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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007417.3: 9459768..9470428
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_03115

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 20.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC032129 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC032129 RA
      atggcaacg accgacgaa gaactttcg agcgatgaa 
      cggccacgc cgttgtatc ttatcgcgc tcccagagt 
      cttcctcat ctgtcccac cacgattcg gggctcggg 
      agctactat gggggctcg ggggtggac gacgcgccc 
      gcgagtcgg gcggcccgc ctcgtcgcc gacctccgc 
      cagctgctg accctcaag cagcactac taccccgag 
      ggcggctgg ggatgggta gtgctggtg gcggcggtg 
      ctagtccac gttctcagt cacggttta ctcacgtcg 
      gcgggactc ttctacgtc gagattttg cggaagttt 
      ggtcccgct gttgcacaa cctacagga tggctgggg 
      gcgatgtcc actggcgtt gccttgctt atctcgcca 
      gtgacgatc gccttctgt cggaggaag tccaccagg 
      gtcaccgct gtcatgggg gggctcatc acggctctg 
      gggtgcctc ttcacctcg tttgccacc cagttccat 
      cagcttttt ttcagctac ggcaccgtg gtgggcatc 
      ggtgtgggc ataacccgc gactgttcg actctgatg 
      gtggcccaa tatttcaag agacgtcgt gaattcgtc 
      gaaatcttc atcgtctcg ggcagcggc ctgggaatc 
      gccacaatg tccgtcatc atccgaagc acaataggg 
      gcgctgggc tggcgcctc ggcctgcag gtggtgacg 
      ggcgccatc tccgtcacc ttcatcctc ggcacgttt 
      taccgctcc gcctccctg taccacccc cagcggcgc 
      gccatcctc cacatcaag aaccagaag cgaaaaatc 
      aaagacaag aacaagatc gaggacaag attcccttt 
      ttcgatttt agcactctc aagagtaaa accgtccga 
      attctgctg atatcgacc ggaatcagc gccttcggc 
      atcaacacg cctcttttc tacttggcg tatcaagcg 
      gaagtcgaa ggactcggc gactcgacc gttttcctc 
      cagatgtac ttgggcctg gcttggacg gtcggatgc 
      gtcgttttc agcacttta gtgctccac aattcgacc 
      gaatgtcgc atcgccaga caatatctg tgccaaacg 
      gccgtcttc atgtgcggc ttgtccatc ctggccttc 
      acggtggtc agcggcaac taccacgcc tacgtcatg 
      ttcgcctgg atttacggg attttctgc ggtgggtac 
      cactactcg ctcaagatg tacacgtac gagagggtc 
      cgggcccgg aacttcgcc cggacttgg ggcttcgtc 
      cagtgctcg caggccata cccatcgtc atcggagtg 
      ccgttttcc ggatatatg aacgagaaa tgcggcgac 
      cgcgccggc tactacttc agctccacg tgcgtgatc 
      gtgggcagc ctcaccctc ttcctcatc gacctccac 
      cgccgcaag atctcccgc cacaagcac acccgcgag 
      aacggcacg cgccacctg tgcgtgtcc gagacgtgc 
      ccccagagg cgcaagttg tccttttcg caggagccg 
      gagaacgac gccggggtg acggctggc gctgcggcg 
      gcggcgttg gtcttgggg gcggatctg gcccccaac 
      cagcctgcg gggctcata gacaacatc atcgtctcg 
      aacgacaag ccggaactg acgtgcatt tccgaagag 
      gggatcgcc gacatggat cttcccgat aatctctta 
      gacgactta gattacata ggagactgt atcacttcg 
      tgtaataaa gtagagaat tatttaatg cttagtgaa 
      tttgagaat aatttaatt gcggaaatg cctgtgata 
      ttggacagg aaaggcagg cggtggtcg ctggccagg 
      tccaaactt gcgcaaaac gaggaaggg gacgaggag 
      aacggcgtt ggggtgaat aactccaag tggaaagta 
      tttcccaat cgtgttatt actgtcatt gatgagtcg 
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC032129 RA
      caagaggaa tatatgcgg cgatatttc aggcatatc 
      ggcgagggc cgttgtctt ccggggccc tccatttga 
      atattgcga gtttatccc ttgttattg gcattttgc 
      aagtcggaa tgtcgcgtt tgttggccc ccagtcgaa 
      gagcgcgag tccgcgacg agaactcag actagtcag 
      ttcagtctt ggaacggtt tgcggtacc aacggacat 
      cgatctctt gtaaaccac gtgttcgac gacaatgag 
      tgaacattt tacgaaatt ctgacacag tggaagcag 
      gtgcagtgt ttgcagcgt gaacgtaca tatgcctgt 
      gaagaaatg agattgacg gctgacgtt actggtcca 
      gatttgaac cggaggagg aggaatggc aacgaccga 
      cgaagaact ttcgagcga tgaacggcc acgccgttg 
      tatcttatc gcgctccca gagtcttcc tcatctgtc 
      ccaccacga ttcggggct cgggagcta ctatggggg 
      ctcgggggt ggacgacgc gcccgcgag tcgggcggc 
      ccgcctcgt cgccgacct ccgccagct gctgaccct 
      caagcagca ctactaccc cgagggcgg ctggggatg 
      ggtagtgct ggtggcggc ggtgctagt ccacgttct 
      cagtcacgg tttactcac gtcggcggg actcttcta 
      cgtcgagat tttgcggaa gtttggtcc cgctgttgc 
      acaacctac aggatggct gggggcgat gtccactgg 
      cgttgcctt gcttatctc gccagtgac gatcgcctt 
      ctgtcggag gaagtccac cagggtcac cgctgtcat 
      gggggggct catcacggc tctggggtg cctcttcac 
      ctcgtttgc cacccagtt ccatcagct ttttttcag 
      ctacggcac cgtggtggg catcggtgt gggcataac 
      ccgcgactg ttcgactct gatggtggc ccaatattt 
      caagagacg tcgtgaatt cgtcgaaat cttcatcgt 
      ctcgggcag cggcctggg aatcgccac aatgtccgt 
      catcatccg aagcacaat aggggcgct gggctggcg 
      cctcggcct gcaggtggt gacgggcgc catctccgt 
      caccttcat cctcggcac gttttaccg ctccgcctc 
      cctgtacca cccccagcg gcgcgccat cctccacat 
      caagaacca gaagcgaaa aatcaaaga caagaacaa 
      gatcgagga caagattcc ctttttcga ttttagcac 
      tctcaagag taaaaccgt ccgaattct gctgatatc 
      gaccggaat cagcgcctt cggcatcaa cacgcctct 
      tttctactt ggcgtatca agcggaagt cgaaggact 
      cggcgactc gaccgtttt cctccagat gtacttggg 
      cctggcttg gacggtcgg atgcgtcgt tttcagcac 
      tttagtgct ccacaattc gaccgaatg tcgcatcgc 
      cagacaata tctgtgcca aacggccgt cttcatgtg 
      cggcttgtc catcctggc cttcacggt ggtcagcgg 
      caactacca cgcctacgt catgttcgc ctggattta 
      cgggatttt ctgcggtgg gtaccacta ctcgctcaa 
      gatgtacac gtacgagag ggtccgggc ccggaactt 
      cgcccggac ttggggctt cgtccagtg ctcgcaggc 
      catacccat cgtcatcgg agtgccgtt ttccggata 
      tatgaacga gaaatgcgg cgaccgcgc cggctacta 
      cttcagctc cacgtgcgt gatcgtggg cagcctcac 
      cctcttcct catcgacct ccaccgccg caagatctc 
      ccgccacaa gcacacccg cgagaacgg cacgcgcca 
      cctgtgcgt gtccgagac gtgccccca gaggcgcaa 
      gttgtcctt ttcgcagga gccggagaa cgacgccgg 
      ggtgacggc tggcgctgc ggcggcggc gttggtctt 
      gggggcgga tctggcccc caaccagcc tgcggggct 
      catagacaa catcatcgt ctcgaacga caagccgga 
      actgacgtg catttccga agaggggat cgccgacat 
      ggatcttcc cgataatct cttagacga cttagatta 
      cataggaga ctgtatcac ttcgtgtaa taaagtaga 
      gaattattt aatgcttag tgaatttga gaataattt 
      aattgcgga aatgcctgt gatattgga caggaaagg 
      caggcggtg gtcgctggc caggtccaa acttgcgca 
      aaacgagga aggggacga ggagaacgg cgttggggt 
      gaataactc caagtggaa agtatttcc caatcgtgt 
      tattactgt cattgatga gtcgtccgt ttagaatat 
      tattgttcg ttctttact gccaatagt tgtataaag 
      actacctca tagatcaac ggctaattc agaagtgga 
      gtacaataa gaactcggt gtcacgtat gtagtggaa 
      atgctgtgt tactattat tttgtagtt atttataat 
      aaatattat attcaaca

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY