta 
      gttgaagtt aaaagggac ttggagttg cccgaaggg 
      gcgactttg tcggactcc gacagcagt cacgggcac 
      gttgatgac ccccatagg gccctcaat atcgatcta 
      gaactgccc ccagtttac gaaactcca gtcaaggcg 
      gtcgaggcg aaagaggag gaaaagaaa gtgaaaaaa 
      tcgaaaaag aacaagggc gagaaggag gagaaggag 
      aagaagaag aagcaccat gacaagggc gcgaagaaa 
      gcgaagaag gagaagaag gagaaagag ggcaagtcg 
      aagaagaag aagccgacg tctggctac gaggaagcg 
      ctaggtatt tcaacaccc agcaaggaa ttccaatga 
      ttttctctt tatgtgcgc ctacaaatc attttataa 
      tcattcaaa ttaatcatg ttattgtat tattgttta 
      ttaaagaag cgataaaga t

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY