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Gene information
General information
TC014393 Gene

The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007420.3: 10014435..10017211
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (2) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB http://www.orthodb.org/. The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    TC014393
    iBeetle screen iB_05622

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    inside-out
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 0.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    Analysis of embryonic musculature and early development
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50 embryo/egg not developed/not fertilized - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%
    embryo/egg with embryonic tissue potentially present, no cuticle, no fluorescence - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%

    embryo/egg with embryonic tissue, no cuticle, no fluorescence - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%

    larval musculature pattern irregular - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%

    affected eggs/embryos/larvae total percentage of affected eggs/embryos/larvae on slide - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%
    remarks: muscle pattern potentially obscured by segmentation defect,
    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50
    egg without cuticle embryo/egg without visible larval cuticle in cuticle preparation - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%
    cuticle remnants without visible segmentation, differentiation or axis - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%

    bristle partially remaining - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%
    head not present - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%

    thorax not present - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%
    abdomen partially not present - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%

    abdomen not present - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%
    affected eggs/embryos/larvae total percentage of affected eggs/embryos/larvae on slide - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): more than 80%
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: -1.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: -1.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Primers
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC014393 RA
      MEGGPNIQE ADDTINSST AEEGGNSGC YYSCCDPRG 
      RLHRFIALI FMCFLGFGS YFCYDNPAA LEGHIEKTL 
      NITTTQYSL LYSMYSWPN VVLCFVGGF LIDRVFGIR 
      LGTNIYSGL TLLGQIIFA SGALFDVFW IMIMGRFIF 
      GIGAESLAV AQNNYAVLW FKGKELNMV FGLQLSFAR 
      IGSTVNFLV MESIYQWVN KEYKGTELL GIVLFVATS 
      TCLFSMLCA LVLGFMDKR AENLLRRHE TTNPEVVRF 
      TDVIEFKFT FWLIAVICV SYYVAIFPF IALGEDLFI 
      KKFHMSKQE ANTINSLIY LISGVASPL VGLFIDKVG 
      KNILWIVVA ISVTIGSHT LWAFTDVNA YVGMVILGL 
      AYACLASSL WPLVSLIIP EYQLGTAYG VCQAIQNLG 
      LAVFTIVAG HIKDTYGYI WLEVFFICT LIVALVFTL 
      VLWLVDMYQ RGVLNMTPG NRVAHQERL SSAADAEKQ 
      RLLSSEASS SNDNDNLQP SSDFEIRNR YLSRIGAPV 
      SDNTEE
    • >TC014393 RB
      MEGGPNIQE ADDTINSST AEEGGNSGC YYSCCDPRG 
      RLHRFIALI FMCFLGFGS YFCYDNPAA LEGHIEKTL 
      NITTTQYSL LYSMYSWPN VVLCFVGGF LIDRVFGIR 
      LGTNIYSGL TLLGQIIFA SGALFDVFW IMIMGRFIF 
      GIGAESLAV AQNNYAVLW FKGKELNMV FGLQLSFAR 
      IGSTVNFLV MESIYQWVN KEYKGTELL GIVLFVATS 
      TCLFSMLCA LVLGFMDKR AENLLRRHE TTNPEVVRF 
      TDVIEFKFT FWLIAVICV SYYVAIFPF IALGEDLFI 
      KKFHMSKQE ANTINSLIY LISGVASPL VGLFIDKVG 
      KNILWIVVA ISVTIGSHT LWAFTDVNA YVGMVILGL 
      AYACLASSL WPLVSLIIP EYQLGTAYG VCQAIQNLG 
      LAVFTIVAG HIKDTYGYI WLEVFFICT LIVALVFTL 
      VLWLVDMYQ RGVLNMTPG NRVAHQERL SSAADAEKQ 
      RLLSSEASS SNDNDNLQP SSDFEIRNR YLSRIGAPL 
      PDHYSIQNK GLSYRALR
    CDS sequence
    • >TC014393 RA
      atggagggt ggacccaac atacaagaa gcagacgac 
      acaataaat tcctccact gctgaggaa ggaggaaat 
      tcgggatgt tactacagc tgctgtgac cccaggggc 
      aggctgcac cgctttata gccctaatt ttcatgtgc 
      ttcctcggt tttggttcc tatttctgt tacgacaac 
      cctgcagct ttagaaggc cacatcgaa aaaacctta 
      aatataacc acaactcaa tattcccta ctttactcg 
      atgtactct tggccaaac gttgtgcta tgtttcgtt 
      ggaggcttt ctaattgac cgagttttc ggaattcgt 
      ctcggcacc aatatttat tcgggcctc acgttgttg 
      gggcaaatt attttcgcc agcggggcg ctgtttgac 
      gttttttgg ataatgatc atgggcaga tttattttt 
      ggcataggg gctgagtcg ctagcagtc gcacaaaat 
      aattacgcc gtgttgtgg ttcaaaggc aaagaactt 
      aacatggtt tttgggctg cagttgagt tttgcgcgg 
      attggtagc actgtgaat tttctcgtg atggaatcg 
      atttaccag tgggttaat aaggagtac aaagggacg 
      gaattgcta ggaattgtt ttatttgtg gccacttcg 
      acctgtctg ttctccatg ctttgtgcc ctagttttg 
      ggttttatg gacaagcgg gcggaaaat ctgttaaga 
      cgacacgaa accacaaac cctgaagtt gttcgattt 
      accgacgtt attgagttt aaattcacc ttttggctt 
      attgccgtg atctgtgtt tcttattac gtcgctata 
      tttcccttt atcgccctt ggagaagac ctatttatt 
      aaaaaattc cacatgtcg aaacaagag gcgaacacg 
      attaatagt ctcatttac ttgatatca ggagtggct 
      tcgcccctc gtgggcctt tttatcgac aaagttggc 
      aaaaatatt ttatggatc gttgtggca atttcagtg 
      acgataggg tcacacacc ttgtgggcc tttaccgac 
      gtcaacgcc tacgttgga atggttatc ttggggctt 
      gcatacgca tgcttggcc agtagttta tggcctttg 
      gtctctttg ataattccc gagtatcag ttaggaaca 
      gcttacgga gtttgtcaa gctattcaa aatcttggc 
      ctggccgtg tttacaata gtggctggg cacatcaaa 
      gacacctac ggctacatc tggcttgaa gtgttcttc 
      atttgcaca ctaatagtc gccttagtg ttcactctt 
      gttttatgg ttggttgac atgtaccaa agaggtgtc 
      ctgaacatg actcccgga aatcgggta gcgcatcaa 
      gagaggcta tcaagcgcc gcagacgcg gagaaacaa 
      agactctta tcgtctgaa gcgagttca agtaacgac 
      aatgataat ttacaaccg agttcagat tttgaaatt 
      aggaaccga tatttgtcg aggatcggg gcaccagta 
      agtgacaac acggaagaa tga
    • >TC014393 RB
      atggagggt ggacccaac atacaagaa gcagacgac 
      acaataaat tcctccact gctgaggaa ggaggaaat 
      tcgggatgt tactacagc tgctgtgac cccaggggc 
      aggctgcac cgctttata gccctaatt ttcatgtgc 
      ttcctcggt tttggttcc tatttctgt tacgacaac 
      cctgcagct ttagaaggc cacatcgaa aaaacctta 
      aatataacc acaactcaa tattcccta ctttactcg 
      atgtactct tggccaaac gttgtgcta tgtttcgtt 
      ggaggcttt ctaattgac cgagttttc ggaattcgt 
      ctcggcacc aatatttat tcgggcctc acgttgttg 
      gggcaaatt attttcgcc agcggggcg ctgtttgac 
      gttttttgg ataatgatc atgggcaga tttattttt 
      ggcataggg gctgagtcg ctagcagtc gcacaaaat 
      aattacgcc gtgttgtgg ttcaaaggc aaagaactt 
      aacatggtt tttgggctg cagttgagt tttgcgcgg 
      attggtagc actgtgaat tttctcgtg atggaatcg 
      atttaccag tgggttaat aaggagtac aaagggacg 
      gaattgcta ggaattgtt ttatttgtg gccacttcg 
      acctgtctg ttctccatg ctttgtgcc ctagttttg 
      ggttttatg gacaagcgg gcggaaaat ctgttaaga 
      cgacacgaa accacaaac cctgaagtt gttcgattt 
      accgacgtt attgagttt aaattcacc ttttggctt 
      attgccgtg atctgtgtt tcttattac gtcgctata 
      tttcccttt atcgccctt ggagaagac ctatttatt 
      aaaaaattc cacatgtcg aaacaagag gcgaacacg 
      attaatagt ctcatttac ttgatatca ggagtggct 
      tcgcccctc gtgggcctt tttatcgac aaagttggc 
      aaaaatatt ttatggatc gttgtggca atttcagtg 
      acgataggg tcacacacc ttgtgggcc tttaccgac 
      gtcaacgcc tacgttgga atggttatc ttggggctt 
      gcatacgca tgcttggcc agtagttta tggcctttg 
      gtctctttg ataattccc gagtatcag ttaggaaca 
      gcttacgga gtttgtcaa gctattcaa aatcttggc 
      ctggccgtg tttacaata gtggctggg cacatcaaa 
      gacacctac ggctacatc tggcttgaa gtgttcttc 
      atttgcaca ctaatagtc gccttagtg ttcactctt 
      gttttatgg ttggttgac atgtaccaa agaggtgtc 
      ctgaacatg actcccgga aatcgggta gcgcatcaa 
      gagaggcta tcaagcgcc gcagacgcg gagaaacaa 
      agactctta tcgtctgaa gcgagttca agtaacgac 
      aatgataat ttacaaccg agttcagat tttgaaatt 
      aggaaccga tatttgtcg aggatcggg gcaccatta 
      cctgatcac tattcaatt caaaacaaa ggactctct 
      tacagagcg ttgagataa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC014393 RA
      gtccaccaa ccaaacaac aaaaaagta tccaaacac 
      tcaaaatta tgtcaataa aaaggaata aataaataa 
      taaaaattg tgttatgcg ataatacca ttataatat 
      caccatatc tcgctatga ttatgattt gtgcgaaac 
      atttgagac aataaaccg cgacattat cactttcag 
      aaggtcgtc cgtgtctcc caagtgaaa cacaaaaga 
      ggttatttg gggggtgtc agcatgaat accagtgtt 
      ggattaaat taaattgga ctacgagta agtgtgttt 
      ctatttcat tgaacaacc ccacgaaaa tggagggtg 
      gacccaaca tacaagaag cagacgaca caataaatt 
      cctccactg ctgaggaag gaggaaatt cgggatgtt 
      actacagct gctgtgacc ccaggggca ggctgcacc 
      gctttatag ccctaattt tcatgtgct tcctcggtt 
      ttggttcct atttctgtt acgacaacc ctgcagctt 
      tagaaggcc acatcgaaa aaaccttaa atataacca 
      caactcaat attccctac tttactcga tgtactctt 
      ggccaaacg ttgtgctat gtttcgttg gaggctttc 
      taattgacc gagttttcg gaattcgtc tcggcacca 
      atatttatt cgggcctca cgttgttgg ggcaaatta 
      ttttcgcca gcggggcgc tgtttgacg ttttttgga 
      taatgatca tgggcagat ttatttttg gcatagggg 
      ctgagtcgc tagcagtcg cacaaaata attacgccg 
      tgttgtggt tcaaaggca aagaactta acatggttt 
      ttgggctgc agttgagtt ttgcgcgga ttggtagca 
      ctgtgaatt ttctcgtga tggaatcga tttaccagt 
      gggttaata aggagtaca aagggacgg aattgctag 
      gaattgttt tatttgtgg ccacttcga cctgtctgt 
      tctccatgc tttgtgccc tagttttgg gttttatgg 
      acaagcggg cggaaaatc tgttaagac gacacgaaa 
      ccacaaacc ctgaagttg ttcgattta ccgacgtta 
      ttgagttta aattcacct tttggctta ttgccgtga 
      tctgtgttt cttattacg tcgctatat ttcccttta 
      tcgcccttg gagaagacc tatttatta aaaaattcc 
      acatgtcga aacaagagg cgaacacga ttaatagtc 
      tcatttact tgatatcag gagtggctt cgcccctcg 
      tgggccttt ttatcgaca aagttggca aaaatattt 
      tatggatcg ttgtggcaa tttcagtga cgatagggt 
      cacacacct tgtgggcct ttaccgacg tcaacgcct 
      acgttggaa tggttatct tggggcttg catacgcat 
      gcttggcca gtagtttat ggcctttgg tctctttga 
      taattcccg agtatcagt taggaacag cttacggag 
      tttgtcaag ctattcaaa atcttggcc tggccgtgt 
      ttacaatag tggctgggc acatcaaag acacctacg 
      gctacatct ggcttgaag tgttcttca tttgcacac 
      taatagtcg ccttagtgt tcactcttg ttttatggt 
      tggttgaca tgtaccaaa gaggtgtcc tgaacatga 
      ctcccggaa atcgggtag cgcatcaag agaggctat 
      caagcgccg cagacgcgg agaaacaaa gactcttat 
      cgtctgaag cgagttcaa gtaacgaca atgataatt 
      tacaaccga gttcagatt ttgaaatta ggaaccgat 
      atttgtcga ggatcgggg caccagtaa gtgacaaca 
      cggaagaat gaaaaggat gagaatagt taaatattt 
      tttgtttca gttacctga tcactattc aattcaaaa 
      caaaggact ctcttacag agcgttgag ataagtctt 
      ttcaattat tatacgatt ttgtgatca aataaagtg 
      ataaaacac aagactaat attgaatac aaaaaatat 
      ttaacgatt ctgtaatga tcaaagcag aatttgaat 
      caaagtgta ttgtgatac atatcgtaa gatactaag 
      taaaaagtg taaaatatt aaaggttta gaacatttt 
      ctactctct gtttccaca gttgtgtac tctatagat 
      caatatatt tattgttag tacggaatt ttatagtgt 
      aattgtaat taataaaga catttgtct att
    • >TC014393 RB
      gtccaccaa ccaaacaac aaaaaagta tccaaacac 
      tcaaaatta tgtcaataa aaaggaata aataaataa 
      taaaaattg tgttatgcg ataatacca ttataatat 
      caccatatc tcgctatga ttatgattt gtgcgaaac 
      atttgagac aataaaccg cgacattat cactttcag 
      aaggtcgtc cgtgtctcc caagtgaaa cacaaaaga 
      ggttatttg gggggtgtc agcatgaat accagtgtt 
      ggattaaat taaattgga ctacgagta agtgtgttt 
      ctatttcat tgaacaacc ccacgaaaa tggagggtg 
      gacccaaca tacaagaag cagacgaca caataaatt 
      cctccactg ctgaggaag gaggaaatt cgggatgtt 
      actacagct gctgtgacc ccaggggca ggctgcacc 
      gctttatag ccctaattt tcatgtgct tcctcggtt 
      ttggttcct atttctgtt acgacaacc ctgcagctt 
      tagaaggcc acatcgaaa aaaccttaa atataacca 
      caactcaat attccctac tttactcga tgtactctt 
      ggccaaacg ttgtgctat gtttcgttg gaggctttc 
      taattgacc gagttttcg gaattcgtc tcggcacca 
      atatttatt cgggcctca cgttgttgg ggcaaatta 
      ttttcgcca gcggggcgc tgtttgacg ttttttgga 
      taatgatca tgggcagat ttatttttg gcatagggg 
      ctgagtcgc tagcagtcg cacaaaata attacgccg 
      tgttgtggt tcaaaggca aagaactta acatggttt 
      ttgggctgc agttgagtt ttgcgcgga ttggtagca 
      ctgtgaatt ttctcgtga tggaatcga tttaccagt 
      gggttaata aggagtaca aagggacgg aattgctag 
      gaattgttt tatttgtgg ccacttcga cctgtctgt 
      tctccatgc tttgtgccc tagttttgg gttttatgg 
      acaagcggg cggaaaatc tgttaagac gacacgaaa 
      ccacaaacc ctgaagttg ttcgattta ccgacgtta 
      ttgagttta aattcacct tttggctta ttgccgtga 
      tctgtgttt cttattacg tcgctatat ttcccttta 
      tcgcccttg gagaagacc tatttatta aaaaattcc 
      acatgtcga aacaagagg cgaacacga ttaatagtc 
      tcatttact tgatatcag gagtggctt cgcccctcg 
      tgggccttt ttatcgaca aagttggca aaaatattt 
      tatggatcg ttgtggcaa tttcagtga cgatagggt 
      cacacacct tgtgggcct ttaccgacg tcaacgcct 
      acgttggaa tggttatct tggggcttg catacgcat 
      gcttggcca gtagtttat ggcctttgg tctctttga 
      taattcccg agtatcagt taggaacag cttacggag 
      tttgtcaag ctattcaaa atcttggcc tggccgtgt 
      ttacaatag tggctgggc acatcaaag acacctacg 
      gctacatct ggcttgaag tgttcttca tttgcacac 
      taatagtcg ccttagtgt tcactcttg ttttatggt 
      tggttgaca tgtaccaaa gaggtgtcc tgaacatga 
      ctcccggaa atcgggtag cgcatcaag agaggctat 
      caagcgccg cagacgcgg agaaacaaa gactcttat 
      cgtctgaag cgagttcaa gtaacgaca atgataatt 
      tacaaccga gttcagatt ttgaaatta ggaaccgat 
      atttgtcga ggatcgggg caccattac ctgatcact 
      attcaattc aaaacaaag gactctctt acagagcgt 
      tgagataag tcttttcaa ttattatac gattttgtg 
      atcaaataa agtgataaa acacaagac taatattga 
      atacaaaaa atatttaac gattctgta atgatcaaa 
      gcagaattt gaatcaaag tgtattgtg atacatatc 
      gtaagatac taagtaaaa agtgtaaaa tattaaagg 
      tttagaaca ttttctact ctctgtttc cacagttgt 
      gtactctat agatcaata tatttattg ttagtacgg 
      aattttata gtgtaattg taattaata aagacattt 
      gtctatt
    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY