Status
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Gene information
General information
TC031986
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.

TC004518,TC004519
Gene

The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

scaffold_seqid6: 1234648..1259505
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (2) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB http://www.orthodb.org/. The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    TC031986
    iBeetle screen iB_03774
    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    inside-out
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 10.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection


    Fertility
    mature egg deposition blocked number 1st lateral oviduct: >5 number 2nd lateral oviduct: 4 - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1
    ovary without detectable defects - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3
    Analysis of embryonic musculature and early development
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50 embryo/egg with embryonic tissue, no cuticle, no fluorescence - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%

    larval musculature irregular - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%

    affected eggs/embryos/larvae total percentage of affected eggs/embryos/larvae on slide - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): more than 80%
    remarks: muscle pattern potentially obscured by segmentation defect,
    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50
    egg without cuticle embryo/egg without visible larval cuticle in cuticle preparation - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%
    cuticle remnants cuticle remnants with unidentifyable segments - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%

    abdomen partiallyremaining - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%

    larva cuticle partially not present - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%

    larva constricted - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%
    head partially not present - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%
    thorax partially posteriornot present - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%
    abdomen anterior not present - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%
    affected eggs/embryos/larvae total percentage of affected eggs/embryos/larvae on slide - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): more than 80%
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 20.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 100.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    larva lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection


    pupal molt delayed (still larva) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection


    pupal molt delayed (still prepupa) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection


    pupal molt not fulfilled (died as L7 or prepupa) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4 (16 dpi)
    Days post injection


    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4 (16 dpi)
    Days post injection



    RNAi sequence
    Primers
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC031986 RA
      MGEGNGLIE HDLHGSLVP MNGSHSGSS GRSTPNNSN 
      DPAPGKLFV GGLSWQTSS EKLREYFGM FGNVTDVLI 
      MKDPVTQRS RGFGFITFS EPSSVDNVL KVPIHTLDG 
      KKIDPKHAT PKNRPKQPN KTKKIFVGG VSQDTSADE 
      VKAYFSQFG KVEETVMLM DQQTKRHRG FGFVTFENE 
      DVVDRVCEI HFHTIKNKK VECKKAQPK EAVQASAQL 
      LGKRLMLSG LGMRMATPT AGAIAAATN PLAVVQAQA 
      HVQAAAVAA AAQAQTAAV ASYGKLFGA YPPLASYRY 
      SPYPIPAVG AGVGAAAAA GGTPTPASA AAAPALAPP 
      VGASPYQGY NLTNVDMSS FQGVDWGSM YGVGMYV
    • >TC031986 RB
      MLFENPPSA QIFPAYSVP PPILPLAPP PVSSAMGEG 
      NGLIEHDLH GSLVPMNGS HSGSSGRST PNNSNDPAP 
      GKLFVGGLS WQTSSEKLR EYFGMFGNV TDVLIMKDP 
      VTQRSRGFG FITFSEPSS VDNVLKVPI HTLDGKKID 
      PKHATPKNR PKQPNKTKK IFVGGVSQD TSADEVKAY 
      FSQFGKVEE TVMLMDQQT KRHRGFGFV TFENEDVVD 
      RVCEIHFHT IKNKKVECK KAQPKEAVQ ASAQLLGKR 
      LMLSGLGMR MATPTAGAI AAATNPLAV VQAQAHVQA 
      AAVAAAAQA QTAAVASYG KLFGAYPPL ASYRYSPYP 
      IPAVGAGVG AAAAAGGTP TPASAAAAP ALAPPVGAS 
      PYQGYNLTN VDMSSFQGV DWGSMYGVG MYV
    CDS sequence
    • >TC031986 RA
      atgggggaa ggcaacggc ctcatcgaa cacgacctt 
      cacggctct ttggtaccg atgaacggt agccattct 
      ggatcttcg ggtcgtagt actcccaac aactccaac 
      gatccagca ccgggaaaa ctgtttgtc ggcggttta 
      agttggcaa acttcaagc gagaagttg cgcgaatat 
      ttcggcatg tttggaaac gtcaccgat gtattgata 
      atgaaagat ccagtaacc cagaggagt cgcggtttc 
      ggtttcatc acattttcg gagccctca agcgtcgac 
      aacgtgctc aaagtgcca attcacact ttagacggt 
      aaaaaaatc gacccgaag cacgccacg cccaaaaac 
      cgcccgaaa cagccgaac aaaacgaaa aagatattc 
      gtcggcggc gtgagccaa gacacctcc gccgacgag 
      gtcaaagcc tacttcagt caattcggc aaagtggag 
      gagacggtg atgctgatg gaccagcag acgaaacgc 
      caccgtggc ttcggcttc gtcacgttc gagaacgag 
      gacgtggtg gaccgcgtc tgcgagatc cacttccac 
      accatcaag aacaagaag gtcgaatgc aagaaggct 
      caacccaag gaggcggtg caagccagc gctcaactg 
      ctcggcaag cgcctcatg ctcagcggc cttggcatg 
      cgcatggcc actccgacg gcgggcgcc atcgccgcc 
      gccaccaac cctttggct gtggttcaa gctcaggct 
      cacgttcag gcggcggcg gtcgccgcc gccgcccag 
      gcccagacc gccgccgtg gccagctac ggcaagttg 
      ttcggggct tacccgccc ctcgccagc taccggtac 
      tcgccttac cccatcccg gcggtgggc gccggcgtg 
      ggggcggcg gcggcggcg ggcggcacc ccgacgccg 
      gcttcggcc gccgccgct ccagcgcta gccccgccg 
      gtgggcgcc agcccctac cagggctac aacctcacc 
      aacgtagac atgtccagc tttcaagga gtggactgg 
      ggctcgatg tacggcgtt ggcatgtac gtctga
    • >TC031986 RB
      atgcttttc gagaaccca cctagtgcc caaatattc 
      cctgcgtac agtgtgcca cccccgatc ctgccgcta 
      gcgccgcct cccgttagt tccgcaatg ggggaaggc 
      aacggcctc atcgaacac gaccttcac ggctctttg 
      gtaccgatg aacggtagc cattctgga tcttcgggt 
      cgtagtact cccaacaac tccaacgat ccagcaccg 
      ggaaaactg tttgtcggc ggtttaagt tggcaaact 
      tcaagcgag aagttgcgc gaatatttc ggcatgttt 
      ggaaacgtc accgatgta ttgataatg aaagatcca 
      gtaacccag aggagtcgc ggtttcggt ttcatcaca 
      ttttcggag ccctcaagc gtcgacaac gtgctcaaa 
      gtgccaatt cacacttta gacggtaaa aaaatcgac 
      ccgaagcac gccacgccc aaaaaccgc ccgaaacag 
      ccgaacaaa acgaaaaag atattcgtc ggcggcgtg 
      agccaagac acctccgcc gacgaggtc aaagcctac 
      ttcagtcaa ttcggcaaa gtggaggag acggtgatg 
      ctgatggac cagcagacg aaacgccac cgtggcttc 
      ggcttcgtc acgttcgag aacgaggac gtggtggac 
      cgcgtctgc gagatccac ttccacacc atcaagaac 
      aagaaggtc gaatgcaag aaggctcaa cccaaggag 
      gcggtgcaa gccagcgct caactgctc ggcaagcgc 
      ctcatgctc agcggcctt ggcatgcgc atggccact 
      ccgacggcg ggcgccatc gccgccgcc accaaccct 
      ttggctgtg gttcaagct caggctcac gttcaggcg 
      gcggcggtc gccgccgcc gcccaggcc cagaccgcc 
      gccgtggcc agctacggc aagttgttc ggggcttac 
      ccgcccctc gccagctac cggtactcg ccttacccc 
      atcccggcg gtgggcgcc ggcgtgggg gcggcggcg 
      gcggcgggc ggcaccccg acgccggct tcggccgcc 
      gccgctcca gcgctagcc ccgccggtg ggcgccagc 
      ccctaccag ggctacaac ctcaccaac gtagacatg 
      tccagcttt caaggagtg gactggggc tcgatgtac 
      ggcgttggc atgtacgtc tga
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC031986 RA
      taaatttgt gtctttttt tttttctct aaaagtttg 
      aagtgggat ttaacttac agtatacaa tctgtgttg 
      aacagagtg tagaacggc caaaaagtg aacatgcag 
      acatccatg atgcagata catacaatt gggattaac 
      tgaaacaaa aaaaaatgt ctttattaa ttattttgt 
      ttgtttata gttccgcaa tgggggaag gcaacggcc 
      tcatcgaac acgaccttc acggctctt tggtaccga 
      tgaacggta gccattctg gatcttcgg gtcgtagta 
      ctcccaaca actccaacg atccagcac cgggaaaac 
      tgtttgtcg gcggtttaa gttggcaaa cttcaagcg 
      agaagttgc gcgaatatt tcggcatgt ttggaaacg 
      tcaccgatg tattgataa tgaaagatc cagtaaccc 
      agaggagtc gcggtttcg gtttcatca cattttcgg 
      agccctcaa gcgtcgaca acgtgctca aagtgccaa 
      ttcacactt tagacggta aaaaaatcg acccgaagc 
      acgccacgc ccaaaaacc gcccgaaac agccgaaca 
      aaacgaaaa agatattcg tcggcggcg tgagccaag 
      acacctccg ccgacgagg tcaaagcct acttcagtc 
      aattcggca aagtggagg agacggtga tgctgatgg 
      accagcaga cgaaacgcc accgtggct tcggcttcg 
      tcacgttcg agaacgagg acgtggtgg accgcgtct 
      gcgagatcc acttccaca ccatcaaga acaagaagg 
      tcgaatgca agaaggctc aacccaagg aggcggtgc 
      aagccagcg ctcaactgc tcggcaagc gcctcatgc 
      tcagcggcc ttggcatgc gcatggcca ctccgacgg 
      cgggcgcca tcgccgccg ccaccaacc ctttggctg 
      tggttcaag ctcaggctc acgttcagg cggcggcgg 
      tcgccgccg ccgcccagg cccagaccg ccgccgtgg 
      ccagctacg gcaagttgt tcggggctt acccgcccc 
      tcgccagct accggtact cgccttacc ccatcccgg 
      cggtgggcg ccggcgtgg gggcggcgg cggcggcgg 
      gcggcaccc cgacgccgg cttcggccg ccgccgctc 
      cagcgctag ccccgccgg tgggcgcca gcccctacc 
      agggctaca acctcacca acgtagaca tgtccagct 
      ttcaaggag tggactggg gctcgatgt acggcgttg 
      gcatgtacg tctgaacgt aattttgct cactcttcg 
      ttttagtta ggttttttg tgtttttat aaactgatg 
      gacttccaa acgaaacat ttccaattg tcaatggcg 
      gcgactcgt gcctatttt gactgtgcg ttttgatat 
      ttcgattga ataaaatgt gtacataga tagaatctc 
      atttgcatt aatgctatg ggcagttta gcatcacac 
      cggcttgtt tattcctcc tgattgaac cgatgccgc 
      cttctgctc atttagcat ttagcaata actcgcaat 
      aatcagtat taaacgacg tgtagacga cgttctttt 
      gaaaattac ccacgtggt tttgctcga tcctttacc 
      tgtgtattc ctcttcatg gcaataaat ccccgctta 
      ggttgtgtt tcgactgta cttaaatta ttcgtaggt 
      acttaataa tttattacc gaattgact gaaacggcg 
      atacttaat tatttatac ttaatgata caaaagtac 
      actgtggtg caaaactgt agcaccacc cgattattg 
      tcaaatttc aacacttta aatagttat cgaatcgaa 
      tttttatag aatacttgc aaagaaaat cgatacgaa 
      ccagccgct aatctgaat gcaactttt tttgctagt 
      tgtgtaact gaacaatgg ggatgttac aaagtaaca 
      agtaaactc attaaaatt tatgtgctt tt
    • >TC031986 RB
      gacttccgt aacacatcc aattgtttg ttcagctga 
      ttgatgtcg acatgtggt ttgcaggat cgatcggga 
      attcgacgc tcacatggc tgtcacggt ttaccccaa 
      cgttaaact cgagtgcgt caggcgggc aagcatgtg 
      gtgtggtgg gtcgtgtcg tcggcacag ccggcagaa 
      gggcacagc tgcagtcgt attcgaatt tccagccgg 
      cgagggtgc ttaacttgc tcacttgtt gtgtttttc 
      gttagagtc gcgtaattt tggctgtga acatgcttt 
      tcgagaacc cacctagtg cccaaatat tccctgcgt 
      acagtgtgc cacccccga tcctgccgc tagcgccgc 
      ctcccgtta gttccgcaa tgggggaag gcaacggcc 
      tcatcgaac acgaccttc acggctctt tggtaccga 
      tgaacggta gccattctg gatcttcgg gtcgtagta 
      ctcccaaca actccaacg atccagcac cgggaaaac 
      tgtttgtcg gcggtttaa gttggcaaa cttcaagcg 
      agaagttgc gcgaatatt tcggcatgt ttggaaacg 
      tcaccgatg tattgataa tgaaagatc cagtaaccc 
      agaggagtc gcggtttcg gtttcatca cattttcgg 
      agccctcaa gcgtcgaca acgtgctca aagtgccaa 
      ttcacactt tagacggta aaaaaatcg acccgaagc 
      acgccacgc ccaaaaacc gcccgaaac agccgaaca 
      aaacgaaaa agatattcg tcggcggcg tgagccaag 
      acacctccg ccgacgagg tcaaagcct acttcagtc 
      aattcggca aagtggagg agacggtga tgctgatgg 
      accagcaga cgaaacgcc accgtggct tcggcttcg 
      tcacgttcg agaacgagg acgtggtgg accgcgtct 
      gcgagatcc acttccaca ccatcaaga acaagaagg 
      tcgaatgca agaaggctc aacccaagg aggcggtgc 
      aagccagcg ctcaactgc tcggcaagc gcctcatgc 
      tcagcggcc ttggcatgc gcatggcca ctccgacgg 
      cgggcgcca tcgccgccg ccaccaacc ctttggctg 
      tggttcaag ctcaggctc acgttcagg cggcggcgg 
      tcgccgccg ccgcccagg cccagaccg ccgccgtgg 
      ccagctacg gcaagttgt tcggggctt acccgcccc 
      tcgccagct accggtact cgccttacc ccatcccgg 
      cggtgggcg ccggcgtgg gggcggcgg cggcggcgg 
      gcggcaccc cgacgccgg cttcggccg ccgccgctc 
      cagcgctag ccccgccgg tgggcgcca gcccctacc 
      agggctaca acctcacca acgtagaca tgtccagct 
      ttcaaggag tggactggg gctcgatgt acggcgttg 
      gcatgtacg tctgaacgt aattttgct cactcttcg 
      ttttagtta ggttttttg tgtttttat aaactgatg 
      gacttccaa acgaaacat ttccaattg tcaatggcg 
      gcgactcgt gcctatttt gactgtgcg ttttgatat 
      ttcgattga ataaaatgt gtacataga tagaatctc 
      atttgcatt aatgctatg ggcagttta gcatcacac 
      cggcttgtt tattcctcc tgattgaac cgatgccgc 
      cttctgctc atttagcat ttagcaata actcgcaat 
      aatcagtat taaacgacg tgtagacga cgttctttt 
      gaaaattac ccacgtggt tttgctcga tcctttacc 
      tgtgtattc ctcttcatg gcaataaat ccccgctta 
      ggttgtgtt tcgactgta cttaaatta ttcgtaggt 
      acttaataa tttattacc gaattgact gaaacggcg 
      atacttaat tatttatac ttaatgata caaaagtac 
      actgtggtg caaaactgt agcaccacc cgattattg 
      tcaaatttc aacacttta aatagttat cgaatcgaa 
      tttttatag aatacttgc aaagaaaat cgatacgaa 
      ccagccgct aatctgaat gcaactttt tttgctagt 
      tgtgtaact gaacaatgg ggatgttac aaagtaaca 
      agtaaactc attaaaatt tatgtgctt tt