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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007424.3: 13363234..13386013
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
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    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
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    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_05106

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 10.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 30.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 30.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    larva lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC034435 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC034435 RA
      atgaattcg ccgctcccg cagagtccc cggacccgc 
      aggcaatcc gggggtcgt cgtcccccg acccacctc 
      cactcggac tgtcctccg gagcccgag gactgcgac 
      gcgcccgga ctgggacaa agatcggtc tctttgacg 
      actcttcag ccgaccatc atccagccc agaatggcc 
      caactggag acactggaa gccaagatg gccagcatc 
      gaggtgtcc ctctcgagc acacccaga cgcaaaaag 
      aacaccgga attaacgcc tcgatccgg tccgctccc 
      aaggagatc gccgccaag gagctggag acgttgagg 
      aacgcgctg cgggacaag gaaaatatc atacagagc 
      ttgaagggc cagctgacc atccccgga ctgaggctg 
      acgcagatg cgcaacccc tccaacacc aatcgggag 
      ctgacagaa gttgagaaa aaacaagcc gaagaaagg 
      ctcaatagg ctcaagacg gacgtggat aacaagcgc 
      ttggctatc aagaacctc aaaatggct ctggaacgg 
      ctggatatc actgacaac atcgacgtg cggatccag 
      caggccgag ctcgagtac cagctgggt cgcgaagag 
      ctcaatttg ttaacactg ctcgaggaa acgcgcgct 
      ctccaatta tgtctcgat gagtcgaac aaaaactcg 
      tcggaatct catactttg tacagttgc gttaacgga 
      agcgtccac gtgatcctt cgaggtgtc gaggtcgag 
      ttcgacccg aaaagcccc aagttcggg gcgagtcag 
      aaggaggcc gtgccgggc ttgtggata gattgggcg 
      ctcgaggaa acggggctg tgcaaagga gacagattg 
      gtcgaagtc aacggcaaa atcgtcttg accaaaaac 
      cgagacgac ctcactcgc ctccttgcc gcagcaccg 
      gacccagcc cagatagta attttgcga aaactgccc 
      caaaacggc tccaccccc actattgcc accacctcc 
      aaagaggtg gcctcgtta cgctgcgag ctggaggcg 
      gtgcgcgaa cgcgccgaa gaggcgcaa aaaacgaaa 
      gaaaacctc atctcggac aacatcaga ctgacacac 
      cgaatttcc tatctggag gaacaagtt tccgagctc 
      ctctgtcgc aagaaatcc gacaccgac gtccggatc 
      ttatcgaaa actccggtg atttcgacg gtgaaaacc 
      aaccaaaac gtcacaaac atcaacata acgacgcca 
      ccaccgaag gacctccag gtgttccaa aagggccag 
      gttacggcc ctcgtggcc aacatcccc gggctggag 
      acgtccaaa gacacgctc ccagtgcgc tccaaaagc 
      agtctctcg aacgtttcc aacacccat atcccggcg 
      ccggaccac cattgccac aagccccat cggcacaag 
      caccgctca cgcctccag acctccacc agcacccag 
      cacctggac cagaacgac taccgcaaa cacaaccac 
      caccaccac caccgggag aaagactac agctcggag 
      accaactcg gccattgag cacgtctcc aggtacaac 
      aaacgcaac actgagaac ggcttcgag cacatcatg 
      gaccaaagc tacaagaaa gcaacgaaa atcgtccac 
      gagctcacg cgagacacc ctctacgag aagcacaga 
      cagaagtgc ctcacagcc tccgagaag tacaactcg 
      gacatcctc aagcactac aacgcccgg aagtcggcg 
      tcggtgctg gacttccgc tcggaaatc cacataggg 
      cccaagtgc ccagactcg aagagtgtt gaagacctg 
      gaggagaga aaagccaag aggatccaa gacgcgcgc 
      agcgtcaag tcgctggat tttgacagc gattgcacg 
      agtctcaag tccaagtcg attgattac acttcggag 
      ccgactgag agccggaaa ttgtcggga tatgggggg 
      tgttgcgag gtgaaggcg cggccgacg ccgccgaag 
      aagccgctg cggctgtcg ctgcacaaa acgcagagt 
      ttgcagtcg gtggagacg cccactccg gggagttcc 
      cccgggaag ggcgagtcc cggaaacgg aactacaag 
      ggggagatg gggctgcag aacggctgc caggaggtc 
      aagtgggcc gggtttggc cacaagctg gagaacgga 
      gtggagagc gggagctgg tgttag
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC034435 RA
      cttgaaccg aaccaactc tagtgctcc agtttcagt 
      gttgtgacc gcttgaatg gattatttt taaaacagg 
      gcgcgatgc tgggatgaa ttcgccgct cccgcagag 
      tccccggac ccgcaggca atccggggg tcgtcgtcc 
      cccgaccca cctccactc ggactgtcc tccggagcc 
      cgaggactg cgacgcgcc cggactggg acaaagatc 
      ggtctcttt gacgactct tcagccgac catcatcca 
      gcccagaat ggcccaact ggagacact ggaagccaa 
      gatggccag catcgaggt gtccctctc gagcacacc 
      cagacgcaa aaagaacac cggaattaa cgcctcgat 
      ccggtccgc tcccaagga gatcgccgc caaggagct 
      ggagacgtt gaggaacgc gctgcggga caaggaaaa 
      tatcataca gagcttgaa gggccagct gaccatccc 
      cggactgag gctgacgca gatgcgcaa cccctccaa 
      caccaatcg ggagctgac agaagttga gaaaaaaca 
      agccgaaga aaggctcaa taggctcaa gacggacgt 
      ggataacaa gcgcttggc tatcaagaa cctcaaaat 
      ggctctgga acggctgga tatcactga caacatcga 
      cgtgcggat ccagcaggc cgagctcga gtaccagct 
      gggtcgcga agagctcaa tttgttaac actgctcga 
      ggaaacgcg cgctctcca attatgtct cgatgagtc 
      gaacaaaaa ctcgtcgga atctcatac tttgtacag 
      ttgcgttaa cggaagcgt ccacgtgat ccttcgagg 
      tgtcgaggt cgagttcga cccgaaaag ccccaagtt 
      cggggcgag tcagaagga ggccgtgcc gggcttgtg 
      gatagattg ggcgctcga ggaaacggg gctgtgcaa 
      aggagacag attggtcga agtcaacgg caaaatcgt 
      cttgaccaa aaaccgaga cgacctcac tcgcctcct 
      tgccgcagc accggaccc agcccagat agtaatttt 
      gcgaaaact gccccaaaa cggctccac ccccactat 
      tgccaccac ctccaaaga ggtggcctc gttacgctg 
      cgagctgga ggcggtgcg cgaacgcgc cgaagaggc 
      gcaaaaaac gaaagaaaa cctcatctc ggacaacat 
      cagactgac acaccgaat ttcctatct ggaggaaca 
      agtttccga gctcctctg tcgcaagaa atccgacac 
      cgacgtccg gatcttatc gaaaactcc ggtgatttc 
      gacggtgaa aaccaacca aaacgtcac aaacatcaa 
      cataacgac gccaccacc gaaggacct ccaggtgtt 
      ccaaaaggg ccaggttac ggccctcgt ggccaacat 
      ccccgggct ggagacgtc caaagacac gctcccagt 
      gcgctccaa aagcagtct ctcgaacgt ttccaacac 
      ccatatccc ggcgccgga ccaccattg ccacaagcc 
      ccatcggca caagcaccg ctcacgcct ccagacctc 
      caccagcac ccagcacct ggaccagaa cgactaccg 
      caaacacaa ccaccacca ccaccaccg ggagaaaga 
      ctacagctc ggagaccaa ctcggccat tgagcacgt 
      ctccaggta caacaaacg caacactga gaacggctt 
      cgagcacat catggacca aagctacaa gaaagcaac 
      gaaaatcgt ccacgagct cacgcgaga caccctcta 
      cgagaagca cagacagaa gtgcctcac agcctccga 
      gaagtacaa ctcggacat cctcaagca ctacaacgc 
      ccggaagtc ggcgtcggt gctggactt ccgctcgga 
      aatccacat agggcccaa gtgcccaga ctcgaagag 
      tgttgaaga cctggagga gagaaaagc caagaggat 
      ccaagacgc gcgcagcgt caagtcgct ggattttga 
      cagcgattg cacgagtct caagtccaa gtcgattga 
      ttacacttc ggagccgac tgagagccg gaaattgtc 
      gggatatgg ggggtgttg cgaggtgaa ggcgcggcc 
      gacgccgcc gaagaagcc gctgcggct gtcgctgca 
      caaaacgca gagtttgca gtcggtgga gacgcccac 
      tccggggag ttcccccgg gaagggcga gtcccggaa 
      acggaacta caaggggga gatggggct gcagaacgg 
      ctgccagga ggtcaagtg ggccgggtt tggccacaa 
      gctggagaa cggagtgga gagcgggag ctggtgtta 
      gtgtaaatt tgtagactg atacgattt tataataaa 
      tatttaaat accta

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY