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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007423.3: 9970371..9979136
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_04148

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 30.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    larva lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC034095 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC034095 RA
      atgtggcaa gcgcctccg ccgccacgt ttccaagca 
      actaaaggt ggcgcaagt catgtggag gccttcgaa 
      cgcgtggtc cgccacttt gcatccggc cgcgtcgcg 
      acgtccaag accgacacc tcgtccacg ccgctcacc 
      aacaacctg gaggaccac tcctccgaa gaagacggg 
      agtatggca ctcttggga cgagacaag gaaatggat 
      aaagttgct cctcagcct ctaccaccg agatacaga 
      ctgagggat cttatcatg ggggattac gcctttaac 
      gacgatggc gaaaggagt tgcgcaatt ttagggggc 
      cccgcccaa attgccggc gtccaagcc tcccttatc 
      cgcaataac agtgacggg acgttcagt ttggacgaa 
      ctcagagac agaatccgg aaaaatccg gactgtcat 
      gagccctac accactcta gtcattatt gaaaacacc 
      cacaacatg tgtggcgga aaagtaaag ttaatcata 
      ataaaaaac ccaccgtta gattggatc gaaaaagtg 
      aaaaacatt tcaaaagag tacaacatt ccggtccat 
      atggacggg gctcgcgtc ataaacgcc gccgtctac 
      ctcaaagta cctgtcgaa cgcgtcgtc cgggacgtg 
      gacaccgtt tgcttctgc ctgagtaag gggctaggc 
      gcccccatt gggtcgatt ctcgccggc agcaagact 
      tttgtcctg gggggcggc tggcggcag gctgggatt 
      atcgcagcc gcggggctc gtggccctt gacaagatg 
      atcgaccgg ttgcaggag gaccacgac cacatctta 
      caaattgcc agagctatc gatagcttg agatcggac 
      atcttcaaa gttgacttg ccctcaatt cacacaaat 
      attttgatc ggagcaaag gcttcctcc attcggccc 
      gattgtgtc aggtttgtg acgtactgg cagatcacc 
      gatgatgat atcagagat acgatcgac agagttacg 
      tttgttttg aaaggattc gatgaccaa ttcaaaatt 
      aacttccct cgcttacat aagcacgaa ataacaatg 
      gaaaaagaa gaatcccaa caagctgaa gtccagact 
      gctgaagta acgacatgt aatgaagaa tctgtgaaa 
      aaattttgt gacgctgac attgctggc caggattcg 
      tgtgaaagc cacccctac aagcacctt ctcaatttt 
      gagcccacc gttgagcag ttgtctcgc gttgagaac 
      atagaggcc cccaaaacg ctcaaggaa acccctctg 
      tgtgacatc gacacgaaa accagtctc gaggaatta 
      ataaccgat ttgaaagcc tggaaggag ttaggggtt 
      gacgttgaa tactcggat catggctac aaagctttg 
      acttgtctc gtccagata tcgacccct gacaaagac 
      tacatcatc gatgcgatt gccttaaaa gacgagttg 
      cacgccttg aatgaagtt ttcaccaat ccagacatt 
      gtgaaaatt tttcattcg gcggtaaat gacctgaag 
      tggctccag caggacttg ggtgttttt gtcgtcaac 
      ttgtttgac actcaaatc gcgatgaaa gcgctgggg 
      tacaaaaag ttgggactg gacgcactt ttgcaggac 
      tatcacgtc gcaaaggat aagacaatg caacgtcag 
      gattttcgc agaaggccc ctgcctccc aaatttaaa 
      gactacgcc cgtgtggac tcccattac ttaatcggg 
      ttttaccac aaactcaaa aatgagttg attgaagcg 
      aaccttttg cgggctgtg cttgatgat tgtaataac 
      tgctgcaag attctctat cctaaagtt gaagatgaa 
      gcgtatttg tcggttcgt agaaatgtc gaagaaata 
      cacaaacgc cagttgtta gttttggaa aaactgaac 
      agctggagg caccaaatt gcccaatat ttggacaaa 
      aacgtgggc tgtgtctta tctaagagt aatatggag 
      accttggtt ttgcaaatg ccgagtgat tcggctgat 
      attatgcaa atttcgcag tcatcacac gtgaaggaa 
      catttggac gaagttatg caaatattg tcggaggga 
      aatcccgtc cggtttaat gagttttct agaaataaa 
      cgtaaattt aaccaaact gggtttggt agaaatgaa 
      ccgtcggga agtaataag aaaaaatgg aataatcaa 
      attggcaaa aatgtgcaa aacatgttt gacttgagg 
      aacactttg ccccaaagg gacaggaag cccttctgg 
      aacaagcaa gcggccaaa cgttttcac aagtataac 
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC034095 RA
      gtggaaaag ccgtccaaa gcgtccagc gtccggcat 
      ctatctaat taaattgca tgtggcaag cgcctccgc 
      cgccacgtt tccaagcaa ctaaaggtg gcgcaagtc 
      atgtggagg ccttcgaac gcgtggtcc gccactttg 
      catccggcc gcgtcgcga cgtccaaga ccgacacct 
      cgtccacgc cgctcacca acaacctgg aggaccact 
      cctccgaag aagacggga gtatggcac tcttgggac 
      gagacaagg aaatggata aagttgctc ctcagcctc 
      taccaccga gatacagac tgagggatc ttatcatgg 
      gggattacg cctttaacg acgatggcg aaaggagtt 
      gcgcaattt tagggggcc ccgcccaaa ttgccggcg 
      tccaagcct cccttatcc gcaataaca gtgacggga 
      cgttcagtt tggacgaac tcagagaca gaatccgga 
      aaaatccgg actgtcatg agccctaca ccactctag 
      tcattattg aaaacaccc acaacatgt gtggcggaa 
      aagtaaagt taatcataa taaaaaacc caccgttag 
      attggatcg aaaaagtga aaaacattt caaaagagt 
      acaacattc cggtccata tggacgggg ctcgcgtca 
      taaacgccg ccgtctacc tcaaagtac ctgtcgaac 
      gcgtcgtcc gggacgtgg acaccgttt gcttctgcc 
      tgagtaagg ggctaggcg cccccattg ggtcgattc 
      tcgccggca gcaagactt ttgtcctgg ggggcggct 
      ggcggcagg ctgggatta tcgcagccg cggggctcg 
      tggcccttg acaagatga tcgaccggt tgcaggagg 
      accacgacc acatcttac aaattgcca gagctatcg 
      atagcttga gatcggaca tcttcaaag ttgacttgc 
      cctcaattc acacaaata ttttgatcg gagcaaagg 
      cttcctcca ttcggcccg attgtgtca ggtttgtga 
      cgtactggc agatcaccg atgatgata tcagagata 
      cgatcgaca gagttacgt ttgttttga aaggattcg 
      atgaccaat tcaaaatta acttccctc gcttacata 
      agcacgaaa taacaatgg aaaaagaag aatcccaac 
      aagctgaag tccagactg ctgaagtaa cgacatgta 
      atgaagaat ctgtgaaaa aattttgtg acgctgaca 
      ttgctggcc aggattcgt gtgaaagcc acccctaca 
      agcaccttc tcaattttg agcccaccg ttgagcagt 
      tgtctcgcg ttgagaaca tagaggccc ccaaaacgc 
      tcaaggaaa cccctctgt gtgacatcg acacgaaaa 
      ccagtctcg aggaattaa taaccgatt tgaaagcct 
      ggaaggagt taggggttg acgttgaat actcggatc 
      atggctaca aagctttga cttgtctcg tccagatat 
      cgacccctg acaaagact acatcatcg atgcgattg 
      ccttaaaag acgagttgc acgccttga atgaagttt 
      tcaccaatc cagacattg tgaaaattt ttcattcgg 
      cggtaaatg acctgaagt ggctccagc aggacttgg 
      gtgtttttg tcgtcaact tgtttgaca ctcaaatcg 
      cgatgaaag cgctggggt acaaaaagt tgggactgg 
      acgcacttt tgcaggact atcacgtcg caaaggata 
      agacaatgc aacgtcagg attttcgca gaaggcccc 
      tgcctccca aatttaaag actacgccc gtgtggact 
      cccattact taatcgggt tttaccaca aactcaaaa 
      atgagttga ttgaagcga accttttgc gggctgtgc 
      ttgatgatt gtaataact gctgcaaga ttctctatc 
      ctaaagttg aagatgaag cgtatttgt cggttcgta 
      gaaatgtcg aagaaatac acaaacgcc agttgttag 
      ttttggaaa aactgaaca gctggaggc accaaattg 
      cccaatatt tggacaaaa acgtgggct gtgtcttat 
      ctaagagta atatggaga ccttggttt tgcaaatgc 
      cgagtgatt cggctgata ttatgcaaa tttcgcagt 
      catcacacg tgaaggaac atttggacg aagttatgc 
      aaatattgt cggagggaa atcccgtcc ggtttaatg 
      agttttcta gaaataaac gtaaattta accaaactg 
      ggtttggta gaaatgaac cgtcgggaa gtaataaga 
      aaaaatgga ataatcaaa ttggcaaaa atgtgcaaa 
      acatgtttg acttgagga acactttgc cccaaaggg 
      acaggaagc ccttctgga acaagcaag cggccaaac 
      gttttcaca agtataact agaccacaa atttttttt 
      tttttggat taattcttt ttggtaagt ttcaatttt 
      attcagtta attatgttt tttatgagt ggtttggac 
      cacttttat ttttttcat ttgggtaca aatgcgtct 
      ttatggaaa cgctacttc acaaaatac agcttaatg 
      tgtttgaaa aaattagaa agatatttc gcttaactc 
      cacaatgtg aattcataa gtgaaatat ttcgaaaac 
      tactgtggg tatagggct cctgttgtt gataaaaac 
      aaaactaaa acatttaag atattggaa aagacaata 
      acaaacata ttgtataag tgcggcaat aaattatat 
      agttcattc aaaaaaaaa aaaaataaa gtaacaaac 

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY