Status
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Gene information
General information
TC031992
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.

TC004514,TC004515
Gene

The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007417.3: 3467871..3573449
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (2) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB http://www.orthodb.org/. The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    TC031992
    iBeetle screen iB_03773

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    inside-out
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 20.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection


    Analysis of embryonic musculature and early development
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50 embryo/egg with embryonic tissue potentially present, no cuticle, no fluorescence - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%

    larval musculature pattern irregular - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%

    affected eggs/embryos/larvae - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%
    remarks: muscle pattern potentially obscured by segmentation defect,
    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    embryo/egg without visible larval cuticle in cuticle preparation - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%
    cuticle remnants with some identifiable segments - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%

    affected eggs/embryos/larvae - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): more than 80%
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Primers
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC031992 RA
      MEAPLGVTL SQSMDSVNT NNGEEEVRT LFVSGLPMD 
      AKPRELYLL FRAYEGYEG SLLKVTSKN GKTASPVGF 
      VTFNTRAGA EAAKQDLQQ GVRFDPDMP QTIRLEFAK 
      SNTKVSKPK QQAANAANT HPTLMHPLT GHLGTPFFP 
      GGPELWHHP LAYSAAAEL PGAALQHAT LVHPALHPQ 
      VPPPMSLPH PTALTSVHA ASLPHFLPS PALASPVGS 
      SSSQPGLGV SNPPCSTLF VANLGQFVS EHELKEIFA 
      REQKEKKMD NLNSYMPLS T
    • >TC031992 RB
      MEAPLGVTL SQSMDSVNT NNGEEEVRT LFVSGLPMD 
      AKPRELYLL FRAYEGYEG SLLKVTSKN GKTASPVGF 
      VTFNTRAGA EAAKQDLQQ GVRFDPDMP QTIRLEFAK 
      SNTKVSKPK QQAANAANT HPTLMHPLT GHLGTPFFP 
      GGPELWHHP LAYSAAAEL PGAALQHAT LVHPALHPQ 
      VPPPMSLPH PTALTSVHA ASLPHFLPS PALASPVGS 
      SSSQPGLGV SNPPCSTLF VANLGQFVS EHELKEIFA 
      RFVRLYHYK NIKRKKQRK EQPC
    CDS sequence
    • >TC031992 RA
      atggaagcc cctcttggc gtcacgctc agtcaaagc 
      atggactcc gtcaacact aacaacggc gaggaggag 
      gtgcggaca ttattcgta agcggacta cctatggat 
      gccaagcct cgggagttg tatttatta ttcagggct 
      tatgagggt tacgaggga tcattactt aaagttaca 
      agcaaaaat ggaaaaacc gcctcgcct gtgggtttt 
      gtgactttc aacactcgg gcaggagcg gaggcagca 
      aagcaagac ttgcagcag ggcgtacgg tttgacccc 
      gacatgcct cagacgatc cgactggag tttgctaaa 
      agtaacacg aaggttagc aagcccaaa cagcaagct 
      gctaacgcc gccaacacg cacccaact ttgatgcac 
      cccctcacc ggacatttg ggaaccccc tttttcccg 
      ggtggtcca gaactgtgg catcatccg ttggcttat 
      tcggcggct gcagaatta ccgggggcc gctttgcaa 
      cacgcaaca ctcgttcat cccgcactg cacccacag 
      gtcccccct ccaatgtct ttgccgcat ccaactgct 
      ctaacttca gtacatgca gcatctttg ccacatttt 
      ctaccaagt cctgccttg gcttctccc gtggggtca 
      tcgtcctcg caacctggt ttgggagta agcaatccg 
      ccttgctct acacttttc gtcgcaaat ttgggccag 
      tttgtgtcc gaacacgaa ttaaaggaa atctttgcc 
      agggaacaa aaggagaag aaaatggac aatcttaat 
      tcgtacatg ccgctgagt acttga
    • >TC031992 RB
      atggaagcc cctcttggc gtcacgctc agtcaaagc 
      atggactcc gtcaacact aacaacggc gaggaggag 
      gtgcggaca ttattcgta agcggacta cctatggat 
      gccaagcct cgggagttg tatttatta ttcagggct 
      tatgagggt tacgaggga tcattactt aaagttaca 
      agcaaaaat ggaaaaacc gcctcgcct gtgggtttt 
      gtgactttc aacactcgg gcaggagcg gaggcagca 
      aagcaagac ttgcagcag ggcgtacgg tttgacccc 
      gacatgcct cagacgatc cgactggag tttgctaaa 
      agtaacacg aaggttagc aagcccaaa cagcaagct 
      gctaacgcc gccaacacg cacccaact ttgatgcac 
      cccctcacc ggacatttg ggaaccccc tttttcccg 
      ggtggtcca gaactgtgg catcatccg ttggcttat 
      tcggcggct gcagaatta ccgggggcc gctttgcaa 
      cacgcaaca ctcgttcat cccgcactg cacccacag 
      gtcccccct ccaatgtct ttgccgcat ccaactgct 
      ctaacttca gtacatgca gcatctttg ccacatttt 
      ctaccaagt cctgccttg gcttctccc gtggggtca 
      tcgtcctcg caacctggt ttgggagta agcaatccg 
      ccttgctct acacttttc gtcgcaaat ttgggccag 
      tttgtgtcc gaacacgaa ttaaaggaa atctttgcc 
      aggtttgtg cgactttac cactataaa aacataaag 
      agaaaaaaa caaagaaaa gagcaacca tgttaa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC031992 RA
      ctaaatatt ttaagtagg agccggtgt ttggtggcg 
      gcatcggtg gcggcggcg tcggttcat ggcgcatga 
      gtgtcaagg tggtgtgcg cgcggtgcc cgctgccta 
      cctgtcggg cggcgggtg gcggcgggt ggcagtctg 
      aggcaagca ctggctgcg acaccaccc ctggcgccg 
      ccaccgcga ttacagcac tgcaacacc tactcacct 
      gagtgcccc acccccacc tgatcctcc ggcgcggct 
      tgccacgac accgcgcca cagtctagc agcgaccgc 
      cagcggttt cacaacaac aactggacc gacctcctc 
      atcagcagc acttgcccc agttgtgac gtagtgttc 
      agtgcatgt gcttcccgg accgacgcc agttcgacg 
      cgaccgtcg ccgccgccc ccgggactt actagcggg 
      aatcgtgga gaccgtctt caacaccac gaagagagg 
      ccggcatcc tctgggaga cgacctgtc cccgacgcc 
      tgccgccac tccgccgtc cctgaagag ggctcgaca 
      cgactcaga gtcgagcag ccctccaca agcctcaga 
      ccaggacat ggaagcccc tcttggcgt cacgctcag 
      tcaaagcat ggactccgt caacactaa caacggcga 
      ggaggaggt gcggacatt attcgtaag cggactacc 
      tatggatgc caagcctcg ggagttgta tttattatt 
      cagggctta tgagggtta cgagggatc attacttaa 
      agttacaag caaaaatgg aaaaaccgc ctcgcctgt 
      gggttttgt gactttcaa cactcgggc aggagcgga 
      ggcagcaaa gcaagactt gcagcaggg cgtacggtt 
      tgaccccga catgcctca gacgatccg actggagtt 
      tgctaaaag taacacgaa ggttagcaa gcccaaaca 
      gcaagctgc taacgccgc caacacgca cccaacttt 
      gatgcaccc cctcaccgg acatttggg aaccccctt 
      tttcccggg tggtccaga actgtggca tcatccgtt 
      ggcttattc ggcggctgc agaattacc gggggccgc 
      tttgcaaca cgcaacact cgttcatcc cgcactgca 
      cccacaggt cccccctcc aatgtcttt gccgcatcc 
      aactgctct aacttcagt acatgcagc atctttgcc 
      acattttct accaagtcc tgccttggc ttctcccgt 
      ggggtcatc gtcctcgca acctggttt gggagtaag 
      caatccgcc ttgctctac acttttcgt cgcaaattt 
      gggccagtt tgtgtccga acacgaatt aaaggaaat 
      ctttgccag ggaacaaaa ggagaagaa aatggacaa 
      tcttaattc gtacatgcc gctgagtac ttgacagag 
      agcgatggt cgtggctgg acactgcta gagtggtgt 
      tggccgaaa aaaatcgct gttcaaagc ttacctatc 
      tctgttaac tgttgtagt tgtactgtt agaattgca 
      ggacagtat ttacgtgat aagtacagg taaactgca 
      tcaagattg tttaataac ttcatttca ttgatgaga 
      atgataaaa atatgaaga taagctaaa ccaaaggtg 
      ccctaaaag ttaagtttt agatttatt attaaatta 
      ttagggtgc gtcgtgagt gcctcacgt ccactgaca 
      gtattgttt tctcgagct ttctttagg taattagtg 
      gtattgata tagtggtga aaatttatt ttttccgtt 
      tgattatag caataaacc aatgacgaa tacgcgcac 
      ttgacatgt ttggtgtgt aacgctaca aaaacaatt 
      tttaaataa ctaacttaa gaaacatat cataaaatg 
      gctttgcta caccagcat gaaagtgag ttttagaaa 
      attttctcc tatttcatt caatacgat tcgcccagt 
      ttttatcag aggagtcgc cggggcggc tcgttgttt 
      ttcagaata tttctttaa acaacttta tacttatta 
      tagaagagc ttttgctta aattataga cataataga 
      gtatgatgc atttgttat cttgcaatc gaagaatgc 
      atgcagtta tacaggaat agcaaattt ta
    • >TC031992 RB
      ctaaatatt ttaagtagg agccggtgt ttggtggcg 
      gcatcggtg gcggcggcg tcggttcat ggcgcatga 
      gtgtcaagg tggtgtgcg cgcggtgcc cgctgccta 
      cctgtcggg cggcgggtg gcggcgggt ggcagtctg 
      aggcaagca ctggctgcg acaccaccc ctggcgccg 
      ccaccgcga ttacagcac tgcaacacc tactcacct 
      gagtgcccc acccccacc tgatcctcc ggcgcggct 
      tgccacgac accgcgcca cagtctagc agcgaccgc 
      cagcggttt cacaacaac aactggacc gacctcctc 
      atcagcagc acttgcccc agttgtgac gtagtgttc 
      agtgcatgt gcttcccgg accgacgcc agttcgacg 
      cgaccgtcg ccgccgccc ccgggactt actagcggg 
      aatcgtgga gaccgtctt caacaccac gaagagagg 
      ccggcatcc tctgggaga cgacctgtc cccgacgcc 
      tgccgccac tccgccgtc cctgaagag ggctcgaca 
      cgactcaga gtcgagcag ccctccaca agcctcaga 
      ccaggacat ggaagcccc tcttggcgt cacgctcag 
      tcaaagcat ggactccgt caacactaa caacggcga 
      ggaggaggt gcggacatt attcgtaag cggactacc 
      tatggatgc caagcctcg ggagttgta tttattatt 
      cagggctta tgagggtta cgagggatc attacttaa 
      agttacaag caaaaatgg aaaaaccgc ctcgcctgt 
      gggttttgt gactttcaa cactcgggc aggagcgga 
      ggcagcaaa gcaagactt gcagcaggg cgtacggtt 
      tgaccccga catgcctca gacgatccg actggagtt 
      tgctaaaag taacacgaa ggttagcaa gcccaaaca 
      gcaagctgc taacgccgc caacacgca cccaacttt 
      gatgcaccc cctcaccgg acatttggg aaccccctt 
      tttcccggg tggtccaga actgtggca tcatccgtt 
      ggcttattc ggcggctgc agaattacc gggggccgc 
      tttgcaaca cgcaacact cgttcatcc cgcactgca 
      cccacaggt cccccctcc aatgtcttt gccgcatcc 
      aactgctct aacttcagt acatgcagc atctttgcc 
      acattttct accaagtcc tgccttggc ttctcccgt 
      ggggtcatc gtcctcgca acctggttt gggagtaag 
      caatccgcc ttgctctac acttttcgt cgcaaattt 
      gggccagtt tgtgtccga acacgaatt aaaggaaat 
      ctttgccag gtttgtgcg actttacca ctataaaaa 
      cataaagag aaaaaaaca aagaaaaga gcaaccatg 
      ttaacttag tgcaagtta tagtgaata attgagttt 
      tctcttc
    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY