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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007418.3: 3393977..3420319
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
      {{ unavailableText }}

    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_03206

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 20.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC032349 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC032349 RA
      atggaatct ggcaccatt cctgatgag gccattact 
      gccagctcc tcttatgtt cctaatgtt ggtcctcga 
      aatggcagg cttcgggta gagaaagca gggggcgga 
      tggtgtcca aaacaacaa gtggaaaga ggaattaga 
      gaatatcta caagtagat ttgggtgag gttcacgta 
      gtcacagga gtacaaact caagggagg tatgataga 
      ggtcgaggt caagaatat gccgaagag tacacagtg 
      gaatattgg cggcctggt ttaaacgaa tggaaggaa 
      tacaagcga tgggataat aagcagata ttgcgaggg 
      aacagtgac accgcttct gtggaaagt cagcgttta 
      atgcctcca gtgttcgct agcaaagtg cgaattctg 
      ccctacagc gtccacagg agaactgtt tgcctccga 
      attgaactt ctgggatgt ccgtatgaa ggcggaatt 
      atttcctac agcattccc gaaggctca gaaccatcc 
      cagggactc tacgacagt tcctacgat ggtacccgt 
      aacgacggg acactagaa ggtggttta ggccgtctg 
      gtagacggc gaatttggt gccgacaat tttagatta 
      gatataggc tacggcaaa ggtaatgga tggattgct 
      tggaagaat gacacaagt gctaatggc tacgtcgaa 
      cttacgttt gaatttgat caaatacga aactttagc 
      gaagtttat ttgttcaca aataatttt tttagcaga 
      aatgtacag gttttctcc aaagcgaaa gtgatgttc 
      agtatcgga ggacgtttc tacaatggc ccaacactg 
      tcctattca tacatgcca gatcgagtg ctggaaaat 
      gcccggaac gtctccatt aatcttcat caaagactc 
      gctcgtttc atcaaactg cgtctgttt ttcgcggac 
      cgctggatg atgctcagt gaagtagcc tttgattct 
      gtgcctgtc gcgttcaat atttccgaa gaggaaact 
      cttgatctt agtgaaaac gaacttgta attagttca 
      gccggtgga aatacattg gatgctttt gaaacaatt 
      gcagctcgc aaagaaggt gatacatac gtggaaata 
      atcataggt gtattaacg gcaataata ttattactc 
      ctagtagtt tttgtgatc attttgata ctcaacaaa 
      cgacacaag ctgcaaggc tcgcccacc ttgcttaaa 
      aacccgttc ggtgtcacc atcaacatg aaggatttg 
      ttgatgaat ttatcatcg agtaataac gcggctcag 
      agcagccac ccgactcca gtgagtcaa gaagcgcca 
      ggagactcc tcgtccgtt tctttcgaa cagtatcga 
      tctccgctt gtaggaaat tattataca ccgaattac 
      gcaacgttg aggtgttcg tcaacaatg gaagaaccg 
      gaggagcct ccggaagta cctccgtta cccgactca 
      ccgacacta catcaaagt cccatttca gcatcgtct 
      cctctccac tacagaagt ttacaaagc acgccagca 
      ataagtcca aagtcgaag atgattaat ttaggaaat 
      tattttccg agagttgcc actgatcca ccaaatcgg 
      aaacgatac cacacagcg ccgagggag aaacacagg 
      ataccaccg ccagttgtg tgctggaac attgctcca 
      agcatgggt cacgcttac agctgcagg gaagcggaa 
      ttagtaccg ataccgcga tattctctc cggcctttg 
      gaaaaagtc ggatcctgt cacgctgga gagatcacc 
      ctctgcgaa acggaaggt ttggaggat ataattccg 
      ggcgtgtgt cgtttagtg gctgtccga acaccgagt 
      ccggaaaga gcgaaaagt gatgctgcg acaggttca 
      atggaatca ctccgagaa gttcgcttt ctcgccagc 
      ttatctgat ccgaatatt tgtaaagtt ctgggagtt 
      tgtacggcc gaacagcca ccctggacc gtcattgaa 
      tacggtgaa atgggagat ctagctcaa tatctgcag 
      tttctcgtc aataggaat ggcactgtt cggtcgtcg 
      gccgatcaa cccgtaagc gtggataat ctcatctac 
      atggccagc caagtagct tccggaatg aagtatctc 
      gaaagcaaa catgtagtt cacaaagat ctcgctgct 
      aggaactgc ctggttggt aggagattc gtagttaaa 
      atagcagac gtagcaatg tgtaaaccc caatatagg 
      aaagattat gccgaaatt ggcggtcgg ccacctgct 
      cccatccgc tggttacca tgggagagc atcctcctc 
      gatcgatat tcgtgctca agcagtgtt tgggcgttc 
      gctgtcact ctatgggag attctcagt tttgcatgc 
      gaacggcct tttagcaat ttatccaat gagaaagtc 
      atacaaaac gccgaacac atgtattac gggggcgaa 
      cttcaggtc ttgttaagc aaaccaccc atttgctca 
      acagagatc tacgaaatg atgtgtcag tgctggaag 
      agggacgac accgaaaga cccaccttc aaggagatt 
      tgcttgttc ttgaaacat cacaataaa gactacacg 
      cccaccgac tga
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC032349 RA
      tcggtctga ttgaaacat tagcttttt aagcttgat 
      cctgtaatg aaccactcg gaatggaat ctggcacca 
      ttcctgatg aggccatta ctgccagct cctcttatg 
      ttcctaatg ttggtcctc gaaatggca ggcttcggg 
      tagagaaag cagggggcg gatggtgtc caaaacaac 
      aagtggaaa gaggaatta gagaatatc tacaagtag 
      atttgggtg aggttcacg tagtcacag gagtacaaa 
      ctcaaggga ggtatgata gaggtcgag gtcaagaat 
      atgccgaag agtacacag tggaatatt ggcggcctg 
      gtttaaacg aatggaagg aatacaagc gatgggata 
      ataagcaga tattgcgag ggaacagtg acaccgctt 
      ctgtggaaa gtcagcgtt taatgcctc cagtgttcg 
      ctagcaaag tgcgaattc tgccctaca gcgtccaca 
      ggagaactg tttgcctcc gaattgaac ttctgggat 
      gtccgtatg aaggcggaa ttatttcct acagcattc 
      ccgaaggct cagaaccat cccagggac tctacgaca 
      gttcctacg atggtaccc gtaacgacg ggacactag 
      aaggtggtt taggccgtc tggtagacg gcgaatttg 
      gtgccgaca attttagat tagatatag gctacggca 
      aaggtaatg gatggattg cttggaaga atgacacaa 
      gtgctaatg gctacgtcg aacttacgt ttgaatttg 
      atcaaatac gaaacttta gcgaagttt atttgttca 
      caaataatt tttttagca gaaatgtac aggttttct 
      ccaaagcga aagtgatgt tcagtatcg gaggacgtt 
      tctacaatg gcccaacac tgtcctatt catacatgc 
      cagatcgag tgctggaaa atgcccgga acgtctcca 
      ttaatcttc atcaaagac tcgctcgtt tcatcaaac 
      tgcgtctgt ttttcgcgg accgctgga tgatgctca 
      gtgaagtag cctttgatt ctgtgcctg tcgcgttca 
      atatttccg aagaggaaa ctcttgatc ttagtgaaa 
      acgaacttg taattagtt cagccggtg gaaatacat 
      tggatgctt ttgaaacaa ttgcagctc gcaaagaag 
      gtgatacat acgtggaaa taatcatag gtgtattaa 
      cggcaataa tattattac tcctagtag tttttgtga 
      tcattttga tactcaaca aacgacaca agctgcaag 
      gctcgccca ccttgctta aaaacccgt tcggtgtca 
      ccatcaaca tgaaggatt tgttgatga atttatcat 
      cgagtaata acgcggctc agagcagcc acccgactc 
      cagtgagtc aagaagcgc caggagact cctcgtccg 
      tttctttcg aacagtatc gatctccgc ttgtaggaa 
      attattata caccgaatt acgcaacgt tgaggtgtt 
      cgtcaacaa tggaagaac cggaggagc ctccggaag 
      tacctccgt tacccgact caccgacac tacatcaaa 
      gtcccattt cagcatcgt ctcctctcc actacagaa 
      gtttacaaa gcacgccag caataagtc caaagtcga 
      agatgatta atttaggaa attattttc cgagagttg 
      ccactgatc caccaaatc ggaaacgat accacacag 
      cgccgaggg agaaacaca ggataccac cgccagttg 
      tgtgctgga acattgctc caagcatgg gtcacgctt 
      acagctgca gggaagcgg aattagtac cgataccgc 
      gatattctc tccggcctt tggaaaaag tcggatcct 
      gtcacgctg gagagatca ccctctgcg aaacggaag 
      gtttggagg atataattc cgggcgtgt gtcgtttag 
      tggctgtcc gaacaccga gtccggaaa gagcgaaaa 
      gtgatgctg cgacaggtt caatggaat cactccgag 
      aagttcgct ttctcgcca gcttatctg atccgaata 
      tttgtaaag ttctgggag tttgtacgg ccgaacagc 
      caccctgga ccgtcattg aatacggtg aaatgggag 
      atctagctc aatatctgc agtttctcg tcaatagga 
      atggcactg ttcggtcgt cggccgatc aacccgtaa 
      gcgtggata atctcatct acatggcca gccaagtag 
      cttccggaa tgaagtatc tcgaaagca aacatgtag 
      ttcacaaag atctcgctg ctaggaact gcctggttg 
      gtaggagat tcgtagtta aaatagcag acgtagcaa 
      tgtgtaaac cccaatata ggaaagatt atgccgaaa 
      ttggcggtc ggccacctg ctcccatcc gctggttac 
      catgggaga gcatcctcc tcgatcgat attcgtgct 
      caagcagtg tttgggcgt tcgctgtca ctctatggg 
      agattctca gttttgcat gcgaacggc cttttagca 
      atttatcca atgagaaag tcatacaaa acgccgaac 
      acatgtatt acgggggcg aacttcagg tcttgttaa 
      gcaaaccac ccatttgct caacagaga tctacgaaa 
      tgatgtgtc agtgctgga agagggacg acaccgaaa 
      gacccacct tcaaggaga tttgcttgt tcttgaaac 
      atcacaata aagactaca cgcccaccg actgataca 
      aaagcgcag attgagaca cagggtgat caaaattta 
      gtttcgatt cgagtcaaa attatcaaa tcttagaac 
      actctgtaa agcgctgca caactcctc tgaattgta 
      aaactctat atcgttgaa ataaattaa aacgtgctt 
      ttagactga ggcagggtt atgatttgc taaccaatt 
      gtcgtgata ttgcacata ttctaaatc tattttctg 
      aagcaataa aggaacatt atttaaaat agacgtgtt 
      attcaacaa attacgaat aaatgcata ttttatatt 
      taaaaactg caacgccgg cttggggca aaaggacga 
      acctttggc agaaaagta tcaataaag ttagattaa 
      actttaggt gtgtggata ggaatgacg gtttttgat 
      caccctgta ctatatcat aattaggaa ctgcagcac 
      attctataa aattatgta aatatttat agtgactct 
      aatacaata aattataaa ttcaaacga tattgagat 
      aaactgcaa tatttatct cgtccatta tgctaaatt 
      atgtgggtt tacaaatgc aataatatt aatcaattg 
      gctcaaaca ttctagtaa ctttgttgg aattgcact 
      tatttataa atcaatgaa taataaatt aagattttt 
      ttaagctta tttgattga attttttac tggtctgga 
      ttgtttgaa gggaactgt cccacttgc tattaataa 
      aagttgtct gcaagttat tggggactt gacctaaaa 
      cttaaaata cagcccacg atttactaa ttaataaat 
      aacccagtt aatttagca tattgtaac gccaagtgc 
      ttccattat ttcttagag aatgttgaa atattaaat 
      agcaacagg tttggttat cgaattatt tggcacaac 
      agaaatttt tgtgggaaa cttattttc catttacca 
      caccgtatg attaaagac tgactccag aaacagtta 
      ttcacgaaa tctttaatt attgtaatt tattacctt 
      caatatttc gtcgatagt tgcttgtgc aaccaacct 
      ttttcgttg gaatactta ctgttgaat ttctttcga 
      cgacaatca gaaaattca gtattggaa cgattttaa 
      ataaaacac aaagttata a

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY