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Gene information
General information
TC032448
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.

TC002799,TC002800
Gene

The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

scaffold_seqid16: 5117160..5188614
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB http://www.orthodb.org/. The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    TC032448
    iBeetle screen iB_03452
    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    inside-out
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 40.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection


    Analysis of embryonic musculature and early development
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50 embryo/egg with embryonic tissue, no cuticle, no fluorescence - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%

    larval musculature irregular - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%

    affected eggs/embryos/larvae total percentage of affected eggs/embryos/larvae on slide - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%
    remarks: muscle pattern potentially obscured by segmentation defect,
    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    egg without cuticle embryo/egg without visible larval cuticle in cuticle preparation - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%

    cuticle remnants with some identifiable segments - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%

    abdomen partially remaining - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%
    procephalic appendages sometimes remaining - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%
    head not present - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%

    thorax not present - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%
    abdomen not present - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%
    affected eggs/embryos/larvae total percentage of affected eggs/embryos/larvae on slide - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): more than 80%
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 0.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 0.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Primers
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC032448 RA
      MASSDLTLE QIYNYFKEN GNVVKNREL VHHFKHYLT 
      DPASKEDAR VKFKKFVNT LAQTKTEGD EKFLILKTR 
      YQNSLDYPR PSQLALSPH SDPRLALGI PLSPTPSDY 
      SPAKSPAHR QPPPYRPPP PVTSPTNSL DNVSLSSIM 
      SLQDVTPQA PPRRKQRSF DEDSTPRQI NNQEEEKQT 
      PVSVKERLE KFNRMASME DELSPRQAK SAEKKKEKG 
      SEEDDGASV TSLEPKKCM EWYVTASKG DIQELLKLA 
      QDEPRLVNR KDPFTTVLH WGAKHGNPK IIQMFAGKY 
      KVDVNGKTN GGYTPLHLA AQFGHRDIY DMLINEYHA 
      DSKIRDYSG RLPAYYLQS KDQKIRKDN IRKIKGRKK 
      PTDKDLGFL RIGSLNVRV KKTTEAFSN FLGVGSGSV 
      TALETTSEK VHKGWGSAD NVNQENINP GPKINTVKK 
      KSKRPYSSG MNSTPGTPR QMSRNFSSF HTNDSDSDS 
      AAGFDSQWK H
    CDS sequence
    • >TC032448 RA
      atggcatcc agtgatttg acgttagaa caaatttac 
      aattatttt aaagaaaat ggaaatgtg gttaaaaac 
      cgtgaactc gttcatcac ttcaagcat tacttgacc 
      gatcctgca tcaaaagaa gacgcccga gttaagttc 
      aaaaaattc gtcaacacc ctcgcacaa accaaaacc 
      gaaggcgac gaaaagttc cttatcctc aaaacccga 
      taccaaaac tctctcgat taccctcga ccatcacaa 
      ttggccctc tcaccccac agcgacccc cgactcgcc 
      ctcggaatc ccactttcc ccaactcct tccgactac 
      agtcctgcg aaatcacca gctcataga caacctcct 
      ccttaccga cctccaccg ccggttact tccccaaca 
      aactctctc gacaacgta tcgttaagt tcgataatg 
      tcgctacaa gatgttaca ccacaagcg ccaccaaga 
      cgcaaacaa aggtccttc gatgaggac tcaactccg 
      cgacaaatt aacaaccaa gaggaggaa aaacaaacc 
      ccggttagt gtcaaggag cggttggag aagtttaat 
      cggatggcc tccatggag gacgagttg agtccgaga 
      caggcgaag tcggcagag aagaagaag gaaaagggg 
      tccgaagaa gacgacggc gcctcggtc acatcgtta 
      gagccgaaa aagtgcatg gaatggtac gtaacggcg 
      tcgaagggc gacatccaa gagctgctc aagctggcc 
      caggacgag ccccgtctg gtcaacaga aaggatcca 
      tttacgacg gttctgcat tggggcgcc aaacatggt 
      aatccgaag atcatccaa atgttcgct ggcaagtac 
      aaggtggat gtcaacggg aagacgaac gggggttac 
      acaccacta cacctagca gcacagttc gggcacaga 
      gatatttac gacatgctc ataaatgaa tatcatgct 
      gattcgaaa attcgggac tatagcggc agattaccg 
      gcttattac ttgcaaagt aaagatcaa aaaatccga 
      aaagataac atccgcaag atcaaaggg cggaaaaaa 
      cccacagat aaagatttg gggttttta cggatcggg 
      tcgttgaat gtgcgagtt aaaaaaact acggaggct 
      tttagcaat ttcttgggg gttggaagt ggttctgtc 
      accgcactc gaaacgacc agtgagaag gtgcacaaa 
      gggtggggc tctgccgat aatgtcaac caggaaaat 
      ataaatccg gggcctaaa atcaacacg gtaaagaag 
      aaatcgaaa aggccctat tcgtcagga atgaacagc 
      actccgggg actccccgc caaatgtcg aggaatttt 
      tccagtttt cacacaaat gactcggat tcggactca 
      gccgccggg tttgactca caatggaag cactaa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC032448 RA
      tgcttggaa ctgtatcga attatccaa gtgtagtgc 
      ttggcgctt aattttgaa cgtggattg gtaaccgtg 
      gcgcctata acggtaact tctagtaac tttcgccgt 
      cagactgac gtttcgtgc gcggcatca tggcatcca 
      gtgatttga cgttagaac aaatttaca attatttta 
      aagaaaatg gaaatgtgg ttaaaaacc gtgaactcg 
      ttcatcact tcaagcatt acttgaccg atcctgcat 
      caaaagaag acgcccgag ttaagttca aaaaattcg 
      tcaacaccc tcgcacaaa ccaaaaccg aaggcgacg 
      aaaagttcc ttatcctca aaacccgat accaaaact 
      ctctcgatt accctcgac catcacaat tggccctct 
      caccccaca gcgaccccc gactcgccc tcggaatcc 
      cactttccc caactcctt ccgactaca gtcctgcga 
      aatcaccag ctcatagac aacctcctc cttaccgac 
      ctccaccgc cggttactt ccccaacaa actctctcg 
      acaacgtat cgttaagtt cgataatgt cgctacaag 
      atgttacac cacaagcgc caccaagac gcaaacaaa 
      ggtccttcg atgaggact caactccgc gacaaatta 
      acaaccaag aggaggaaa aacaaaccc cggttagtg 
      tcaaggagc ggttggaga agtttaatc ggatggcct 
      ccatggagg acgagttga gtccgagac aggcgaagt 
      cggcagaga agaagaagg aaaaggggt ccgaagaag 
      acgacggcg cctcggtca catcgttag agccgaaaa 
      agtgcatgg aatggtacg taacggcgt cgaagggcg 
      acatccaag agctgctca agctggccc aggacgagc 
      cccgtctgg tcaacagaa aggatccat ttacgacgg 
      ttctgcatt ggggcgcca aacatggta atccgaaga 
      tcatccaaa tgttcgctg gcaagtaca aggtggatg 
      tcaacggga agacgaacg ggggttaca caccactac 
      acctagcag cacagttcg ggcacagag atatttacg 
      acatgctca taaatgaat atcatgctg attcgaaaa 
      ttcgggact atagcggca gattaccgg cttattact 
      tgcaaagta aagatcaaa aaatccgaa aagataaca 
      tccgcaaga tcaaagggc ggaaaaaac ccacagata 
      aagatttgg ggtttttac ggatcgggt cgttgaatg 
      tgcgagtta aaaaaacta cggaggctt ttagcaatt 
      tcttggggg ttggaagtg gttctgtca ccgcactcg 
      aaacgacca gtgagaagg tgcacaaag ggtggggct 
      ctgccgata atgtcaacc aggaaaata taaatccgg 
      ggcctaaaa tcaacacgg taaagaaga aatcgaaaa 
      ggccctatt cgtcaggaa tgaacagca ctccgggga 
      ctccccgcc aaatgtcga ggaattttt ccagttttc 
      acacaaatg actcggatt cggactcag ccgccgggt 
      ttgactcac aatggaagc actaatacg aagcaacat 
      cacggtgat tggacttaa atacgcttt attattttt 
      atattatga tgtgtacct attttttaa taaattaat 
      aaatttttg