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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007420.3: 7794505..7851499
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_04843

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 30.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    eggs lost during procedure: potentially due to defects in egg-shells egg-morphology or egg-size, (14 dpi)
    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 30.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 30.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    larva lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC033104 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC033104 RA
      atgctttcc agatgtcca gcgttcacc cgccatgta 
      ataggattc ctggtgtta gtgttgtta accacaaac 
      gttcgatcg ggaccccgt tacagctcc agaatagtt 
      gacattaaa acgggagca attcgcggc attatcctc 
      gaactcaac tcacgacat cttgagccg gttgaagtg 
      tttcggggt gttccctac gctgcgcct cccgtagga 
      cccctcaga ttcagactg cctcaaccc ccgctcgct 
      tggcccgga acaagactc gcagacact ttcggcgcc 
      gtttgtcca cagaaacta ccagacata tccaacaga 
      actgccgca ctgcagacg atgcccaaa ggccgatac 
      cagtatctc aaaaagctg gtgcccctg ctcgtcaac 
      cagtccgag gactgcctg ttcctcaac atttacgtc 
      ccgggaagc ggaaaccgc ggcttcgag gctccttac 
      gccgttcta gtatttgtg catggtgaa agcttcgag 
      tggggcgca ggtcatccc tacgacggc agcgttctt 
      gcctcttac ggacacgtc attgtggtt accctaaat 
      ttccgcctt ggaattctt ggtttcctc cgcacgaaa 
      gcgagtttc gataaaagc gagtcttca gcggaaaac 
      ttggggatt aaggacatc gctgcggct ctgcgttgg 
      attaagatt aacattgca gcattcgga ggagacccc 
      agccgtgta accttagta ggtcacgat accggagca 
      gctctagtt aatttactc tttgtttcc cccagctcg 
      aaaggactt ttcaaacgc gtggtgctc ctcagcgga 
      accgcgctg agtccgtgg gctacgatt cataatcct 
      gacactctg cgcctcacc gttggccaa caaacaggc 
      tgcctgagc ggagactcg ccagaggag aacgacgac 
      atcgccccc tgcttaaga tcgcggcca ctccaagcg 
      ctcctcgac gtccagctg gaaactgtg cgcttcatg 
      ccaaggatc gccccatcc ctcccggtg gatttacag 
      acacctgac ccgtccttt gccatggaa cacgccagc 
      gaaaatttc atcatgtgc gaagtgatg ttgggcacg 
      accaccacc gagagttac agtgacttt agtgccgcg 
      gacatccag tatggcttc gaggaggac caaaggaac 
      cgcgttctg aggacttat gtgcggaac gcgtatgtg 
      taccacttg aacgagatt ttttccgcg attaggaac 
      gagtacacg gactgggat aagcccata cagcatccc 
      atcaatatc agggattcc accatggag gcgttaagt 
      gacggacat actgtgtca ccgctaatc cgggtcgcc 
      tatctgcac gcgagaaga ggcgccaaa acgtatttc 
      ttccatttc ggataccag accaaagac agcgagtat 
      ccgcagagg ctggggagc gtcaggggt gaagatgtc 
      acgtatata ttgggcatg cctctagtc ggcggaatg 
      cctttcttc gcccagaac ttcaccaaa caggacatg 
      ggagtggcc gaggccgtc ctcaacttc ttcagcaat 
      ttcgccaag acgggcgac cccaacgct cccggcata 
      cacaaagac gtccctgac tacggcact ctcagggag 
      aagacgcga tatcgcggc ctcgtgtgg gagccctac 
      gaggtctcc acgcaatat tatctcagc attacatta 
      aagccaaag atgaagagc cactaccgg ggccacaag 
      atggccgtt tggttgaat ctcatcccg caactgcat 
      cagccagga gacgacgac gtcagcatg agacaccac 
      catttccac gaacgagaa cctcattat tatgccggt 
      tctgtcagg gcggaatca ttcactcgc ttaccgccg 
      cccctgcac ccggcctca atgacagac tcgcatatc 
      gcaaacgga gagggcacg gaatgcgtt cccaacacc 
      acagccgat gaccaactc gtcgacgac gacgaacta 
      aacctaagc gacgacgag accggcgag gagctcctg 
      caaaagctg gccacccgg cactactac agctacacg 
      gccgctctg ggggtgacc gtcggcgtg ggctgcctg 
      ctcctcctc ctcaacatg ctgatcttc gccgggatt 
      tactaccag agagatcgc gatcgccga agacaaaac 
      cacgtccgt tcgtcacgc tcgaattca tctccttca 
      actgagaca atacccatg tcacaccgg ccttccagc 
      cccgacaat tcatctcgc cagtcgccc attatatgt 
      aggaaagag aaacaagaa ctgccccct tcttacagc 
      acaatcccg aagagtcca tcgcgcaca gatgtgcct 
      tcctcgaac accctgaaa aaggagaag ccgccgccg 
      ccggtgagg acgacgagc aacttgtcg ggaggaacg 
      gtcaagaaa agagtgcag atccaggag atatcggta 
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC033104 RA
      aggcaagtg gaagtacaa gaagaaata tcctgaaga 
      aatctggac ctgcgagct cgttcaagg tgaagatgg 
      gaagcaccg atctttgga gagtgaccg tattttgga 
      aactttcga gtttacagc atgaaaggc gcgttctca 
      aaccagtgc tcaacaaca gatgtcagc ggaactcga 
      agggtgttt ccattgtga atactaagc gaaatcagc 
      cgcttttat agatcctaa aagttttct caaccgaca 
      gaacacccc ttgtttata ggctgcgcg tgtttttaa 
      aagttccgc atatgtaag cgtaaagga gcaaagtga 
      tgccccagt gctggcaga accccccca gaccatgct 
      ttccagatg tccagcgtt cacccgcca tgtaatagg 
      attcctggt gttagtgtt gttaaccac aaacgttcg 
      atcgggacc ccgttacag ctccagaat agttgacat 
      taaaacggg agcaattcg cggcattat cctcgaact 
      caactcacg acatcttga gccggttga agtgtttcg 
      gggtgttcc ctacgctgc gcctcccgt aggacccct 
      cagattcag actgcctca acccccgct cgcttggcc 
      cggaacaag actcgcaga cactttcgg cgccgtttg 
      tccacagaa actaccaga catatccaa cagaactgc 
      cgcactgca gacgatgcc caaaggccg ataccagta 
      tctcaaaaa gctggtgcc cctgctcgt caaccagtc 
      cgaggactg cctgttcct caacattta cgtcccggg 
      aagcggaaa ccgcggctt cgaggctcc ttacgccgt 
      tctagtatt tgtgcatgg tgaaagctt cgagtgggg 
      cgcaggtca tccctacga cggcagcgt tcttgcctc 
      ttacggaca cgtcattgt ggttaccct aaatttccg 
      ccttggaat tcttggttt cctccgcac gaaagcgag 
      tttcgataa aagcgagtc ttcagcgga aaacttggg 
      gattaagga catcgctgc ggctctgcg ttggattaa 
      gattaacat tgcagcatt cggaggaga ccccagccg 
      tgtaacctt agtaggtca cgataccgg agcagctct 
      agttaattt actctttgt ttcccccag ctcgaaagg 
      acttttcaa acgcgtggt gctcctcag cggaaccgc 
      gctgagtcc gtgggctac gattcataa tcctgacac 
      tctgcgcct caccgttgg ccaacaaac aggctgcct 
      gagcggaga ctcgccaga ggagaacga cgacatcgc 
      cccctgctt aagatcgcg gccactcca agcgctcct 
      cgacgtcca gctggaaac tgtgcgctt catgccaag 
      gatcgcccc atccctccc ggtggattt acagacacc 
      tgacccgtc ctttgccat ggaacacgc cagcgaaaa 
      tttcatcat gtgcgaagt gatgttggg cacgaccac 
      caccgagag ttacagtga ctttagtgc cgcggacat 
      ccagtatgg cttcgagga ggaccaaag gaaccgcgt 
      tctgaggac ttatgtgcg gaacgcgta tgtgtacca 
      cttgaacga gattttttc cgcgattag gaacgagta 
      cacggactg ggataagcc catacagca tcccatcaa 
      tatcaggga ttccaccat ggaggcgtt aagtgacgg 
      acatactgt gtcaccgct aatccgggt cgcctatct 
      gcacgcgag aagaggcgc caaaacgta tttcttcca 
      tttcggata ccagaccaa agacagcga gtatccgca 
      gaggctggg gagcgtcag gggtgaaga tgtcacgta 
      tatattggg catgcctct agtcggcgg aatgccttt 
      cttcgccca gaacttcac caaacagga catgggagt 
      ggccgaggc cgtcctcaa cttcttcag caatttcgc 
      caagacggg cgaccccaa cgctcccgg catacacaa 
      agacgtccc tgactacgg cactctcag ggagaagac 
      gcgatatcg cggcctcgt gtgggagcc ctacgaggt 
      ctccacgca atattatct cagcattac attaaagcc 
      aaagatgaa gagccacta ccggggcca caagatggc 
      cgtttggtt gaatctcat cccgcaact gcatcagcc 
      aggagacga cgacgtcag catgagaca ccaccattt 
      ccacgaacg agaacctca ttattatgc cggttctgt 
      cagggcgga atcattcac tcgcttacc gccgcccct 
      gcacccggc ctcaatgac agactcgca tatcgcaaa 
      cggagaggg cacggaatg cgttcccaa caccacagc 
      cgatgacca actcgtcga cgacgacga actaaacct 
      aagcgacga cgagaccgg cgaggagct cctgcaaaa 
      gctggccac ccggcacta ctacagcta cacggccgc 
      tctgggggt gaccgtcgg cgtgggctg cctgctcct 
      cctcctcaa catgctgat cttcgccgg gatttacta 
      ccagagaga tcgcgatcg ccgaagaca aaaccacgt 
      ccgttcgtc acgctcgaa ttcatctcc ttcaactga 
      gacaatacc catgtcaca ccggccttc cagccccga 
      caattcatc tcgccagtc gcccattat atgtaggaa 
      agagaaaca agaactgcc cccttctta cagcacaat 
      cccgaagag tccatcgcg cacagatgt gccttcctc 
      gaacaccct gaaaaagga gaagccgcc gccgccggt 
      gaggacgac gagcaactt gtcgggagg aacggtcaa 
      gaaaagagt gcagatcca ggagatatc ggtatagca 
      atcacagaa cgaggtttg ttcctcaac gaaaccgga 
      cgtcactcc cgaacacga aacggtgaa accgccgtg 
      cgacctcgt ttccttcca gttataacc gaaactgaa 
      acgaaggct taatctgat gtaaatacc caaccttct 
      acacttgat cttcgtttt aaaggtctc tactgtata 
      acttagacg agttaaagg aaacttacc gaaataatg 
      attgtaccg gtgttcctt actgtttac attttttgt 
      tacctatat gaatttgcg ttgaacaca tgtaccaat 
      gtttttgta catacagtt ttagggaaa ttaaagaac 
      gagaacaat ccggactgg tttctctac ccatctcta 
      ttttgaaaa gttcgtgcc atctattac tgcgactta 
      catcaggca tttatttcc gtccagatc tcctttatc 
      ctttgaaag cttaatcca ttttatcat cataatgag 
      aaaaaagtt gaaaaaata gaaaatact cacaaagac 
      gttccttta taacagtcc tttagacgt aaataagcg 
      tctgcaaca ataactagg tatggatag tatttccta 
      gcctctcaa attgaacga catattcga ctctaacaa 
      aattttgcc acaaacata aagcagcca taaaaatta 
      ctaagctaa atttgcatt catcacatt tggcagagc 
      agccgcaat gcagaggaa cagcatatt tcatggcat 
      ttgctgtaa accgtctca atatattgc tgaaaattg 
      gccttttcg ttttgttgt gtctaaatg aaaagataa 
      caagtaatc gttgtgtgg gtacaatgc agacgatgc 
      atttgctat gttaataat aaaaacgtt aatggatc

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY