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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NW_015450949.1: 0..4193
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_03892

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 30.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 20.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 30.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    larva lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (22 dpi)
    Days post injection

    egg production: number <50% of expected -
    Comment: No phenotype found!
    ovary without detectable defects - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4
    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC032704 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC032704 RA
      atgtccggt tcacaacct tcgattcac aatgatgac 
      gaccatcat cgtgaaggt gaaaatcct cgaccagaa 
      ctcaatcgt cagagaggt gacggtagg gctggggga 
      ccactaggg tcagcagcg gccgcatct catttgata 
      cccacatat tcaggtgaa gggtcggta aaaaccttt 
      atcagtttt gtggaggat actgcagag ttagagggg 
      tggacagaa ttgcaaacg gtcaaggtg gctcgtctg 
      aaattgcaa ggaccagct cgacgcatg gtcgagtgg 
      aatgaagaa ctacgaggc atcgattgc acttggaat 
      cgattaaaa gctgcgttg attcatcgc ttcgagaaa 
      aaaatctca gccgtggac gcactgcat caatttcgc 
      aaatgcaaa cagcgagtt ggcgaaact gttaccgaa 
      ttcgctgaa cgtctgcag atgttggga gcagcgaca 
      attaaacgc accggagat caagcaagg gatcgatgg 
      gccaggacc aatctgcaa gccgaatgt ttacagcaa 
      ttcttggag ggattggca atgccagta caacaacga 
      gtaatgtca tctaacccc gacgctttc gaagaggcg 
      gtcaaaaaa gccctactc gaggagcaa attgaagac 
      cggctaaaa aagaaaaca atgcaacga gggatagtt 
      gctgaagaa aaaacggaa ttcggtcac ggtcaacag 
      caggaacgc gcctttaaa cgggaacag ggccgtgcc 
      ccaatcgca cggtgcggc ccgcaccag gaattaaaa 
      cctgatagt aatacctct tatccccgt atttgcaac 
      atcaagatt tccaaacac aactccatc tctcttatc 
      attaatgaa cgcgagtca aaagccctt atcgacact 
      gggtcagat atctcgctc gtcaaatat tctgttttg 
      acctcggat caacttaaa acaattacc ggaaataat 
      ttcatactt aaggacgta cagggagcg attataaca 
      aataaagga caaattgac ttggacata cacatagat 
      tatgatgtt gtgattaga cataaattc atcgtggta 
      gaaaatgca atacgattc aagggttca attttaata 
      gggttggat tttttacat gaatttaag gtaaacatt 
      tgctggtca gaaaagatg gtcgaaatt ctagggtac 
      aggatacct ttagaaact gaagatcaa atacgcatg 
      attgattta gataatttc gcagataaa cgaaaagaa 
      aaatttgcc ggcttgaag cacgcggat gtgatgact 
      aacgttggc gccaatatg aataatttt cgagatgta 
      agtgagaat ttgatgaac cttggagta aataaggat 
      tgggtggac catgaagag gtcaccgat tttgatgtc 
      tcaggagac cctcggaac actgtaaac cttaaggaa 
      cagcttaac gatcctgag gataatctc gttgacata 
      attaaagac gtgcaattc gactttgat gtcccaaga 
      gaccctcgg aacactgtg aaccttaag gagcagcat 
      aacgatccg gaggataat ctcgctgac acagatgaa 
      gaaatacga ttcgatttt aatgcacca aaggaccct 
      cggaccact gtaaaccgc aaggagcag cttaacgga 
      ccggaggat aatcttgtt gaattagtc aagaaggac 
      actaagtat cagtggaag caagaacag gatgaagcg 
      tttaatagc cttaagcaa gccttaatc acgccacca 
      gtactcaag tatcctgat tttcgacgg cctttcatt 
      ttagcaaca gatgcgtcg ggaattgct atcagtgca 
      attttatcg caaaaatac gaaatcgaa catccaatt 
      tgttatgca agcagaagc ttgaaggac gcggagacc 
      aggtacagc acgattgaa cgggaggcg ttggccatt 
      gtttgggct gtcaaatac tttcgttgt tatttgaca 
      ggtgctcga tttactata attacggac catcgacct 
      ttaaaatac ctcttaaca ataaaagaa cctagttca 
      cgcttagct aaatgggct atgtcctta accgagttc 
      gactttgaa gttcaatac cgtcccgga aaacaacat 
      catgttgat gcttttacc cgattagaa cacccgcaa 
      gaggaaatg tcgattcaa gccatacaa caggattgt 
      actccaatt atctataat ctggaggag atcaagaaa 
      gcccaaagc gaagataag gacattcaa tccttgtta 
      ccacaagag ggatactac caatctcct aatggatta 
      tgctacagg gaacggctg gatggagag cgacatgat 
      aaattattg gtgcccaaa acaatgcaa agaagaatc 
      cttcaattc gagagtttt attggaagg gtatga
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC032704 RA
      cattcacaa agacgaaat gtccggttc acaaccttc 
      gattcacaa tgatgacga ccatcatcg tgaaggtga 
      aaatcctcg accagaact caatcgtca gagaggtga 
      cggtagggc tgggggacc actagggtc agcagcggc 
      cgcatctca tttgatacc cacatattc aggtgaagg 
      gtcggtaaa aacctttat cagttttgt ggaggatac 
      tgcagagtt agaggggtg gacagaatt gcaaacggt 
      caaggtggc tcgtctgaa attgcaagg accagctcg 
      acgcatggt cgagtggaa tgaagaact acgaggcat 
      cgattgcac ttggaatcg attaaaagc tgcgttgat 
      tcatcgctt cgagaaaaa aatctcagc cgtggacgc 
      actgcatca atttcgcaa atgcaaaca gcgagttgg 
      cgaaactgt taccgaatt cgctgaacg tctgcagat 
      gttgggagc agcgacaat taaacgcac cggagatca 
      agcaaggga tcgatgggc caggaccaa tctgcaagc 
      cgaatgttt acagcaatt cttggaggg attggcaat 
      gccagtaca acaacgagt aatgtcatc taaccccga 
      cgctttcga agaggcggt caaaaaagc cctactcga 
      ggagcaaat tgaagaccg gctaaaaaa gaaaacaat 
      gcaacgagg gatagttgc tgaagaaaa aacggaatt 
      cggtcacgg tcaacagca ggaacgcgc ctttaaacg 
      ggaacaggg ccgtgcccc aatcgcacg gtgcggccc 
      gcaccagga attaaaacc tgatagtaa tacctctta 
      tccccgtat ttgcaacat caagatttc caaacacaa 
      ctccatctc tcttatcat taatgaacg cgagtcaaa 
      agcccttat cgacactgg gtcagatat ctcgctcgt 
      caaatattc tgttttgac ctcggatca acttaaaac 
      aattaccgg aaataattt catacttaa ggacgtaca 
      gggagcgat tataacaaa taaaggaca aattgactt 
      ggacataca catagatta tgatgttgt gattagaca 
      taaattcat cgtggtaga aaatgcaat acgattcaa 
      gggttcaat tttaatagg gttggattt tttacatga 
      atttaaggt aaacatttg ctggtcaga aaagatggt 
      cgaaattct agggtacag gataccttt agaaactga 
      agatcaaat acgcatgat tgatttaga taatttcgc 
      agataaacg aaaagaaaa atttgccgg cttgaagca 
      cgcggatgt gatgactaa cgttggcgc caatatgaa 
      taattttcg agatgtaag tgagaattt gatgaacct 
      tggagtaaa taaggattg ggtggacca tgaagaggt 
      caccgattt tgatgtctc aggagaccc tcggaacac 
      tgtaaacct taaggaaca gcttaacga tcctgagga 
      taatctcgt tgacataat taaagacgt gcaattcga 
      ctttgatgt cccaagaga ccctcggaa cactgtgaa 
      ccttaagga gcagcataa cgatccgga ggataatct 
      cgctgacac agatgaaga aatacgatt cgattttaa 
      tgcaccaaa ggaccctcg gaccactgt aaaccgcaa 
      ggagcagct taacggacc ggaggataa tcttgttga 
      attagtcaa gaaggacac taagtatca gtggaagca 
      agaacagga tgaagcgtt taatagcct taagcaagc 
      cttaatcac gccaccagt actcaagta tcctgattt 
      tcgacggcc tttcatttt agcaacaga tgcgtcggg 
      aattgctat cagtgcaat tttatcgca aaaatacga 
      aatcgaaca tccaatttg ttatgcaag cagaagctt 
      gaaggacgc ggagaccag gtacagcac gattgaacg 
      ggaggcgtt ggccattgt ttgggctgt caaatactt 
      tcgttgtta tttgacagg tgctcgatt tactataat 
      tacggacca tcgaccttt aaaatacct cttaacaat 
      aaaagaacc tagttcacg cttagctaa atgggctat 
      gtccttaac cgagttcga ctttgaagt tcaataccg 
      tcccggaaa acaacatca tgttgatgc ttttacccg 
      attagaaca cccgcaaga ggaaatgtc gattcaagc 
      catacaaca ggattgtac tccaattat ctataatct 
      ggaggagat caagaaagc ccaaagcga agataagga 
      cattcaatc cttgttacc acaagaggg atactacca 
      atctcctaa tggattatg ctacaggga acggctgga 
      tggagagcg acatgataa attattggt gcccaaaac 
      aatgcaaag aagaatcct tcaattcga gagttttat 
      tggaagggt atgacagaa gccgtgaga aaatat

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY