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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007423.3: 8262340..8267100
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_04005

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 0.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 20.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    larva lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    eclosion not fulfilled (died as pupa) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (16 dpi)
    Days post injection

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC034061 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC034061 RA
      atgtatttg gtccttttt ttgaagttt agtgtcgta 
      tttgcatct ctaaattat cacactgaa aaacataat 
      gaacacttt tctgtaact gtttacaag agtctgata 
      cgcacgaat tccgacttt gtcgcaagt ccttttttg 
      attgaatca gttttcgct attttttac ttgggatcc 
      gaatggggc actgctaag gaaatgcgc caactgttt 
      gattttccc cgtaaaaat gtagaactt ataaaaaaa 
      ttcaaaaaa cttgtgtcc tttcttaac gagcagaat 
      tttcacgta gaacataag atgttatgg gatgaagtc 
      gaatggata ccgcgtttc gagaatgac accaaagaa 
      attttccaa tcattccaa cttgaggcc ttcgagggt 
      aaaaaagag caagtggag aaacttaat agttggttt 
      cgggagcaa actaataat aaaatcgat tacatgata 
      aaatcacta aaagatcta gaaaaggct gtaatatct 
      gctttcctc ttttcggct tcacatttc gaaggcaag 
      tggagtgag gcgtcttct gaaagaagt gtaaatgct 
      cgatatttt cattacgga acattgcac aataagagt 
      gccaaatta gtggaatta ccgttcgaa aaaagtgaa 
      gcttccatg gttttaatt tttccggaa aacgctaac 
      gactttcac caacttgaa gcagaactt gcgcaaatt 
      ttggaacga ccgaacttt actaagtct gaaccagcg 
      actatttca ctgccgaaa tttcgtttt gagcatttt 
      gttgtggag tacaaccac gagcgtcta gctgagatg 
      ggtatacgg aaagctctt tatggtgga gattataaa 
      tacatgaca gcttggtac aatgtgcat gtcaactat 
      tttacggaa aaagtttat ctaaaagtc aatgaacaa 
      ggagttgag gtagcgtca ggtctggca ccacctttt 
      gggcagaag agtttttgt ttcaaaacc aacaactat 
      cgttcacca aatcaaaaa atgtgtttc gttctattt 
      ttgctattt ggtggcgca tttgcgtca aacgccacc 
      caaaaatac gataaacga tttaccgca tctttgtac 
      aaggaggtg ggaaaaaat tgcaccaat tttgtcata 
      agtcccttt ttgattgag acagctttt ggtgccctt 
      tatttggga agctcaggc agaacgtcg caagaaatg 
      cgaatcgtg tttcatttt cccgtaagc aatgaagag 
      cttgaaacg agatataga aatttcttt gcgaatttt 
      acgaaccaa ggctacaga ctgcacatt gcaaacaag 
      gtttcggtg gtcgataga gtgaaattt gtcccgagt 
      tgggagaaa aaaatcaag gatattttc caagtgtgt 
      accgatatt gtagatttg aggaataaa gataggacc 
      gtggcaaaa atcaatcgg tggtttggg gaacaaact 
      tacaagaaa atcgatatt ttatcgcgg gaaatgcta 
      agttgtgaa agaattgat gttttgctt cttagcgcg 
      ttgtatttt caagcgaat tgggctcaa ccgttttct 
      agcgattgc acgcgggaa ggtattttt tacaactat 
      ggtagagaa caaattttt gttgatatg atgaataca 
      agggcccag ttaattaat tacggcaaa agtattaaa 
      ttaaaagcc caatttttg gaactcctc tttgaacaa 
      aaccaagct tccatggtt gtggttgtt ccaaatgaa 
      agggacggg atttccaaa cttgaaaaa aacattacc 
      aatgttttg tattttcgg aaatttcgg ccccaacta 
      atgactatt ttactgccg aaatttcga atggaaaat 
      accctcgac ttggaagag tttatacac aaattgggt 
      ttgaatgtt acgttcaat gaacagaaa gcttcactt 
      tttggaact gtaacatgt gctaactgt ccgtcgccg 
      tacgtcacc aaagtttcg caaaaaatt tatctggac 
      gttaacgag cgaggcgtt caggctgag gcaggtcaa 
      gtagtacaa tacatggct ccgaaattt ttgtatccg 
      gagttaaaa gtcgaccat ccttttata ttttacatc 
      aaagtcagg gaggttgtg gtttttgtt gggcgagtc 
      gttgctttt tag
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC034061 RA
      taaaaaatg tatttggtc ctttttttg aagtttagt 
      gtcgtattt gcatctcta aattatcac actgaaaaa 
      cataatgaa cacttttct gtaactgtt tacaagagt 
      ctgatacgc acgaattcc gactttgtc gcaagtcct 
      tttttgatt gaatcagtt ttcgctatt ttttacttg 
      ggatccgaa tggggcact gctaaggaa atgcgccaa 
      ctgtttgat tttccccgt aaaaatgta gaacttata 
      aaaaaattc aaaaaactt gtgtccttt cttaacgag 
      cagaatttt cacgtagaa cataagatg ttatgggat 
      gaagtcgaa tggataccg cgtttcgag aatgacacc 
      aaagaaatt ttccaatca ttccaactt gaggccttc 
      gagggtaaa aaagagcaa gtggagaaa cttaatagt 
      tggtttcgg gagcaaact aataataaa atcgattac 
      atgataaaa tcactaaaa gatctagaa aaggctgta 
      atatctgct ttcctcttt tcggcttca catttcgaa 
      ggcaagtgg agtgaggcg tcttctgaa agaagtgta 
      aatgctcga tattttcat tacggaaca ttgcacaat 
      aagagtgcc aaattagtg gaattaccg ttcgaaaaa 
      agtgaagct tccatggtt ttaattttt ccggaaaac 
      gctaacgac tttcaccaa cttgaagca gaacttgcg 
      caaattttg gaacgaccg aactttact aagtctgaa 
      ccagcgact atttcactg ccgaaattt cgttttgag 
      cattttgtt gtggagtac aaccacgag cgtctagct 
      gagatgggt atacggaaa gctctttat ggtggagat 
      tataaatac atgacagct tggtacaat gtgcatgtc 
      aactatttt acggaaaaa gtttatcta aaagtcaat 
      gaacaagga gttgaggta gcgtcaggt ctggcacca 
      ccttttggg cagaagagt ttttgtttc aaaaccaac 
      aactatcgt tcaccaaat caaaaaatg tgtttcgtt 
      ctatttttg ctatttggt ggcgcattt gcgtcaaac 
      gccacccaa aaatacgat aaacgattt accgcatct 
      ttgtacaag gaggtggga aaaaattgc accaatttt 
      gtcataagt ccctttttg attgagaca gcttttggt 
      gccctttat ttgggaagc tcaggcaga acgtcgcaa 
      gaaatgcga atcgtgttt cattttccc gtaagcaat 
      gaagagctt gaaacgaga tatagaaat ttctttgcg 
      aattttacg aaccaaggc tacagactg cacattgca 
      aacaaggtt tcggtggtc gatagagtg aaatttgtc 
      ccgagttgg gagaaaaaa atcaaggat attttccaa 
      gtgtgtacc gatattgta gatttgagg aataaagat 
      aggaccgtg gcaaaaatc aatcggtgg tttggggaa 
      caaacttac aagaaaatc gatatttta tcgcgggaa 
      atgctaagt tgtgaaaga attgatgtt ttgcttctt 
      agcgcgttg tattttcaa gcgaattgg gctcaaccg 
      ttttctagc gattgcacg cgggaaggt attttttac 
      aactatggt agagaacaa atttttgtt gatatgatg 
      aatacaagg gcccagtta attaattac ggcaaaagt 
      attaaatta aaagcccaa tttttggaa ctcctcttt 
      gaacaaaac caagcttcc atggttgtg gttgttcca 
      aatgaaagg gacgggatt tccaaactt gaaaaaaac 
      attaccaat gttttgtat tttcggaaa tttcggccc 
      caactaatg actatttta ctgccgaaa tttcgaatg 
      gaaaatacc ctcgacttg gaagagttt atacacaaa 
      ttgggtttg aatgttacg ttcaatgaa cagaaagct 
      tcacttttt ggaactgta acatgtgct aactgtccg 
      tcgccgtac gtcaccaaa gtttcgcaa aaaatttat 
      ctggacgtt aacgagcga ggcgttcag gctgaggca 
      ggtcaagta gtacaatac atggctccg aaatttttg 
      tatccggag ttaaaagtc gaccatcct tttatattt 
      tacatcaaa gtcagggag gttgtggtt tttgttggg 
      cgagtcgtt gctttttag ttcaataat aataattca 
      aaaaaaact ggtgaggcg tttaatttc cctaactac 
      aataactag cacacattt ggacaacta ttaaattta 
      ttatacgta t

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY