Status
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Gene information
General information
TC031968
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.

TC004814,TC004816
Gene

The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007417.3: 2256234..2284550
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB http://www.orthodb.org/. The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    TC031968
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.


    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes


    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.


    Gene
    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
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    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    Evidence
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    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    Quotation
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    Name
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    Email
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_03851

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    inside-out
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 20.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection


    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection


    Analysis of embryonic musculature and early development
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50 embryo/egg with embryonic tissue potentially present, no cuticle, no fluorescence - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): more than 80%

    affected eggs/embryos/larvae total percentage of affected eggs/embryos/larvae on slide - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): more than 80%
    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50
    egg without cuticle embryo/egg without visible larval cuticle in cuticle preparation - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): more than 80%
    affected eggs/embryos/larvae total percentage of affected eggs/embryos/larvae on slide - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): more than 80%
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 70.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 100.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    larva lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 7 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection


    pupal molt delayed (still larva) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection


    eclosion not fulfilled (died as pupa) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (16 dpi)
    Days post injection


    Pupal morphology
    head appendages pattern constricted - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1

    maxillary palp structure not present - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1
    antenna orientation irregular - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1
    head orientation irregular - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1
    head size shortened - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1
    elytra ventralorientation not closed - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1

    elytra size shortened - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1

    legs orientation irregular - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1
    wings shortened - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1
    RNAi sequence
    Primers
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC031968 RA
      MPATIPDSP GSSPGIKDE CDDFMCIDD SPLDLRINC 
      GRISPGARD SGTESDDTE EKIIQEGAD CKPYKKSLI 
      KRFDKEQNN YLHQLLSRQ RTDLQHPSL CDYGRRKSV 
      YPTTTTGSL PPSPADSGV SDVDSSSSG HTSTDELKA 
      RLQPSIHSP VGNLFSRHP LSWTSPAHH GQRAPSHMP 
      QQFYQPFTS IPDSYNSYL LQQHHHVQQ NQHMHHHNS 
      TASPFTTPS PPSPPMRHA IPTSVIQAA TSSVYDDAY 
      MLGFSPRKL KKVKKQKIG EPGSVKRKS REGSTTYLW 
      EFLLKLLQD REYCPRYIK WTNREKGVF KLVDSKAVS 
      RLWGMHKNK PDMNYETMG RALRYYYQR GILAKVDGQ 
      RLVYQFVEV PKDIIEIDC TGA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC031968 RA
      atgccagcc accattccg gactcgccc ggatcctcc 
      cccggaatc aaggatgaa tgcgacgat ttcatgtgc 
      attgacgac tcacccctg gacttgaga atcaactgc 
      ggccggatt agtccggga gcgcgcgat tccggaact 
      gaaagcgac gacacggaa gaaaagatc atacaggaa 
      ggcgccgac tgcaaaccc tacaaaaag agcctgatc 
      aagagattt gacaaggag caaaacaac tacttacat 
      caactactt tcaagacag cgtacagac ctccaacat 
      ccctcattg tgtgattat ggcagaaga aagtcagtg 
      tatcccacg acaaccacc ggttcgttg cctccgagt 
      ccagcagat tcgggcgtt tcagacgtg gacagttcg 
      tccagcggt cacacatca accgacgaa ttaaaagcg 
      agattacag ccctcgata cattctccc gtaggaaat 
      ttattttca agacaccca ttgtcatgg acgtcaccc 
      gcccatcat ggtcagcga gctcccagt catatgccc 
      cagcagttc taccaaccc ttcacctcc ataccggat 
      tcgtacaac agctacctt ctccagcag caccaccac 
      gtccagcag aaccagcac atgcaccac cacaacagc 
      accgcctcc cctttcacg acgccctct cccccgtct 
      ccgcccatg aggcacgcc atccccacc tcggtgatc 
      caggcggcc acttcgagc gtgtacgat gacgcgtac 
      atgctcggt ttttcccct cgaaaactg aagaaagtc 
      aagaagcaa aaaatcggc gaacccggt tccgtcaaa 
      aggaaaagt cgggagggt tcgacgacg tatctgtgg 
      gaattcttg ctcaaactc ctgcaggac agggagtac 
      tgcccgcgg tatatcaag tggacgaac agggagaag 
      ggcgtcttc aagctggtg gactccaag gcggtgtcc 
      aggctctgg ggcatgcac aagaacaag cccgatatg 
      aattacgag acgatgggg cgggctctg aggtactac 
      taccagagg ggcattttg gcgaaggtg gacggtcaa 
      aggctggtt tatcagttc gttgaagtt ccgaaggat 
      ataatcgaa atcgattgc acgggcgcg tga
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC031968 RA
      attcacggc gtgtccaaa tgaaagtaa agaggcagg 
      cactttgac gaaagctcc cgacgactc cacgaccgc 
      cgtatctga gtcagtagg acattcgaa ccctactag 
      tctgcactg aacggtgag gcaagcaag tagcgttaa 
      gtacccctc tgtgcaact acacacgcg tgtggcaaa 
      gtgtttaca ttgtgacag tgcgaggac ttcgattat 
      gcgatcata aactcactt ttgatgatt ctgatcaag 
      ccgttcagc aaaatgcca gccaccatt ccggactcg 
      cccggatcc tcccccgga atcaaggat gaatgcgac 
      gatttcatg tgcattgac gactcaccc ctggacttg 
      agaatcaac tgcggccgg attagtccg ggagcgcgc 
      gattccgga actgaaagc gacgacacg gaagaaaag 
      atcatacag gaaggcgcc gactgcaaa ccctacaaa 
      aagagcctg atcaagaga tttgacaag gagcaaaac 
      aactactta catcaacta ctttcaaga cagcgtaca 
      gacctccaa catccctca ttgtgtgat tatggcaga 
      agaaagtca gtgtatccc acgacaacc accggttcg 
      ttgcctccg agtccagca gattcgggc gtttcagac 
      gtggacagt tcgtccagc ggtcacaca tcaaccgac 
      gaattaaaa gcgagatta cagccctcg atacattct 
      cccgtagga aatttattt tcaagacac ccattgtca 
      tggacgtca cccgcccat catggtcag cgagctccc 
      agtcatatg ccccagcag ttctaccaa cccttcacc 
      tccataccg gattcgtac aacagctac cttctccag 
      cagcaccac cacgtccag cagaaccag cacatgcac 
      caccacaac agcaccgcc tcccctttc acgacgccc 
      tctcccccg tctccgccc atgaggcac gccatcccc 
      acctcggtg atccaggcg gccacttcg agcgtgtac 
      gatgacgcg tacatgctc ggtttttcc cctcgaaaa 
      ctgaagaaa gtcaagaag caaaaaatc ggcgaaccc 
      ggttccgtc aaaaggaaa agtcgggag ggttcgacg 
      acgtatctg tgggaattc ttgctcaaa ctcctgcag 
      gacagggag tactgcccg cggtatatc aagtggacg 
      aacagggag aagggcgtc ttcaagctg gtggactcc 
      aaggcggtg tccaggctc tggggcatg cacaagaac 
      aagcccgat atgaattac gagacgatg gggcgggct 
      ctgaggtac tactaccag aggggcatt ttggcgaag 
      gtggacggt caaaggctg gtttatcag ttcgttgaa 
      gttccgaag gatataatc gaaatcgat tgcacgggc 
      gcgtgattg ccttttaat tagacttct tccagtggt 
      gtggaccac tgtctcgag agtacaaca tacttaaaa 
      cacgaaatg aatttattt attagaaat tatacgtag 
      gaactctgg tgtaaataa agacaatat tggaagagt 
      tggttgaat tcatacaac gaattttcg cactttgca 
      catttcgct ccgagatct caatgtaaa gtgtaacac 
      gaatcactg tcatatctt cgtcatgga cctgatacg 
      tcaatcaag aataagtgt cttgtcacc ttaactgga 
      ctgctagga aggttgtga tgtgaatta tgttatcca 
      ggttgtggt tactttaat aattaaacc agcaagaga 
      ttgtaattt ttgcactat ttcataccc gttgcttcc 
      cgagcaata ataaaattc cgacaaaaa tttggtttt 
      tggcaaaca caaggtgct tcgcgtgtt aaattgtac 
      agtgataat ttgttattt tgttgattg aaaagattt 
      aactcgatt gcaatgtaa ataaaagtt tataaaagc 
      cgtatggat gttgttgct tgtatgaaa tagtgatag 
      taattgtta tactagatt tttataaag taagagata 
      tttagatat tgtacatta cttaacaac ggtacgaag 
      atttaatat gaaatgtga tagagagga taaagtatt 
      ttggagacg ttttataaa ttttgttac ctagtttag 
      cggtgctct tacaaggcg atgagactg tgcggtgcc 
      tgaagattg acaaaacgc gttgaattg tcaatattt 
      tagctctct tgagtgttc ggcagaaga ataaactac 
      taaaagctt tgatctcag atgtacacg caggaaaac 
      agtttgatt gaaaaacgc agaaaattg taaataaca 
      ctgtttttg tacttatga ttgggttcc gtttctaat 
      ccgtgtttc ctttacgtt tattttcta agtgtacat 
      tctgtatag tatttattt aataacgtc aagaactca 
      caatactaa gttgtaaat tttcgttgt aacgttctg 
      tgattgtat atttagttc cctttgtaa aattttcga 
      aattttcat tgtagtgaa tgttattaa cgttgtacc 
      taaggtcaa atgtgtctt gaaatttta cccaactca 
      gtgcgcaaa tcaggacga aattacaat tatattatt 
      attaaaaac taacccagg tctcaatct cagtgaagt 
      aactataca tatgtgtag aattattaa ctaaatgta 
      cgcacaaca aacaaaata gtaacaaca ttcgaattg 
      tacgtccaa aacatgtga taattgtcg aaaatgcat 
      gcttgatca ccttagcat agatatatt tggtataca 
      tgttcagtg gtcttttaa aacattttg tttgttgct 
      gttggtccg ttcggtttc accttcatg tatacacat 
      attgtttgt actctataa aaaagattt gaactaaac 
      taacatttg ttgtaaaac agttattaa tgttaaaaa 
      gagtaaata taaaaattg caactaaat aaaaaaaga 
      ttggtgata ttgtcaaat gtaggataa taatgttga 
      cacgcaagt tgtatatat tatattgta taattttta 
      ttatattac aaaatacct acctaagta tctactgaa 
      ttttaatga tttcaaata caatattgt atagtttta 
      tttagcata agacaaggt acttttatt atatagttt 
      attgtaata ttttgtctt tacaaaaat atgacatga 
      ataaaatta tttgtgtta t
    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY