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Gene information
General information
TC000446 Gene

The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007417.3: 11189764..11193591
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB http://www.orthodb.org/. The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    TC000446
    iBeetle screen iB_03022

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    inside-out
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 10.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection


    Analysis of embryonic musculature and early development
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50 embryo/egg with embryonic tissue potentially present, no cuticle, no fluorescence - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): more than 80%

    affected eggs/embryos/larvae - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): more than 80%
    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50
    embryo/egg without visible larval cuticle in cuticle preparation - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%
    larva everted (inside-out) - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%

    larva partially everted (inside-out) - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%

    affected eggs/embryos/larvae - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    starved
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Primers
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC000446 RA
      MTVTISAKH GVSMSDDND NETCCSDNK DCDRQTNNL 
      LKEFKPGPG EDTKEKKDD DKKPKICYQ RAKKLFTYK 
      EAPEYIKHN TFILSGYRG ILDTHLCLE SIFWWTNET 
      INIWSHIFG FVLFLAVTI RDVWSLDVY AFIGDKLIV 
      GFVLICFQV CMVLSALYH TFSCRSERD CDLFLSFDL 
      FGIALSLLA IYTSGIYYA FWCDPGLLN FYIFTVTII 
      FAIAMLLHV PRFNVGPNV RMLVFVGWA AYGVVPTLH 
      WAMHMGWFE HPLVRLLLP RVAGMYLIS GTAFAVYIT 
      KVPERFCSG KFDYLGHSH QWWHLFVVA ALYYWHCTG 
      MIYLEYRFN HACASHMTL I
    CDS sequence
    • >TC000446 RA
      atgactgtt acaatatca gcaaaacac ggtgtatca 
      atgtcagat gacaatgac aatgaaacg tgctgtagt 
      gataacaag gactgtgat cgacaaacg aacaattta 
      ctgaaggag tttaaacca ggccccggc gaagacaca 
      aaagaaaag aaggacgat gataaaaag cccaaaatt 
      tgttaccaa cgggctaaa aagctcttc acttacaag 
      gaagctccc gaatatatt aagcataac acttttatt 
      ttatcaggg tataggggg attctagac acgcacttg 
      tgcctagaa agtattttt tggtggacg aacgagaca 
      atcaatata tggtcacat attttcgga tttgtcctc 
      ttcctggct gttacaatt cgagacgtc tggtcgctc 
      gacgtctac gcgttcatt ggtgataag cttattgta 
      ggttttgtt ttaatttgt tttcaggtc tgcatggtt 
      ttatcggcg ttgtatcac acgttttcg tgcagatct 
      gagcgtgac tgtgattta ttcctttcg ttcgattta 
      ttcggcatt gccctttcc ctcctcgcc atctacaca 
      tctggaata tattacgcc ttctggtgt gatcccgga 
      cttttgaat ttttacatt tttacagtt acgattatt 
      ttcgcgatc gcgatgttg ttgcacgtt cccagattc 
      aacgttggg cccaacgtc cgaatgctg gtgttcgtg 
      ggatgggcg gcctatggg gtcgtcccg acgctgcac 
      tgggccatg cacatgggg tggttcgag catcccttg 
      gtccgtctt cttcttccc agagtcgct gggatgtat 
      ttgataagt gggaccgcg ttcgctgtg tatatcact 
      aaagtacct gaaaggttt tgctcagga aaattcgac 
      tatttagga cattcgcac cagtggtgg cacctgttt 
      gtggtcgcc gcgctctat tattggcac tgcactgga 
      atgatttat ctggagtac agatttaac catgcttgt 
      gccagtcat atgactctg atttga
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC000446 RA
      aaagtgcgt ttaattatt gatacaata caaagaaat 
      atcaattat tattaaata aataatgac tgttacaat 
      atcagcaaa acacggtgt atcaatgtc agatgacaa 
      tgacaatga aacgtgctg tagtgataa caaggactg 
      tgatcgaca aacgaacaa tttactgaa ggagtttaa 
      accaggccc cggcgaaga cacaaaaga aaagaagga 
      cgatgataa aaagcccaa aatttgtta ccaacgggc 
      taaaaagct cttcactta caaggaagc tcccgaata 
      tattaagca taacacttt tattttatc agggtatag 
      ggggattct agacacgca cttgtgcct agaaagtat 
      tttttggtg gacgaacga gacaatcaa tatatggtc 
      acatatttt cggatttgt cctcttcct ggctgttac 
      aattcgaga cgtctggtc gctcgacgt ctacgcgtt 
      cattggtga taagcttat tgtaggttt tgttttaat 
      ttgttttca ggtctgcat ggttttatc ggcgttgta 
      tcacacgtt ttcgtgcag atctgagcg tgactgtga 
      tttattcct ttcgttcga tttattcgg cattgccct 
      ttccctcct cgccatcta cacatctgg aatatatta 
      cgccttctg gtgtgatcc cggactttt gaattttta 
      catttttac agttacgat tattttcgc gatcgcgat 
      gttgttgca cgttcccag attcaacgt tgggcccaa 
      cgtccgaat gctggtgtt cgtgggatg ggcggccta 
      tggggtcgt cccgacgct gcactgggc catgcacat 
      ggggtggtt cgagcatcc cttggtccg tcttcttct 
      tcccagagt cgctgggat gtatttgat aagtgggac 
      cgcgttcgc tgtgtatat cactaaagt acctgaaag 
      gttttgctc aggaaaatt cgactattt aggacattc 
      gcaccagtg gtggcacct gtttgtggt cgccgcgct 
      ctattattg gcactgcac tggaatgat ttatctgga 
      gtacagatt taaccatgc ttgtgccag tcatatgac 
      tctgatttg aataaatta ttgttatta catttttat 
      ggatgtagt gttttgata ttagactg
    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY