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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007416.3: 3521310..3527162
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
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    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_05457

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 10.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    pupa eclosion not fulfilled (died as pupa) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 50.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 50.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    larva lethality early (L5/6) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 5 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC031509 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC031509 RA
      atgttcgga agcaagctc cgatcatgg atggaagca 
      gtgagacct cgcaaaaaa caacaccga aaagagaaa 
      caaactaaa gcgaatttg aatcctaac acagttacc 
      gccaactgg cagaacgga accagttgc gggtcttcc 
      caagatgat ctggggaat actaatcgg aagatcact 
      cccgaaaat ggccaaact acccaagca cctgccacg 
      cgatattcc gcaaacaat ctatcttct cccgaatcg 
      gcctactcg accggatac tccactgat gggacttcc 
      ccaggcgct cctccggac tactacatc aacatccgc 
      acaggggtg aagtacttc ccagccgag ggggagcgc 
      caccaccac gagaaccac ctgagatac gtgccacac 
      cacggcatc ggcaccgat ttggctaag cccccagtt 
      tcctccact tgtctgcct ccacccaga cccgtcatg 
      acgcaagag gtggaccga gtggtccag acacgtccg 
      ttccagtgc aacaccgct gtcaccccg tccagacta 
      agcgaagtt gtcgccagt ccggtcctc acatcccca 
      agacagcgc aaccggatc aggacgaac ccctggctt 
      ccgggaagc gccccaagc ccggggccc atcaggcag 
      gaggtgccc aaaatcaca acttcagtc actgggact 
      gacagcccg ctgtcgagg aggttccga agcccgtcc 
      acgctccgc gggtcgagt ttgcgaaac caccagtcc 
      ctgtcctcc tcgtcttgt tcctcccta agcggggcg 
      agtgtccac tgggacgcg aagaagcgg tccgggagc 
      gacgaagac gactgtacc ctgaacgaa atgatgggc 
      aaatacgac gagagttac gtttacgag aaagaaacc 
      gacattctt agcgatagc gacccgact gattgtgat 
      actgacatt gacacgggc caagacggc ggagacgaa 
      gacgagccc gtcgacggc gagttcgac ttcatagac 
      aacggctcc tacctggag ctcgactcc cgcgaggac 
      cggaacacc ggccattgc acgtattac aacttcgaa 
      gtccagcgg aaagcctcc cggaggcgc acgactcgc 
      cgcagcaag cagagcagc gagaagcgg cgccggtca 
      agttccaac aagaaacgg cacaagcaa gccgagcgc 
      gcgaacgcg cagcccaac ggctcgaaa agcgcgggt 
      gccactccc ttgtccgtc cgtcgaacc aagcaccat 
      ccaatgtcg aagctggcc ctcgacaag aagcgctcc 
      aactccgtc agcttctcc cgcgacgat cccttctca 
      accattgac aagcgggac aaagaggcc gaccagaag 
      taccgcgag ttgatagtc gaggccgag cacatcctg 
      cgcagcatg aagaccaac ggcctttcg ccgcggcgg 
      gtcccaggc cccgccaac aagcgcgtc gagattttg 
      cggagcgcg gaatgtgcc aaaccggag cttttcatg 
      aaaaataga ctgatcgaa gagccaggt cccccattt 
      accaagata ccgtccact aattttaat agatttagt 
      cctaaacga aaccacatt actaacttc atgatcagc 
      aattcgccg gcgatgatg cgccgcgag gtggagttg 
      cccacttcg ccgctggcg aagcggccg gagtcgccc 
      aagttgcgg gcgaaccgg cgcagtccg aagtaccgg 
      aaaaaggcg agcaaggcg aaagtggag tgccccacg 
      agcagcgac tccgacggg gaggcgaaa gttaaggac 
      gccgtcggt ttcgggtgt ccgcagagc gagccggtg 
      cgccggaag gtgtactca gggcgggga aaaaccgtg 
      gcgttcaat ctcaattac gagaatatt tacaacaat 
      tcgccgacg aggttcgag gcgcaggag tacaagact 
      agcgcggag aatttaaga cagcaggtt ttaatgaac 
      accatcgcc aatttgaag aagagtctc gaagatcag 
      tccgcttcg ctgaagcag gtgtaccga agttcccat 
      aatatacaa ctctaa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC031509 RA
      aagaaaatt gttggtggt tgtacgcac acgcctgtg 
      aaacatggc tcaaaatcc atattattt gttagattt 
      tagttactc attaactaa tcggtgctc taattattg 
      ataattgac tgtggttga aatcgtgac taaagatgt 
      tcggaagca agctccgat catggatgg aagcagtga 
      gacctcgca aaaaacaac accgaaaag agaaacaaa 
      ctaaagcga atttgaatc ctaacacag ttaccgcca 
      actggcaga acggaacca gttgcgggt cttcccaag 
      atgatctgg ggaatacta atcggaaga tcactcccg 
      aaaatggcc aaactaccc aagcacctg ccacgcgat 
      attccgcaa acaatctat cttctcccg aatcggcct 
      actcgaccg gatactcca ctgatggga cttccccag 
      gcgctcctc cggactact acatcaaca tccgcacag 
      gggtgaagt acttcccag ccgaggggg agcgccacc 
      accacgaga accacctga gatacgtgc cacaccacg 
      gcatcggca ccgatttgg ctaagcccc cagtttcct 
      ccacttgtc tgcctccac ccagacccg tcatgacgc 
      aagaggtgg accgagtgg tccagacac gtccgttcc 
      agtgcaaca ccgctgtca ccccgtcca gactaagcg 
      aagttgtcg ccagtccgg tcctcacat ccccaagac 
      agcgcaacc ggatcagga cgaacccct ggcttccgg 
      gaagcgccc caagcccgg ggcccatca ggcaggagg 
      tgcccaaaa tcacaactt cagtcactg ggactgaca 
      gcccgctgt cgaggaggt tccgaagcc cgtccacgc 
      tccgcgggt cgagtttgc gaaaccacc agtccctgt 
      cctcctcgt cttgttcct ccctaagcg gggcgagtg 
      tccactggg acgcgaaga agcggtccg ggagcgacg 
      aagacgact gtaccctga acgaaatga tgggcaaat 
      acgacgaga gttacgttt acgagaaag aaaccgaca 
      ttcttagcg atagcgacc cgactgatt gtgatactg 
      acattgaca cgggccaag acggcggag acgaagacg 
      agcccgtcg acggcgagt tcgacttca tagacaacg 
      gctcctacc tggagctcg actcccgcg aggaccgga 
      acaccggcc attgcacgt attacaact tcgaagtcc 
      agcggaaag cctcccgga ggcgcacga ctcgccgca 
      gcaagcaga gcagcgaga agcggcgcc ggtcaagtt 
      ccaacaaga aacggcaca agcaagccg agcgcgcga 
      acgcgcagc ccaacggct cgaaaagcg cgggtgcca 
      ctcccttgt ccgtccgtc gaaccaagc accatccaa 
      tgtcgaagc tggccctcg acaagaagc gctccaact 
      ccgtcagct tctcccgcg acgatccct tctcaacca 
      ttgacaagc gggacaaag aggccgacc agaagtacc 
      gcgagttga tagtcgagg ccgagcaca tcctgcgca 
      gcatgaaga ccaacggcc tttcgccgc ggcgggtcc 
      caggccccg ccaacaagc gcgtcgaga ttttgcgga 
      gcgcggaat gtgccaaac cggagcttt tcatgaaaa 
      atagactga tcgaagagc caggtcccc catttacca 
      agataccgt ccactaatt ttaatagat ttagtccta 
      aacgaaacc acattacta acttcatga tcagcaatt 
      cgccggcga tgatgcgcc gcgaggtgg agttgccca 
      cttcgccgc tggcgaagc ggccggagt cgcccaagt 
      tgcgggcga accggcgca gtccgaagt accggaaaa 
      aggcgagca aggcgaaag tggagtgcc ccacgagca 
      gcgactccg acggggagg cgaaagtta aggacgccg 
      tcggtttcg ggtgtccgc agagcgagc cggtgcgcc 
      ggaaggtgt actcagggc ggggaaaaa ccgtggcgt 
      tcaatctca attacgaga atatttaca acaattcgc 
      cgacgaggt tcgaggcgc aggagtaca agactagcg 
      cggagaatt taagacagc aggttttaa tgaacacca 
      tcgccaatt tgaagaaga gtctcgaag atcagtccg 
      cttcgctga agcaggtgt accgaagtt cccataata 
      tacaactct aagttacag cgtatacaa atatattta 
      taattttat accgtggat gttgaagac aaacaccag 
      tagagtagc ggttcggtt gattcctgg cgtttatta 
      acccaaatg tagccgttt aaatattta agcagacgt 
      agaattgtt ttcggttcg atgtagcga caatagtag 
      aaactagtg acgtagcgg tataattgt agggtaact 
      tgtcggccc acttagtta agctaacac aaaaacttt 
      cagaataat aaaaattga tttggttgg tagtcgttt 
      taagtgggc gacaatcac ttatgtaac atgatagta 
      aaatgtagt acaatttag tataatttg aatgtggaa 
      tctggatcg gactaataa tctgttaat gacgtcttt 
      gattgtgtt gaagcaaat acggccttg ttacttttg 
      actttaatt ttaggtata gttgaatta tgacagtaa 
      gtgttgatt tgttatttc ctgcaaaaa ggaaatgtt 
      attttgaga gaaataaca ctaaaatcg agtttaact 
      gactgaagg gtactccaa ataaaagtg cggagattt 
      cacgcattc cctgttaaa actgtgcta tatttttaa 
      taggtatat gtattttta taggcacta atacaaata 
      cgtaaccgc ctatatgta tactttaat cacagtcgt 
      tattcgaca tgtgcctgt tttaacttt cgatttcac 
      ttcacagct aagctataa ctgtattca tgttgtgat 
      tcctgaatt gttaaattt ttcaaatgt tcatctgta 
      aataaaaac aataacttt cc
    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY