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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007417.3: 6180617..6188384
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_03074

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 20.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    eggs lost during procedure: potentially due to defects in egg-shells egg-morphology or egg-size, (13 dpi)eggs lost during procedure: potentially due to defects in egg-shells egg-morphology or egg-size, (14 dpi)
    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC032054 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC032054 RA
      atgttggtc gaaattatt ttgttgcta atttgttca 
      gtcggaagc attcaaaat ctatacaaa aatgtgact 
      ctcagaaac actgaattt tccgattct tctcctcga 
      aaaatcttg tgtagtgac aattcactg tgtgttcct 
      ttcgtccaa tgcccggca catgtccgt aatgaaata 
      aaaaaatcc tgccagact gtaacagga cgtgaagga 
      gtttgttgc aaaactgga caaaatctc acagcaccc 
      gaagagttg gaagttcat ggccggcat cactcattg 
      cgaatgaac ctccaaaca ataaattta atcgctaga 
      cgaagccat gaacaaatt agagaaatc caggctaag 
      gaagctttg ctcttgtct gatgggtat ctggtggtg 
      cctggatca ccaagctat gaccatttc aagaatttt 
      aagctactt tcacggaac gatttgttc caagttttg 
      gatctggcg tcgagagct atggagatt gctttggct 
      acgaaagac ttcaagcat cgtcaaggc ttgacgaat 
      cagcagatc gagttagga ctccttgag caagacttg 
      aggacaaca cctcttggt ttagcttgt aatatcgaa 
      ccgatctgt cctccaatt cctgtaaaa tttcgacga 
      attgatgga gcttgtaat aaccttctg cacccatca 
      tggggcaca gggatgaca ccctatgcc cgcctttta 
      cctccgagt tatgaagat ggcatttgg atccccaga 
      ctttccgaa acgggtcaa cctctcgca agtccgcga 
      ctaataagc acgacaatt atttcagac tcggattct 
      tttaattac gatcatact ttaatggtt atgcagttt 
      gggcagttc ttgtcgcat gatatgacc caatctatt 
      gaaaactct tatgcaaac ggtagtgcc atttcttgt 
      tgttctttt gacggtgga agaaaacga ggtctggaa 
      gaacgacac tatgcctgt atggctatt gatattcct 
      cacgatgat ccttttttc agtagattt ggccaaggt 
      tgtatgaat tttgtgagg tcggtcctg gctccaaga 
      caggactgc acgttagga tacgcccaa caaatgaac 
      aaaatcacg catttcctc gacggttcc aacatttac 
      ggctcatca cccgaacaa acaggccat ttacgaagt 
      ttccaccgc ggcatgttg aaaattttc aacgatttt 
      ggccgccaa atgttacct ttatcacac gatcctgac 
      gaatgtttg agtaaagga cgaaacgcg gcttgctac 
      atgtctggc gacagtagg acaaaccaa atgatttcg 
      ttggtcgcc ttacatacg gtattttta cgcgaacac 
      aacagatta gccgatgaa ttatcaaag ttaaatcct 
      cattgggat gacgaaagg atatttcta gaagcgcgt 
      cggattgtg atagctgag gtgcaagtt attacgtat 
      aaagagttt cttccgatt gttatcgga ccagcggct 
      gttgaggag tttcatttg gcgctagcc cagggtttg 
      gattatgcc caggactac gatgggtct gttgaacca 
      tcggtgacc aacgaattt gcctcggcg gctttcagg 
      tttgggcat tcggtggtc gatgggttg ttgaagatt 
      tatggcaag gacaggatg gacgaaatg atttcaatt 
      cccgagaca atgttccaa cccagtcgt atgagaaag 
      ctgttcttc atggatgaa ctcttgagc acgctaaca 
      accgagcct ctccaacag gttgataat aacttggtg 
      gaagcttta acgcgttat atgttccga gctggaaat 
      gcgttcggt atcgattta gcgtcattg aatatccaa 
      agaggccgc gatcatgga ctgaggcct tacaatgat 
      taccgggaa ttagtcggc ttaccccgc ctgagccac 
      tttgaggaa ctttcgttc gagttgggc gaaaaattg 
      aaaagtgtt tatgcttcc gttaatgat attgatttg 
      tgggttgga ggattgttg gaggagaaa gctccgggg 
      agcatcgtt gggtacact ttcagggat ataatcgcc 
      gaccagttt tacaggctt aagaaaggc gacaaatac 
      tttttcgag aacgatccg agcgttaat cccggcttt 
      ttccaacca gagcaacta tttgaagtg cggaaagcg 
      tccatgtcc cgattaatc tgcgacaac agcgatggg 
      acgcttctg tcgcgtcag gcgcccaac gctttcaaa 
      aaaccagga gttaaggga aatgagttt gtcgactgt 
      gacgggggc gagattccc cgcataaat ctgctttac 
      tggcgtgaa taa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC032054 RA
      cgaacttta attgatata ttttttttc aatcaattg 
      tcaccaagt gaattgtaa caatgttgg tcgaaatta 
      ttttgttgc taatttgtt cagtcggaa gcattcaaa 
      atctataca aaaatgtga ctctcagaa acactgaat 
      tttccgatt cttctcctc gaaaaatct tgtgtagtg 
      acaattcac tgtgtgttc ctttcgtcc aatgcccgg 
      cacatgtcc gtaatgaaa taaaaaaat cctgccaga 
      ctgtaacag gacgtgaag gagtttgtt gcaaaactg 
      gacaaaatc tcacagcac ccgaagagt tggaagttc 
      atggccggc atcactcat tgcgaatga acctccaaa 
      caataaatt taatcgcta gacgaagcc atgaacaaa 
      ttagagaaa tccaggcta aggaagctt tgctcttgt 
      ctgatgggt atctggtgg tgcctggat caccaagct 
      atgaccatt tcaagaatt ttaagctac tttcacgga 
      acgatttgt tccaagttt tggatctgg cgtcgagag 
      ctatggaga ttgctttgg ctacgaaag acttcaagc 
      atcgtcaag gcttgacga atcagcaga tcgagttag 
      gactccttg agcaagact tgaggacaa cacctcttg 
      gtttagctt gtaatatcg aaccgatct gtcctccaa 
      ttcctgtaa aatttcgac gaattgatg gagcttgta 
      ataaccttc tgcacccat catggggca cagggatga 
      caccctatg cccgccttt tacctccga gttatgaag 
      atggcattt ggatcccca gactttccg aaacgggtc 
      aacctctcg caagtccgc gactaataa gcacgacaa 
      ttatttcag actcggatt cttttaatt acgatcata 
      ctttaatgg ttatgcagt ttgggcagt tcttgtcgc 
      atgatatga cccaatcta ttgaaaact cttatgcaa 
      acggtagtg ccatttctt gttgttctt ttgacggtg 
      gaagaaaac gaggtctgg aagaacgac actatgcct 
      gtatggcta ttgatattc ctcacgatg atccttttt 
      tcagtagat ttggccaag gttgtatga attttgtga 
      ggtcggtcc tggctccaa gacaggact gcacgttag 
      gatacgccc aacaaatga acaaaatca cgcatttcc 
      tcgacggtt ccaacattt acggctcat cacccgaac 
      aaacaggcc atttacgaa gtttccacc gcggcatgt 
      tgaaaattt tcaacgatt ttggccgcc aaatgttac 
      ctttatcac acgatcctg acgaatgtt tgagtaaag 
      gacgaaacg cggcttgct acatgtctg gcgacagta 
      ggacaaacc aaatgattt cgttggtcg ccttacata 
      cggtatttt tacgcgaac acaacagat tagccgatg 
      aattatcaa agttaaatc ctcattggg atgacgaaa 
      ggatatttc tagaagcgc gtcggattg tgatagctg 
      aggtgcaag ttattacgt ataaagagt ttcttccga 
      ttgttatcg gaccagcgg ctgttgagg agtttcatt 
      tggcgctag cccagggtt tggattatg cccaggact 
      acgatgggt ctgttgaac catcggtga ccaacgaat 
      ttgcctcgg cggctttca ggtttgggc attcggtgg 
      tcgatgggt tgttgaaga tttatggca aggacagga 
      tggacgaaa tgatttcaa ttcccgaga caatgttcc 
      aacccagtc gtatgagaa agctgttct tcatggatg 
      aactcttga gcacgctaa caaccgagc ctctccaac 
      aggttgata ataacttgg tggaagctt taacgcgtt 
      atatgttcc gagctggaa atgcgttcg gtatcgatt 
      tagcgtcat tgaatatcc aaagaggcc gcgatcatg 
      gactgaggc cttacaatg attaccggg aattagtcg 
      gcttacccc gcctgagcc actttgagg aactttcgt 
      tcgagttgg gcgaaaaat tgaaaagtg tttatgctt 
      ccgttaatg atattgatt tgtgggttg gaggattgt 
      tggaggaga aagctccgg ggagcatcg ttgggtaca 
      ctttcaggg atataatcg ccgaccagt tttacaggc 
      ttaagaaag gcgacaaat actttttcg agaacgatc 
      cgagcgtta atcccggct ttttccaac cagagcaac 
      tatttgaag tgcggaaag cgtccatgt cccgattaa 
      tctgcgaca acagcgatg ggacgcttc tgtcgcgtc 
      aggcgccca acgctttca aaaaaccag gagttaagg 
      gaaatgagt ttgtcgact gtgacgggg gcgagattc 
      cccgcataa atctgcttt actggcgtg aataaaacc 
      atagtttat ttatcccat ctatcttgc ttttatttg 
      aagctttgc gtacttaaa tcgtgtaca tttgtagtg 
      atctaaaca taaacttaa gacgtacct aattattgt 
      gtttgggag agaatctat gataggctc ttc
    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY