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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007417.3: 12959338..12963627
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_03009

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 20.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: % (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC032215 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC032215 RA
      atgttcaca acgaaatat tttttcgtg cttttattc 
      acttttgtg acaccaaga ccagcagaa tttgacgct 
      ttgattggc cctttccgc caaatccgc ctggcggca 
      ttcaaattc ataaacagc acgggtcgg gaaaatttg 
      ccaattttg cgggcgaga aacaaagtg caacaagtg 
      gctaaaatc gccttcccg tgcccgctt aacaacacc 
      cggagcccg caaccgccg gaaaatgtt aacaaagtc 
      cggcctgga gacatcgat gtgattgcc gggcttggg 
      gacagtatc actgccgga gttggtttg atggcagtt 
      aatctcttg caaattttc ctggaatat cggggaatc 
      gccgcaact gctgggggt gaagccacc tggcgcaaa 
      tatttgacc ctccctaat attttaaaa gttttcaat 
      ccgaatttg accggtttt gcgaccgca accacatta 
      actttgaac ccagagtcg aggtttaac gtcggcgag 
      agtggggct gtttcagag gacaccccg tatatggcc 
      aaagtgatg attaagaga atggtggag gacccgagc 
      attgatatt cacaagcat tggaagatg gtgacttta 
      atgatcggt ccgaacgat ttctgcagc cagatttgc 
      tacaagaat aatcttacg gcgattttg gaggaacac 
      cgaaatgat ttattgcag gttttgcgc attttgaag 
      tataatctg ccgcggacg atagttaac gtgataccg 
      ccaccaaat ctggaaatt ttgattggg ttcactggg 
      gtcccaccc aagtgtgag cttagccat ttgttcgaa 
      tgtccgtgt cttttcggg ccaacgagt ggcaacaga 
      caagacatt tacataaaa ttgatgaaa ctgtggcaa 
      aaactagac atggaaatc gtcaatagt gaagaattt 
      gatagtgat aactttacg gttgttctc caacccttt 
      actcttgat tttttcctg cctaatacg accaaagga 
      gtgactgat ttttcgtat ttggccgaa gattgtttc 
      cacatgagt cagaaaggc aacgctcga atagcgaat 
      gctttgtgg aacaatatt atggaaccg gttgggcaa 
      aagtccacc cgaccagtt gaaattttc gaaaagttc 
      aattgtcca tcgcaggag cggccgtac attttcacc 
      cgaaaaaac agtgtcaga caacacaat gaagttttc 
      agtgaagtg agttgtcgg tcgaggaaa atggtcttc 
      cgttcatgt atttatggt ttcttcgtt ttttacttg 
      tgcaatggc caaaaaccg gacactttc ggtaacagt 
      acgctgcga tttcccctc atgggtagc agcgtccgt 
      cgccagccc cccatcccc ccttcgttc aaattcccg 
      tgctcgacc accatgggt cggtcccca tcgcgcccc 
      accagcgtc caccgcctg cgtcccggc gacatcgac 
      gtggtcggc gccatgggc gactccctg attgccgga 
      aacggcgcc ctggaggaa tgggctttg gggaccatg 
      atcgagtac cggggcgtg tcctggtgc gcaggggga 
      cagggcacc tggcgcgag ttcctcacc ctgcccaac 
      atcctcaag gagttcaac cccaacctg acgggcttc 
      tcgacgggc actggggag ttctcgtcc cccaggtcc 
      cagctaaat gtcgcgttt cccgtctcc gcagacgcg 
      gatgccttg acacaggcc aaagtcttg gtcggacgc 
      atgcggagg aataaaagg atcgacttt gagagggac 
      tggaagatg gtgacgatt ttcttcggg gctaatgac 
      atttgctca gggcagtgt tacaacaaa gtggagttt 
      tcgccacga atgcatgcg aagaagctt atggtagcc 
      cttgattac ctacaaagg gctttgccg agggctttt 
      gttaactta atcccagtt ttagatgtt tcggtcagt 
      gttcgcatt aaaagaacg atgatgtgc cgctttttg 
      cacactttg ttctgtgcc tgtttccac agaggagga 
      aacgagatg gacgttata acccaaatg acccgggag 
      taccaaagg gcagaggag gagcttatt tttagcggc 
      cgttatgac accaaggac gatttcacc gttgtcctg 
      caacccttc atgaaatta ttcaatgca ccggacgac 
      aaagcccgg agatatgac gaagtgatc gacatttcg 
      tacataacg tacgactgt ttccatttt tcgcaaaaa 
      ggacacgct ctgggagca aatatgctt tggaacaat 
      ttgctgcag ccggtgggg cgtaagagc acaaaacgg 
      ctcaattat atcatggaa agtttcgag tgtccgaag 
      cccgaagcc ccatttctg ttcactcga aaaaattcg 
      cgaactttt ttagagact ggtcatcag tga
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC032215 RA
      aaataaaaa caatccatc ctttgaaaa atccagaac 
      aattcaagt cgagtctcg aaaacacga aaaatgttc 
      acaacgaaa tattttttc gtgctttta ttcactttt 
      gtgacacca agaccagca gaatttgac gctttgatt 
      ggccctttc cgccaaatc cgcctggcg gcattcaaa 
      ttcataaac agcacgggt cgggaaaat ttgccaatt 
      ttgcgggcg agaaacaaa gtgcaacaa gtggctaaa 
      atcgccttc ccgtgcccg cttaacaac acccggagc 
      ccgcaaccg ccggaaaat gttaacaaa gtccggcct 
      ggagacatc gatgtgatt gccgggctt ggggacagt 
      atcactgcc ggagttggt ttgatggca gttaatctc 
      ttgcaaatt ttcctggaa tatcgggga atcgccgca 
      actgctggg ggtgaagcc acctggcgc aaatatttg 
      accctccct aatatttta aaagttttc aatccgaat 
      ttgaccggt tttgcgacc gcaaccaca ttaactttg 
      aacccagag tcgaggttt aacgtcggc gagagtggg 
      gctgtttca gaggacacc ccgtatatg gccaaagtg 
      atgattaag agaatggtg gaggacccg agcattgat 
      attcacaag cattggaag atggtgact ttaatgatc 
      ggtccgaac gatttctgc agccagatt tgctacaag 
      aataatctt acggcgatt ttggaggaa caccgaaat 
      gatttattg caggttttg cgcattttg aagtataat 
      ctgccgcgg acgatagtt aacgtgata ccgccacca 
      aatctggaa attttgatt gggttcact ggggtccca 
      cccaagtgt gagcttagc catttgttc gaatgtccg 
      tgtcttttc gggccaacg agtggcaac agacaagac 
      atttacata aaattgatg aaactgtgg caaaaacta 
      gacatggaa atcgtcaat agtgaagaa tttgatagt 
      gataacttt acggttgtt ctccaaccc tttactctt 
      gattttttc ctgcctaat acgaccaaa ggagtgact 
      gatttttcg tatttggcc gaagattgt ttccacatg 
      agtcagaaa ggcaacgct cgaatagcg aatgctttg 
      tggaacaat attatggaa ccggttggg caaaagtcc 
      acccgacca gttgaaatt ttcgaaaag ttcaattgt 
      ccatcgcag gagcggccg tacattttc acccgaaaa 
      aacagtgtc agacaacac aatgaagtt ttcagtgaa 
      gtgagttgt cggtcgagg aaaatggtc ttccgttca 
      tgtatttat ggtttcttc gttttttac ttgtgcaat 
      ggccaaaaa ccggacact ttcggtaac agtacgctg 
      cgatttccc ctcatgggt agcagcgtc cgtcgccag 
      ccccccatc cccccttcg ttcaaattc ccgtgctcg 
      accaccatg ggtcggtcc ccatcgcgc cccaccagc 
      gtccaccgc ctgcgtccc ggcgacatc gacgtggtc 
      ggcgccatg ggcgactcc ctgattgcc ggaaacggc 
      gccctggag gaatgggct ttggggacc atgatcgag 
      taccggggc gtgtcctgg tgcgcaggg ggacagggc 
      acctggcgc gagttcctc accctgccc aacatcctc 
      aaggagttc aaccccaac ctgacgggc ttctcgacg 
      ggcactggg gagttctcg tcccccagg tcccagcta 
      aatgtcgcg tttcccgtc tccgcagac gcggatgcc 
      ttgacacag gccaaagtc ttggtcgga cgcatgcgg 
      aggaataaa aggatcgac tttgagagg gactggaag 
      atggtgacg attttcttc ggggctaat gacatttgc 
      tcagggcag tgttacaac aaagtggag ttttcgcca 
      cgaatgcat gcgaagaag cttatggta gcccttgat 
      tacctacaa agggctttg ccgagggct tttgttaac 
      ttaatccca gttttagat gtttcggtc agtgttcgc 
      attaaaaga acgatgatg tgccgcttt ttgcacact 
      ttgttctgt gcctgtttc cacagagga ggaaacgag 
      atggacgtt ataacccaa atgacccgg gagtaccaa 
      agggcagag gaggagctt atttttagc ggccgttat 
      gacaccaag gacgatttc accgttgtc ctgcaaccc 
      ttcatgaaa ttattcaat gcaccggac gacaaagcc 
      cggagatat gacgaagtg atcgacatt tcgtacata 
      acgtacgac tgtttccat ttttcgcaa aaaggacac 
      gctctggga gcaaatatg ctttggaac aatttgctg 
      cagccggtg gggcgtaag agcacaaaa cggctcaat 
      tatatcatg gaaagtttc gagtgtccg aagcccgaa 
      gccccattt ctgttcact cgaaaaaat tcgcgaact 
      tttttagag actggtcat cagtgagtg ccatttttg 
      tgataaaat aaatatttt gtacgaat

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY