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Gene information
General information
TC013939 Gene

The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007420.3: 2615339..2622016
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
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    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
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    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
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    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_05526

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 100.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 7 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 100.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 100.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    larva lethality late (L7) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 6 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    larva lethality early (L5/6) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC013939 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC013939 RA
      atgatggag tttgcacaa ccgcccccc aacatggcc 
      atgcctcct ccgggcatg gggcagcag ggcatgaac 
      atgccacca cctagcatg ggcggacct ggagggtac 
      caacacaac aagcctccg tttcgcccc ttcatgaac 
      atgcaaagg ccgctacct gggcccctg ggcaacatg 
      accctcgaa gacttcgac gggaagcgg ctgaggaag 
      tcggtaatg aggaaaact gtagactac aattcttca 
      attataaag gaattacaa tcaagagtg tggcagagg 
      gattacagg gacaggaga gccttgcaa cctgatgtg 
      atgtattac ccagacatg atgcctcct ccgagttac 
      caagataac cccattaac tgtgtcacc actaggttt 
      gttaaaact gcaacaaat aagatgaga tgtcccatt 
      ttttgtatg gcatggacg ccagaagga cggagactt 
      gtcacaggc gccagctct ggggagttt acactctgg 
      aatggcctc accttcaat ttcgaaact atcttacaa 
      gctcatgac agccccgta agaacgatg gtctggagc 
      cacaacgat agttggatg gtgacaggc gaccatgcg 
      ggttatgtg aaatattgg cagtcaaat atgaacaat 
      gtgaagatg ttccaggcc cataaagaa gctcttaga 
      ggcataagc ttcagcccc tcggatacc aagtttgta 
      acgtgctca gacgatggt actctgcga atttgggac 
      tttttccga taccaagag gagcggatt ctgcgaggt 
      cacggggct gatgtaaag tgcgtgcac tggcacccc 
      caaaagggg cttatcgtt tccggtagc aaagacaat 
      cagcagccg attaagctc tgggacccc aaaaccgga 
      cagtcttta gctactttg catgcgcac aaatcgacc 
      gtcatggac ttgaagtgg aacgagaat ggcaattgg 
      ctgataacg gcctcacgt gaccacctt ttaaaactg 
      ttcgatttg aggaacctc aaccaggag gtgcagacc 
      ttccgtgga cacaagaag gaggcttcc agcgtcgcc 
      tggcacccc atccatgag gggttgttt tcgagtggt 
      gggtccgat gggtccatc atgttctgg cacgttgga 
      gctgataag gaagtcggg gctatagaa caagcccat 
      gatagtata gtctggacg ctagcgtgg cacccattg 
      ggtcatatc ctatgttcg ggatcaaat gaccacacc 
      agtaaattc tggaccagg aaccgaccc ggagaccaa 
      atgagggat aaatacaac ttgaacact cttccggcc 
      ggtattgca ggtcttgaa gatttggat atgggtgaa 
      gaaccgtca attattccg ggaatgggt cctgacgat 
      aaggtcgag ttaacttcg ctttcgtcc gatggtaac 
      actgccatt cctggacta gatctcgac ttgttaact 
      acgacgaat gaagagaaa accaaaatt aaaaaagtg 
      ccgtttagt aaaccaatt cctaggaat ttccaagcg 
      caatggaac gaaacttat gaagacgca gccgggacg 
      ataaacgaa gtgattagt caaattgtc gaaaatacg 
      ccaggtgtt gttcccctg cagaaaatt gccccaagt 
      gcgattatt atttacgga aaacttatc ccagttgaa 
      cccggatcg aaactggag caagtgata gccgaaggc 
      cccgaagcc cttcaaaag tacatcgat tcgggtgag 
      atcgaggag ctgcacgac gtgatgccg atcggcgac 
      gacgaggac tacctcaac gactacgat agcaacacc 
      gactcgcct ggaggtact acaacaaac attcccagc 
      ctcatgcaa acaccagca gctccacca atcacccaa 
      gacacaaac ctaacccgc gctcttgat tcagacatg 
      cgtagtgtg gaccaagac atgagatcg ttctcttca 
      tatggccgt gataacgac atgcgcgat cccgattac 
      agaagtgtg gtcaaccgg gagctgaat ttccagcca 
      ccgccacgt gactatgac ataggggat gaggattac 
      cgacaacca tttcggaac gacccggat ttcagacac 
      tatgacgac gaggagggc tatgatgag tattatgat 
      gaggcgagg aactggcca cgcagtaac gggaattac 
      ggccagttt gggggaagg aaccagaac ttcgggggg 
      aatcacccg aacttccgc gggcagttt gagggctgg 
      agcgggcat agtgatttc agggggcgg ggggcgaag 
      cgcggcgcg agggggcag cgcaatccg aggagcagg 
      ccaaggggt ggttcgaga ggaaactca aggggtggg 
      gctccgaac aggggacag tcgtcgtcc agagggcgc 
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC013939 RA
      ctgcgcatg cgtgttgca gtgacgaaa attttgcag 
      tttcagaac cagaaatcg gtggttttt tatgttttc 
      tactagaaa ttgttacgt attttcttg ttattttct 
      caaccccga cacttccga gtccatatc actctacaa 
      atacaggcc aagatgctc tgcttcgtg acgttttca 
      agtttattc cacttgaaa tgaatgagc tgtgatcaa 
      caatgatgg agtttgcac aaccgcccc ccaacatgg 
      ccatgcctc ctccgggca tggggcagc agggcatga 
      acatgccac cacctagca tgggcggac ctggagggt 
      accaacaca acaagcctc cgtttcgcc ccttcatga 
      acatgcaaa ggccgctac ctgggcccc tgggcaaca 
      tgaccctcg aagacttcg acgggaagc ggctgagga 
      agtcggtaa tgaggaaaa ctgtagact acaattctt 
      caattataa aggaattac aatcaagag tgtggcaga 
      gggattaca gggacagga gagccttgc aacctgatg 
      tgatgtatt acccagaca tgatgcctc ctccgagtt 
      accaagata accccatta actgtgtca ccactaggt 
      ttgttaaaa ctgcaacaa ataagatga gatgtccca 
      ttttttgta tggcatgga cgccagaag gacggagac 
      ttgtcacag gcgccagct ctggggagt ttacactct 
      ggaatggcc tcaccttca atttcgaaa ctatcttac 
      aagctcatg acagccccg taagaacga tggtctgga 
      gccacaacg atagttgga tggtgacag gcgaccatg 
      cgggttatg tgaaatatt ggcagtcaa atatgaaca 
      atgtgaaga tgttccagg cccataaag aagctctta 
      gaggcataa gcttcagcc cctcggata ccaagtttg 
      taacgtgct cagacgatg gtactctgc gaatttggg 
      actttttcc gataccaag aggagcgga ttctgcgag 
      gtcacgggg ctgatgtaa agtgcgtgc actggcacc 
      cccaaaagg ggcttatcg tttccggta gcaaagaca 
      atcagcagc cgattaagc tctgggacc ccaaaaccg 
      gacagtctt tagctactt tgcatgcgc acaaatcga 
      ccgtcatgg acttgaagt ggaacgaga atggcaatt 
      ggctgataa cggcctcac gtgaccacc ttttaaaac 
      tgttcgatt tgaggaacc tcaaccagg aggtgcaga 
      ccttccgtg gacacaaga aggaggctt ccagcgtcg 
      cctggcacc ccatccatg aggggttgt tttcgagtg 
      gtgggtccg atgggtcca tcatgttct ggcacgttg 
      gagctgata aggaagtcg gggctatag aacaagccc 
      atgatagta tagtctgga cgctagcgt ggcacccat 
      tgggtcata tcctatgtt cgggatcaa atgaccaca 
      ccagtaaat tctggacca ggaaccgac ccggagacc 
      aaatgaggg ataaataca acttgaaca ctcttccgg 
      ccggtattg caggtcttg aagatttgg atatgggtg 
      aagaaccgt caattattc cgggaatgg gtcctgacg 
      ataaggtcg agttaactt cgctttcgt ccgatggta 
      acactgcca ttcctggac tagatctcg acttgttaa 
      ctacgacga atgaagaga aaaccaaaa ttaaaaaag 
      tgccgttta gtaaaccaa ttcctagga atttccaag 
      cgcaatgga acgaaactt atgaagacg cagccggga 
      cgataaacg aagtgatta gtcaaattg tcgaaaata 
      cgccaggtg ttgttcccc tgcagaaaa ttgccccaa 
      gtgcgatta ttatttacg gaaaactta tcccagttg 
      aacccggat cgaaactgg agcaagtga tagccgaag 
      gccccgaag cccttcaaa agtacatcg attcgggtg 
      agatcgagg agctgcacg acgtgatgc cgatcggcg 
      acgacgagg actacctca acgactacg atagcaaca 
      ccgactcgc ctggaggta ctacaacaa acattccca 
      gcctcatgc aaacaccag cagctccac caatcaccc 
      aagacacaa acctaaccc gcgctcttg attcagaca 
      tgcgtagtg tggaccaag acatgagat cgttctctt 
      catatggcc gtgataacg acatgcgcg atcccgatt 
      acagaagtg tggtcaacc gggagctga atttccagc 
      caccgccac gtgactatg acatagggg atgaggatt 
      accgacaac catttcgga acgacccgg atttcagac 
      actatgacg acgaggagg gctatgatg agtattatg 
      atgaggcga ggaactggc cacgcagta acgggaatt 
      acggccagt ttgggggaa ggaaccaga acttcgggg 
      ggaatcacc cgaacttcc gcgggcagt ttgagggct 
      ggagcgggc atagtgatt tcagggggc ggggggcga 
      agcgcggcg cgagggggc agcgcaatc cgaggagca 
      ggccaaggg gtggttcga gaggaaact caaggggtg 
      gggctccga acaggggac agtcgtcgt ccagagggc 
      gcttttaaa cgtagtcat attgattac gagtgcgtg 
      ttagttatt acataccgt ttatttttt ctggaaaaa 
      ctaagacgc tattgcctc tgtggttta ttttcagag 
      atttcttgg ttattttac agtaaaata taacagtat 
      caaagttac accatacat tgtcaagaa caagatatt 
      gtcttcttt ttcagaaat aaacattac gttgattg

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY