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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007417.3: 2411578..2422912
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_03788

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 40.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 30.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 40.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    larva lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (16 dpi)
    Days post injection

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC031964 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC031964 RA
      atgaggcga tcatcaaac gcagttctt caatcccaa 
      acctccgaa cccttaatc gtggttgaa gattcgtat 
      tatgaggac ccagaagag caaaaagcg agtgatcct 
      gactcgcac cacagttcg gaggacgag tctcccacc 
      atgaaccca tatctcctg tctccatac tcacgagac 
      gttcgtaaa cactccctg ccaacgccc caatgtagt 
      ggaatcaca gcaagtcag gtccggcgt ttatcagaa 
      cggggggaa accgttggg cctggacct agacaagct 
      gagttcctg gcgacactt tcgacagca ccggcccct 
      tctccagga ggtcggaga cattctgtg gtgactatt 
      tcgaaggtc cctccgact ttgttcggg aggaataga 
      cgggagtct gtagcggcg ttttcctct ggtactggg 
      tttccgaca agagtgctt ccgaataga cgggagtcc 
      attgcttgt ccgccgtca actgaacct cgaggaagt 
      gtccataat ctccagttg gatataatg gacgatata 
      gtccaagcg cgcaaagtc cggatgaag ttgtggaca 
      actagcaat gaacgcgtt tgtgaagtt caacccctt 
      gacgattcc aaagctggt gatgttcaa agatacaca 
      aattcttcc aaccgtcgg tactcggac tttgtgggt 
      accacttta gcgcctatt ccgagttcg agcaagcgg 
      cgagcgtcc gaactgccg ccccccaac acctgcacc 
      accacaagc gcaagtaag ccacccacc atcggaata 
      gtttgctct aatactgat cttatctct attttatct 
      tccctttcg acgtcttcc acggaaata aatcagtgt 
      gagacagca cgaaaacct gaaccctcg tcctccaaa 
      gccattgac cagaaacgc agtcgattg aagagcaac 
      aggtcgagt agtttcgac atttcgatc cttcacagc 
      gatagcgaa aatacgcct tcgaactgg ttcgccaaa 
      cgacatcaa ccgatttca aaccgagtt gttgagaaa 
      gagcccgga aaggtggtt tgggacgaa agaagcgga 
      tcgttggtg gatgcacaa gctttaggc agtgctatt 
      gagggcttt ctcagacaa actacacca gaaacaggt 
      agcaccacc tcaccacac acttcaccc agcaaatgc 
      aaaacacca acaaataaa agcgccgct ggtcgggct 
      aaaactagt tggttttcg agcaagggc gaaacaggg 
      aaagagatc tgtatgcaa cttctagta ctcctcaaa 
      caagcaagg tcaagtaga ttcgactat aacggttcc 
      agctggtac ctaccaagc gttttaaaa aatcaaaaa 
      caaacgttt aacgtcgag attaacatc actagtaat 
      aaatacaac aatagtaaa ataaaaatg accgtggat 
      ttcaccgcc ttgataaca gaggaaacg ttatcgaaa 
      ctaaaatgc gatgactgc aaaaaccac ttgtctcac 
      tttccaatt tacgtctcc aacgacaaa aagaacatc 
      tgcgggcgt tgctcaaaa acacaagaa aacctaaca 
      aggaacgag gtttatgaa ggtttagcc cagttcatt 
      cagtttcct tgtcaatat aaaaataag ggttgtggt 
      gagatattt ttcccgaaa gacattcca acgcatgag 
      gagagatgt gttttccgt attattgaa tgccccacg 
      aaacacttc acttcgtgt gattggacc ggggcatta 
      cccactgtt ttggttcat tgccagaac aaacacaat 
      gaactgatt ttgaaaaac ggcgctttt gagttggat 
      ttagccaaa tcgtacaag agtgagaag ttgctggaa 
      tatgagtct ggggtattt atcgtcgtc caaaaattt 
      taccctatt aacaaactg atggagttt acggtgcgt 
      taccccgag tatgggttt gatattaag gaaattcca 
      tgcaagata agcttcaaa acagcgaat agaaatgtg 
      gaggtttgt ggttacacg actagattt gaggacgat 
      aaagtcacc gagatttat ttggactca ttgagcgat 
      cgcaatgca gtttcgact gtaatagag ggaaaaatt 
      gcactggat aagtttatc gacaagccg gttattaat 
      gaacaaaat gatgaattt ttggctttg ttaaaatgt 
      tcgtcgtgt cataggttt gctttacca cccatttac 
      gaggtggtt tctaccaat ccaggccaa cccatttac 
      gaggtggtt tctaccaat ccaggccaa caaaatttg 
      gttaagtgt gccaaatgc aagccattg gagcaccca 
      aacctcaag ctttgcgga atatcgctt tggataacc 
      ttgcaaata agctaa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC031964 RA
      cgaaagtta ttttcaata gttcgagtc tttttgaat 
      ttaaatgac aagcacgtc tagctcttg aaagacaag 
      ctgattttc ggccatgag gcgatcatc aaacgcagt 
      tcttcaatc ccaaacctc cgaaccctt aatcgtggt 
      tgaagattc gtattatga ggacccaga agagcaaaa 
      agcgagtga tcctgactc gcaccacag ttcggagga 
      cgagtctcc caccatgaa cccatatct cctgtctcc 
      atactcacg agacgttcg taaacactc cctgccaac 
      gccccaatg tagtggaat cacagcaag tcaggtccg 
      gcgtttatc agaacgggg ggaaaccgt tgggcctgg 
      acctagaca agctgagtt cctggcgac actttcgac 
      agcaccggc cccttctcc aggaggtcg gagacattc 
      tgtggtgac tatttcgaa ggtccctcc gactttgtt 
      cgggaggaa tagacggga gtctgtagc ggcgttttc 
      ctctggtac tgggtttcc gacaagagt gcttccgaa 
      tagacggga gtccattgc ttgtccgcc gtcaactga 
      acctcgagg aagtgtcca taatctcca gttggatat 
      aatggacga tatagtcca agcgcgcaa agtccggat 
      gaagttgtg gacaactag caatgaacg cgtttgtga 
      agttcaacc ccttgacga ttccaaagc tggtgatgt 
      tcaaagata cacaaattc ttccaaccg tcggtactc 
      ggactttgt gggtaccac tttagcgcc tattccgag 
      ttcgagcaa gcggcgagc gtccgaact gccgccccc 
      caacacctg caccaccac aagcgcaag taagccacc 
      caccatcgg aatagtttg ctctaatac tgatcttat 
      ctctatttt atcttccct ttcgacgtc ttccacgga 
      aataaatca gtgtgagac agcacgaaa acctgaacc 
      ctcgtcctc caaagccat tgaccagaa acgcagtcg 
      attgaagag caacaggtc gagtagttt cgacatttc 
      gatccttca cagcgatag cgaaaatac gccttcgaa 
      ctggttcgc caaacgaca tcaaccgat ttcaaaccg 
      agttgttga gaaagagcc cggaaaggt ggtttggga 
      cgaaagaag cggatcgtt ggtggatgc acaagcttt 
      aggcagtgc tattgaggg ctttctcag acaaactac 
      accagaaac aggtagcac cacctcacc acacacttc 
      acccagcaa atgcaaaac accaacaaa taaaagcgc 
      cgctggtcg ggctaaaac tagttggtt ttcgagcaa 
      gggcgaaac agggaaaga gatctgtat gcaacttct 
      agtactcct caaacaagc aaggtcaag tagattcga 
      ctataacgg ttccagctg gtacctacc aagcgtttt 
      aaaaaatca aaaacaaac gtttaacgt cgagattaa 
      catcactag taataaata caacaatag taaaataaa 
      aatgaccgt ggatttcac cgccttgat aacagagga 
      aacgttatc gaaactaaa atgcgatga ctgcaaaaa 
      ccacttgtc tcactttcc aatttacgt ctccaacga 
      caaaaagaa catctgcgg gcgttgctc aaaaacaca 
      agaaaacct aacaaggaa cgaggttta tgaaggttt 
      agcccagtt cattcagtt tccttgtca atataaaaa 
      taagggttg tggtgagat atttttccc gaaagacat 
      tccaacgca tgaggagag atgtgtttt ccgtattat 
      tgaatgccc cacgaaaca cttcacttc gtgtgattg 
      gaccggggc attacccac tgttttggt tcattgcca 
      gaacaaaca caatgaact gattttgaa aaacggcgc 
      ttttgagtt ggatttagc caaatcgta caagagtga 
      gaagttgct ggaatatga gtctggggt atttatcgt 
      cgtccaaaa attttaccc tattaacaa actgatgga 
      gtttacggt gcgttaccc cgagtatgg gtttgatat 
      taaggaaat tccatgcaa gataagctt caaaacagc 
      gaatagaaa tgtggaggt ttgtggtta cacgactag 
      atttgagga cgataaagt caccgagat ttatttgga 
      ctcattgag cgatcgcaa tgcagtttc gactgtaat 
      agagggaaa aattgcact ggataagtt tatcgacaa 
      gccggttat taatgaaca aaatgatga atttttggc 
      tttgttaaa atgttcgtc gtgtcatag gtttgcttt 
      accacccat ttacgaggt ggtttctac caatccagg 
      ccaacccat ttacgaggt ggtttctac caatccagg 
      ccaacaaaa tttggttaa gtgtgccaa atgcaagcc 
      attggagca cccaaacct caagctttg cggaatatc 
      gctttggat aaccttgca aataagcta acttttccg 
      tgtgaaaat gagccaaat gggtgcaca tttaaagcg 
      aaaccgcta caaatggta aaccatcaa atttcgtgt 
      cctcgaggg acctataac tgccccgtt ggtgaattt 
      gtttcctgt gtttggaat ggtatggga accgaaatc 
      gaggctcat attgaagaa gtccattcg ggtttaatc 
      ttgaaatcg tcaacggtc tctgaacct attaaagac 
      gtgtattcg tg

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY