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Gene information
General information
TC031757
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.

TC002369
Gene

The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

scaffold_seqid2148: 198517..199753
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB http://www.orthodb.org/. The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    TC031757
    iBeetle screen iB_03363
    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    inside-out
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 30.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection


    Analysis of embryonic musculature and early development
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50 embryo/egg not developed/not fertilized - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%

    affected eggs/embryos/larvae - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%
    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50
    embryo/egg without visible larval cuticle in cuticle preparation - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%
    affected eggs/embryos/larvae - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Primers
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC031757 RA
      MAKLDDFLG KKKETAPIL DLSKSVANN 
      QEEFKRLFE KVPDFKIKQ EKVHIESIK 
      IRDKKFKFK SGKKDVKAM KEPYTFLDP 
      LPKEMRNLK ISELAAVPI DWKMLTTVR 
      PKSKVEESY FSRLVELKK FENKTRAFE 
      KRQYSIDPQ IRKTKNKSG VVELRVVSC 
      TDCGEDFCD GKACSKFTY DSFARTPEV 
      TKIAQKLSP ESSKADKPK RKFKRKPRS 
      KSKTKRKSK SKSPKKKTA G
    CDS sequence
    • >TC031757 RA
      atggcgaaa cttgacgac tttttgggg aagaagaag 
      gaaactgcg ccgatttta gacttgtcg aaaagtgtg 
      gctaataat caagaggag tttaagaga ctttttgag 
      aaggtgccc gactttaag atcaagcag gagaaggtg 
      cacattgaa agtattaaa attcgcgat aagaagttt 
      aagttcaag tcggggaaa aaagatgtg aaagcgatg 
      aaagaaccg tatactttt ctcgatccc ttgccgaaa 
      gaaatgcga aatttgaaa attagtgag ttggcggct 
      gttccgatc gattggaag atgctgacg acggtgagg 
      cccaaaagc aaggtcgag gaaagctat ttttcaaga 
      ttggtcgaa ttaaaaaaa ttcgaaaac aaaacccgc 
      gcctttgaa aagcgccaa tactccatc gatccacaa 
      atccgcaaa accaaaaat aaatccgga gttgtggaa 
      ctacgagta gtgtcttgt accgactgt ggtgaagat 
      ttttgtgac ggcaaggcg tgtagtaaa ttcacttac 
      gactcgttt gctcgaact cccgaagtg accaaaatc 
      gcccaaaag ttgagccca gaatcatct aaagccgat 
      aaacccaaa cgcaaattt aaacggaaa ccacgctct 
      aagagtaaa accaagcgc aaaagcaaa tcgaaatca 
      ccaaagaag aaaactgcg ggataa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC031757 RA
      gttgtttgc caaaaaagt gtagacgat tttctacac 
      gatttcgta atacatgtg tgtgcaact gatttttag 
      aattatggc gaaacttga cgacttttt ggggaagaa 
      gaaggaaac tgcgccgat tttagactt gtcgaaaag 
      tgtggctaa taatcaaga ggagtttaa gagactttt 
      tgagaaggt gcccgactt taagatcaa gcaggagaa 
      ggtgcacat tgaaagtat taaaattcg cgataagaa 
      gtttaagtt caagtcggg gaaaaaaga tgtgaaagc 
      gatgaaaga accgtatac ttttctcga tcccttgcc 
      gaaagaaat gcgaaattt gaaaattag tgagttggc 
      ggctgttcc gatcgattg gaagatgct gacgacggt 
      gaggcccaa aagcaaggt cgaggaaag ctatttttc 
      aagattggt cgaattaaa aaaattcga aaacaaaac 
      ccgcgcctt tgaaaagcg ccaatactc catcgatcc 
      acaaatccg caaaaccaa aaataaatc cggagttgt 
      ggaactacg agtagtgtc ttgtaccga ctgtggtga 
      agatttttg tgacggcaa ggcgtgtag taaattcac 
      ttacgactc gtttgctcg aactcccga agtgaccaa 
      aatcgccca aaagttgag cccagaatc atctaaagc 
      cgataaacc caaacgcaa atttaaacg gaaaccacg 
      ctctaagag taaaaccaa gcgcaaaag caaatcgaa 
      atcaccaaa gaagaaaac tgcgggata aatatgcct 
      gttccggac agtttgaga tttaagtct aaaatcaat 
      gatacaaaa aacactttt agtagtata gtagtatga 
      tgtggcaat gaacaccat ttaaaacag ctaggaacg 
      cgaaattta atgaaaaca ttaaaactg taatcttca 
      t