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Gene information
General information
TC012074 Gene

The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007424.3: 6645039..6666110
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (2) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB http://www.orthodb.org/. The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    TC012074
    iBeetle screen iB_05163

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    inside-out
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 10.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection


    Analysis of embryonic musculature and early development
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50 leg musculature partially not present - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%

    affected eggs/embryos/larvae - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%
    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 0.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 30.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (22 dpi)
    Days post injection


    Fertility
    egg production: number <50% of expected -
    ovary without detectable defects -
    RNAi sequence
    Primers
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC012074 RA
      MGNHPSNHQ PLERTNVGK FGDPHTRRS LRSPRKMDR 
      LRRSFRDSF RRRKDRVPE SSKPHQWQA DESAVRSGT 
      CTFAVKYLG CVEVFESRG MQVCEEALK VLRGSRRRP 
      VRAVLHVSG DGLRVVEDE SKGLIVDQT IEKVSFCAP 
      DRNHERGFS YICRDGTTR RWMCHGFLA LRESGERLS 
      HAVGCAFAV CLERKQKRD KECGVTMMF DTKNATFTR 
      SGSFRQQGL TERLERGVD VGPPRPAPV NPFAIERPH 
      ATPSMLQRQ GSCRGFSTL GQNSPFKRQ MSLRVNELP 
      SNTARLNAY KSPTSPTNP KPQVSPIPE ISPGDSVTA 
      LCQQLSQGL SQLTHSGSD DFNFNNQTS INQNTVNLS 
      VTTINNSFS PNLSQSQVT TSITSNASS LPKPDQWLG 
      QIVNSTSPV PAKMDGVSP RRGPLLGAH SRAMSLDSS 
      GAFQRTADP FDAEWADIA AKNNPTNPF LSSAAPQPF 
      QIQL
    • >TC012074 RB
      MDRLRRSFR DSFRRRKDR VPESSKPHQ WQADESAVR 
      SGTCTFAVK YLGCVEVFE SRGMQVCEE ALKVLRGSR 
      RRPVRAVLH VSGDGLRVV EDESKGLIV DQTIEKVSF 
      CAPDRNHER GFSYICRDG TTRRWMCHG FLALRESGE 
      RLSHAVGCA FAVCLERKQ KRDKECGVT MMFDTKNAT 
      FTRSGSFRQ QGLTERLER GVDVGPPRP APVNPFAIE 
      RPHATPSML QRQGSCRGF STLGQNSPF KRQMSLRVN 
      ELPSNTARL NAYKSPTSP TNPKPQVSP IPEISPGDS 
      VTALCQQLS QGLSQLTHS GSDDFNFNN QTSINQNTV 
      NLSVTTINN SFSPNLSQS QVTTSITSN ASSLPKPDQ 
      WLGQIVNST SPVPAKMDG VSPRRGPLL GAHSRAMSL 
      DSSGAFQRT ADPFDAEWA DIAAKNNPT NPFLSSAAP 
      QPFQIQL
    CDS sequence
    • >TC012074 RA
      atgggaaat catccgtcc aaccatcag ccgctggaa 
      aggactaat gtggggaaa ttcggggat ccacacacg 
      aggcgaagt ctacgttct cctcggaaa atggatagg 
      ttaaggagg tccttcagg gattccttt cggcgacga 
      aaggatcgt gtccctgaa agttccaaa cctcatcaa 
      tggcaagcg gatgaatca gctgtcagg tccggaact 
      tgcactttc gctgtgaaa tatttaggc tgtgttgaa 
      gttttcgaa tcgagggga atgcaagtg tgtgaggag 
      gccctcaaa gtgcttcga ggttcccgc cgtcgccca 
      gtccgcgcc gtcctccac gtgagcggc gacggtctc 
      cgcgtggtc gaggacgag tcgaaaggt ctgatcgtc 
      gaccaaacg atcgagaaa gtctccttc tgcgccccc 
      gaccgcaac cacgagcgc ggcttcagc tacatctgc 
      cgcgacggc accacccgg cgctggatg tgccacggc 
      ttcctggcc ctgcgcgag tctggcgag cggctctcg 
      cacgccgtg ggctgcgcc ttcgccgtg tgcctggag 
      cgcaagcag aagcgggac aaggagtgc ggcgtgacc 
      atgatgttc gacaccaag aacgccacg ttcacgcgc 
      agcggctcc ttccggcag caggggctc accgagcgg 
      ctggagcgc ggcgtggac gtgggcccc ccgcggccc 
      gcgcccgtc aaccccttc gccatcgag cgcccccac 
      gccacgccc agcatgctg cagcggcag ggcagctgc 
      cgcggcttc agcaccctg ggccagaac tcgcccttc 
      aagcgccag atgtcgctg cgcgtcaac gagctcccg 
      agcaacacg gcgcggctg aacgcctac aagtcgccc 
      acgtcgccg acgaacccc aagccccag gtgtccccc 
      atcccggag atctcgccc ggcgactcc gtcaccgct 
      ctctgccag cagctgagc caggggctg agccagctg 
      acgcacagc ggctccgac gacttcaac ttcaacaac 
      cagacctcg atcaaccag aacacggtc aatctgagc 
      gtcacaacg atcaacaac agcttcagc cccaacttg 
      agccagagc caggtcacg accagtatt acttcgaac 
      gccagcagc ttgccgaag ccggaccag tggctgggg 
      cagatcgtc aactccacg tcgcccgtg ccggcgaag 
      atggacggg gtgtcgccc cggcggggc cccctcctg 
      ggggcgcac tcgcgggcc atgtcgctg gactcctcg 
      ggggcgttc cagcggacg gcggacccg ttcgacgca 
      gagtgggcc gacatcgcg gctaaaaac aacccgact 
      aaccctttc ctgtcctca gccgccccg cagccgttt 
      cagatccag ctctag
    • >TC012074 RB
      atggatagg ttaaggagg tccttcagg gattccttt 
      cggcgacga aaggatcgt gtccctgaa agttccaaa 
      cctcatcaa tggcaagcg gatgaatca gctgtcagg 
      tccggaact tgcactttc gctgtgaaa tatttaggc 
      tgtgttgaa gttttcgaa tcgagggga atgcaagtg 
      tgtgaggag gccctcaaa gtgcttcga ggttcccgc 
      cgtcgccca gtccgcgcc gtcctccac gtgagcggc 
      gacggtctc cgcgtggtc gaggacgag tcgaaaggt 
      ctgatcgtc gaccaaacg atcgagaaa gtctccttc 
      tgcgccccc gaccgcaac cacgagcgc ggcttcagc 
      tacatctgc cgcgacggc accacccgg cgctggatg 
      tgccacggc ttcctggcc ctgcgcgag tctggcgag 
      cggctctcg cacgccgtg ggctgcgcc ttcgccgtg 
      tgcctggag cgcaagcag aagcgggac aaggagtgc 
      ggcgtgacc atgatgttc gacaccaag aacgccacg 
      ttcacgcgc agcggctcc ttccggcag caggggctc 
      accgagcgg ctggagcgc ggcgtggac gtgggcccc 
      ccgcggccc gcgcccgtc aaccccttc gccatcgag 
      cgcccccac gccacgccc agcatgctg cagcggcag 
      ggcagctgc cgcggcttc agcaccctg ggccagaac 
      tcgcccttc aagcgccag atgtcgctg cgcgtcaac 
      gagctcccg agcaacacg gcgcggctg aacgcctac 
      aagtcgccc acgtcgccg acgaacccc aagccccag 
      gtgtccccc atcccggag atctcgccc ggcgactcc 
      gtcaccgct ctctgccag cagctgagc caggggctg 
      agccagctg acgcacagc ggctccgac gacttcaac 
      ttcaacaac cagacctcg atcaaccag aacacggtc 
      aatctgagc gtcacaacg atcaacaac agcttcagc 
      cccaacttg agccagagc caggtcacg accagtatt 
      acttcgaac gccagcagc ttgccgaag ccggaccag 
      tggctgggg cagatcgtc aactccacg tcgcccgtg 
      ccggcgaag atggacggg gtgtcgccc cggcggggc 
      cccctcctg ggggcgcac tcgcgggcc atgtcgctg 
      gactcctcg ggggcgttc cagcggacg gcggacccg 
      ttcgacgca gagtgggcc gacatcgcg gctaaaaac 
      aacccgact aaccctttc ctgtcctca gccgccccg 
      cagccgttt cagatccag ctctag
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC012074 RA
      ttgcaggat ggctagtat aagtatgtg gggatacac 
      catcacgat tttaaccgt catcgctgt gtataagca 
      agtcccaac actcgtcgt ttcgcgtcc ggtctgctc 
      caaccgtcg tttctttcc cgaccgttt tttcaaaat 
      tttccgccg aaaaccccg gatttttcc ggcagctcc 
      gcgtgcctc atctcgcat tgaaatcac ctcgtgttt 
      gtgtgaaaa tctcgcgtt tggccacgt tccaaggtc 
      gtccggtgt ggaagatgg tcgtctttc ttcttccat 
      gaagaaaat cttcatgca actgcattc ttcaggctg 
      tggtggcgg ccaagcgct tcctgttct ataatgggc 
      ttgattttt acgtgcgct aacgaactg gtctaacgc 
      ttaccccaa gcatctgtt ggaccgcat ctgctcttc 
      tttagtgtg ttcagttcg ggtgtgtga gtgggacca 
      agttgggaa aatgggaaa tcatccgtc caaccatca 
      gccgctgga aaggactaa tgtggggaa attcgggga 
      tccacacac gaggcgaag tctacgttc tcctcggaa 
      aatggatag gttaaggag gtccttcag ggattcctt 
      tcggcgacg aaaggatcg tgtccctga aagttccaa 
      acctcatca atggcaagc ggatgaatc agctgtcag 
      gtccggaac ttgcacttt cgctgtgaa atatttagg 
      ctgtgttga agttttcga atcgagggg aatgcaagt 
      gtgtgagga ggccctcaa agtgcttcg aggttcccg 
      ccgtcgccc agtccgcgc cgtcctcca cgtgagcgg 
      cgacggtct ccgcgtggt cgaggacga gtcgaaagg 
      tctgatcgt cgaccaaac gatcgagaa agtctcctt 
      ctgcgcccc cgaccgcaa ccacgagcg cggcttcag 
      ctacatctg ccgcgacgg caccacccg gcgctggat 
      gtgccacgg cttcctggc cctgcgcga gtctggcga 
      gcggctctc gcacgccgt gggctgcgc cttcgccgt 
      gtgcctgga gcgcaagca gaagcggga caaggagtg 
      cggcgtgac catgatgtt cgacaccaa gaacgccac 
      gttcacgcg cagcggctc cttccggca gcaggggct 
      caccgagcg gctggagcg cggcgtgga cgtgggccc 
      cccgcggcc cgcgcccgt caacccctt cgccatcga 
      gcgccccca cgccacgcc cagcatgct gcagcggca 
      gggcagctg ccgcggctt cagcaccct gggccagaa 
      ctcgccctt caagcgcca gatgtcgct gcgcgtcaa 
      cgagctccc gagcaacac ggcgcggct gaacgccta 
      caagtcgcc cacgtcgcc gacgaaccc caagcccca 
      ggtgtcccc catcccgga gatctcgcc cggcgactc 
      cgtcaccgc tctctgcca gcagctgag ccaggggct 
      gagccagct gacgcacag cggctccga cgacttcaa 
      cttcaacaa ccagacctc gatcaacca gaacacggt 
      caatctgag cgtcacaac gatcaacaa cagcttcag 
      ccccaactt gagccagag ccaggtcac gaccagtat 
      tacttcgaa cgccagcag cttgccgaa gccggacca 
      gtggctggg gcagatcgt caactccac gtcgcccgt 
      gccggcgaa gatggacgg ggtgtcgcc ccggcgggg 
      ccccctcct gggggcgca ctcgcgggc catgtcgct 
      ggactcctc gggggcgtt ccagcggac ggcggaccc 
      gttcgacgc agagtgggc cgacatcgc ggctaaaaa 
      caacccgac taacccttt cctgtcctc agccgcccc 
      gcagccgtt tcagatcca gctctagtt aacttgtga 
      ttcattcca ataagttgt tgaggtatt tgttgttta 
      atgttgcca ggactgact gtgcaatct tgtaaataa 
      tgttgagag gatgtgtaa agacccggg gaacgaagt 
      ttatgctca gtttttatt tatttcatt agggacgtt 
      agaaacatt tcgaattgt aataactca cctgccaag 
      ctaaatgca caaaattgt ctgtactta agatagtct 
      ttccatagt tgcagttag acgagttat atcattaca 
      aggctgaga aatgtaggt acaatacat tccattatc 
      actattaat taacgattg gtgagtttg gagctagat 
      tgccgtcca cctataatt tgaccgttc aattaatcc 
      agttggact tttgttact aagcgcaag aattgactt 
      attgttgat ttttattta attttctag tgtaatata 
      actataata acgtgcagc atcgggaat aggatcgaa 
      ttaataatg ataaaactg tattattag aattatagg 
      tgataacga ctttttact ttatgtttt tgtaaatgt 
      tatagcgat gctatttac tgtttgtat ttattactt 
      tttcaatat gagagcacg cagctctaa tattatggc 
      acatgtact tattatata cacttgtat tatacaaaa 
      gtcttaatt atgtttttt tctgtaata tagtaataa 
      ataagtatt atctgttac gcgtgtctt ttttattat 
      ctcgacgaa cactaaaga agaataaag cgatgttga 
      aatt
    • >TC012074 RB
      aaaccaggc acactgacg tttaaatcc caattcccc 
      tccacgtca caactccca tctcttatc actccctct 
      cgtcgcaaa cctgtccga cagagagag caatacttc 
      gaaatctac gtgcggtca ttgtaacca attgcctcg 
      ctttatttt atcacacgt cgcatcatt ttcgcctta 
      tcacagcca caaacccag ccaataccc tgtctctct 
      cgctcaaat tgtgagcat aatttatcg gaaaatctc 
      ccagaattt atcttgtgt atctagttc agacagaat 
      tgcaagtgt atttagttg cctgagtcg cggaataga 
      gacaaacca ggtaaaatt acctccgat aaatgataa 
      ccaaaactc cgggtgccc ccttgccat ccggtccaa 
      gtgacgagt ggtttttta ctcaaactt cgccaattc 
      cagccgtca tgacataga ttgcgaaat acagaggcg 
      aagtctacg ttctcctcg gaaaatgga taggttaag 
      gaggtcctt cagggattc ctttcggcg acgaaagga 
      tcgtgtccc tgaaagttc caaacctca tcaatggca 
      agcggatga atcagctgt caggtccgg aacttgcac 
      tttcgctgt gaaatattt aggctgtgt tgaagtttt 
      cgaatcgag gggaatgca agtgtgtga ggaggccct 
      caaagtgct tcgaggttc ccgccgtcg cccagtccg 
      cgccgtcct ccacgtgag cggcgacgg tctccgcgt 
      ggtcgagga cgagtcgaa aggtctgat cgtcgacca 
      aacgatcga gaaagtctc cttctgcgc ccccgaccg 
      caaccacga gcgcggctt cagctacat ctgccgcga 
      cggcaccac ccggcgctg gatgtgcca cggcttcct 
      ggccctgcg cgagtctgg cgagcggct ctcgcacgc 
      cgtgggctg cgccttcgc cgtgtgcct ggagcgcaa 
      gcagaagcg ggacaagga gtgcggcgt gaccatgat 
      gttcgacac caagaacgc cacgttcac gcgcagcgg 
      ctccttccg gcagcaggg gctcaccga gcggctgga 
      gcgcggcgt ggacgtggg ccccccgcg gcccgcgcc 
      cgtcaaccc cttcgccat cgagcgccc ccacgccac 
      gcccagcat gctgcagcg gcagggcag ctgccgcgg 
      cttcagcac cctgggcca gaactcgcc cttcaagcg 
      ccagatgtc gctgcgcgt caacgagct cccgagcaa 
      cacggcgcg gctgaacgc ctacaagtc gcccacgtc 
      gccgacgaa ccccaagcc ccaggtgtc ccccatccc 
      ggagatctc gcccggcga ctccgtcac cgctctctg 
      ccagcagct gagccaggg gctgagcca gctgacgca 
      cagcggctc cgacgactt caacttcaa caaccagac 
      ctcgatcaa ccagaacac ggtcaatct gagcgtcac 
      aacgatcaa caacagctt cagccccaa cttgagcca 
      gagccaggt cacgaccag tattacttc gaacgccag 
      cagcttgcc gaagccgga ccagtggct ggggcagat 
      cgtcaactc cacgtcgcc cgtgccggc gaagatgga 
      cggggtgtc gccccggcg gggccccct cctgggggc 
      gcactcgcg ggccatgtc gctggactc ctcgggggc 
      gttccagcg gacggcgga cccgttcga cgcagagtg 
      ggccgacat cgcggctaa aaacaaccc gactaaccc 
      tttcctgtc ctcagccgc cccgcagcc gtttcagat 
      ccagctcta gttaacttg tgattcatt ccaataagt 
      tgttgaggt atttgttgt ttaatgttg ccaggactg 
      actgtgcaa tcttgtaaa taatgttga gaggatgtg 
      taaagaccc ggggaacga agtttatgc tcagttttt 
      atttatttc attagggac gttagaaac atttcgaat 
      tgtaataac tcacctgcc aagctaaat gcacaaaat 
      tgtctgtac ttaagatag tctttccat agttgcagt 
      tagacgagt tatatcatt acaaggctg agaaatgta 
      ggtacaata cattccatt atcactatt aattaacga 
      ttggtgagt ttggagcta gattgccgt ccacctata 
      atttgaccg ttcaattaa tccagttgg acttttgtt 
      actaagcgc aagaattga cttattgtt gatttttat 
      ttaattttc tagtgtaat ataactata ataacgtgc 
      agcatcggg aataggatc gaattaata atgataaaa 
      ctgtattat tagaattat aggtgataa cgacttttt 
      actttatgt ttttgtaaa tgttatagc gatgctatt 
      tactgtttg tatttatta ctttttcaa tatgagagc 
      acgcagctc taatattat ggcacatgt acttattat 
      atacacttg tattataca aaagtctta attatgttt 
      ttttctgta atatagtaa taaataagt attatctgt 
      tacgcgtgt cttttttat tatctcgac gaacactaa 
      agaagaata aagcgatgt tgaaatt
    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY