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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007422.5: 7350967..7355729
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_02850

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 30.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC033681 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC033681 RA
      atgttttta ctactaaca ttcgtttcc taccttact 
      gagtcactg ggggtgaca atagacccc aactgtgac 
      tattttcaa aacattcaa cttggtcag gaatatttt 
      atttataat aaagaatat cccaataat tatgggcct 
      tcaactgct tgtcgctgg tcagctact agtcctgaa 
      aacaccgtt attgtctta acttgtaac gacttgaac 
      atcccttct tcacccaac tgccaaacc gacaaacta 
      ctgttttca ctcactgga aaggaaaat ttcgaagac 
      ggccaacaa tattgtggc aacagcatt ttcagtaca 
      tacacacaa agcaattcg ttatcagtt ggtctgttt 
      tcaaatgaa aacagtccc ggtggtgtg tttgtttgt 
      tctttggca gctatgcgc ttgccggaa tctggtggc 
      tgttcctgc ggtttgcaa caggaaact aaaattgta 
      ggtgggcaa gaaaccgga gtcaatgag tttccctca 
      atggcagct ttaattaat ccttcgact agtgaagct 
      ttctgtgga gcttcgtta attacggat aactacgcc 
      ttaactgca gctcactgc ctcctgaat aatgaacct 
      aataattta gccttgttg gtgggagat cataatttg 
      aacactggg tcagacact gcaacagcg gctttatat 
      cgtgtgcaa agcatcgtc cgacatccc tcatacgac 
      tctcagtct agacacaac gacatcgga gtcgtcaaa 
      actgagcaa aaaattgaa ttaaatgct gccgtttac 
      cccgtgtgt cttccattc tactacggt ggagacagc 
      ttcgtaaat caaaaagtt acagtttta ggttggggt 
      ttcaccgat gtttccgga cagaaagca gacgcttta 
      caaaaggtt gacctaacg gttgttgat aacaactat 
      tgtgattcc cgcatagac gaagaaatt tggtcaact 
      caaatttgt acgtacact cctggcaaa gactcgtgt 
      ttcagtgat tctgggggt ccactgctc tggaaaggt 
      tccacttct caaagtggt aaactagaa ttggttggg 
      attatttcc tacggagtt gggtgtgca acttcaaga 
      ccagccgtg aatacaaga gttacagct ttcttgtca 
      tggattgtt tcagtatgc agcgatgct gcttttttt 
      gtcggtagt aaagacaaa atgtggtgc ggaaacttg 
      tatcgaacc atgggtttt gccgccctt tttaacttc 
      ctgatgccg gtttcgatg gccatcgac tcaaattgt 
      gacttttac caagacatg gaattagga caaaactac 
      tacatttac aatccgggg tatccgaat tataccgga 
      cctccaatt gcttgccga tgggttggg aaaagtccc 
      gttggcacc gtcatagtc ctaacgtgt gaagatatt 
      gatatatcg acttcttat aactgctac agcgatcgg 
      ctttctgtt tcccgaagc ggagatgaa aacttacaa 
      aagcagacc acaaactat tgcgggaag acgtcgact 
      acagttcta accgaagac aatgctatt gcagttggg 
      ttcttctta actaaccct atgtacggg gggcgtttt 
      tcttgctct ttaacaccg atgcaaaca tcgcctcct 
      accacaacc acggcacga cccaacact tgtgactgc 
      ggttggaaa aaagggact aggattatt ggagggcat 
      gagaccggt attaacgaa tacccatca atggccgct 
      atggtcgat cgctggacg ttcgatgcc ttctgtggt 
      gcctcaatt atttcagac agatacgcc ctaactgct 
      gctcactgt cttttacat aaaacaccc gacgatttt 
      gctttacta gtgggagac cacaatatg acttctggc 
      gatgacacc ccttatgcc gccgtttac aaaatttca 
      aatatgttt tcacacccg tcatacgac caaagcacc 
      caacttaat gacattgcg gttttgcaa actgaaaaa 
      ccaatcgag ttcagcctt tttgtaggc cccgtttgt 
      ctgccattt agatacacg tcggtcaat tttctcagc 
      caaactgtt acagcttta ggttggggt tttgtcgat 
      gtcgctggg ccaaagtca gacacactt caagaagtc 
      gacttgact gtggtttct acagaagaa tgcaacgct 
      acgatcaca gacaaccct gtaacctat cgtcaaatc 
      tgtacctac gcacctaat cgagatgcc tgccagagt 
      gactctgga ggaccgatt ctctggcaa gacccaaac 
      acaaggaga ctacagttg cttggaatc atttcttac 
      ggaatcgga tgtgcaact tcgagacca gcagtaaat 
      acaagagtt acgtcatat cttaggtgg attgtgtct 
      gttactgaa gatgctttc tactgtatc aaatag
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC033681 RA
      caaatttag ccaattttg tcgtaaaaa gtcggttca 
      atttatagt aaaatgttt ttactacta acattcgtt 
      tcctacctt actgagtca ctgggggtg acaatagac 
      cccaactgt gactatttt caaaacatt caacttggt 
      caggaatat tttatttat aataaagaa tatcccaat 
      aattatggg ccttcaact gcttgtcgc tggtcagct 
      actagtcct gaaaacacc gttattgtc ttaacttgt 
      aacgacttg aacatccct tcttcaccc aactgccaa 
      accgacaaa ctactgttt tcactcact ggaaaggaa 
      aatttcgaa gacggccaa caatattgt ggcaacagc 
      attttcagt acatacaca caaagcaat tcgttatca 
      gttggtctg ttttcaaat gaaaacagt cccggtggt 
      gtgtttgtt tgttctttg gcagctatg cgcttgccg 
      gaatctggt ggctgttcc tgcggtttg caacaggaa 
      actaaaatt gtaggtggg caagaaacc ggagtcaat 
      gagtttccc tcaatggca gctttaatt aatccttcg 
      actagtgaa gctttctgt ggagcttcg ttaattacg 
      gataactac gccttaact gcagctcac tgcctcctg 
      aataatgaa cctaataat ttagccttg ttggtggga 
      gatcataat ttgaacact gggtcagac actgcaaca 
      gcggcttta tatcgtgtg caaagcatc gtccgacat 
      ccctcatac gactctcag tctagacac aacgacatc 
      ggagtcgtc aaaactgag caaaaaatt gaattaaat 
      gctgccgtt taccccgtg tgtcttcca ttctactac 
      ggtggagac agcttcgta aatcaaaaa gttacagtt 
      ttaggttgg ggtttcacc gatgtttcc ggacagaaa 
      gcagacgct ttacaaaag gttgaccta acggttgtt 
      gataacaac tattgtgat tcccgcata gacgaagaa 
      atttggtca actcaaatt tgtacgtac actcctggc 
      aaagactcg tgtttcagt gattctggg ggtccactg 
      ctctggaaa ggttccact tctcaaagt ggtaaacta 
      gaattggtt gggattatt tcctacgga gttgggtgt 
      gcaacttca agaccagcc gtgaataca agagttaca 
      gctttcttg tcatggatt gtttcagta tgcagcgat 
      gctgctttt tttgtcggt agtaaagac aaaatgtgg 
      tgcggaaac ttgtatcga accatgggt tttgccgcc 
      ctttttaac ttcctgatg ccggtttcg atggccatc 
      gactcaaat tgtgacttt taccaagac atggaatta 
      ggacaaaac tactacatt tacaatccg gggtatccg 
      aattatacc ggacctcca attgcttgc cgatgggtt 
      gggaaaagt cccgttggc accgtcata gtcctaacg 
      tgtgaagat attgatata tcgacttct tataactgc 
      tacagcgat cggctttct gtttcccga agcggagat 
      gaaaactta caaaagcag accacaaac tattgcggg 
      aagacgtcg actacagtt ctaaccgaa gacaatgct 
      attgcagtt gggttcttc ttaactaac cctatgtac 
      ggggggcgt ttttcttgc tctttaaca ccgatgcaa 
      acatcgcct cctaccaca accacggca cgacccaac 
      acttgtgac tgcggttgg aaaaaaggg actaggatt 
      attggaggg catgagacc ggtattaac gaataccca 
      tcaatggcc gctatggtc gatcgctgg acgttcgat 
      gccttctgt ggtgcctca attatttca gacagatac 
      gccctaact gctgctcac tgtctttta cataaaaca 
      cccgacgat tttgcttta ctagtggga gaccacaat 
      atgacttct ggcgatgac accccttat gccgccgtt 
      tacaaaatt tcaaatatg ttttcacac ccgtcatac 
      gaccaaagc acccaactt aatgacatt gcggttttg 
      caaactgaa aaaccaatc gagttcagc ctttttgta 
      ggccccgtt tgtctgcca tttagatac acgtcggtc 
      aattttctc agccaaact gttacagct ttaggttgg 
      ggttttgtc gatgtcgct gggccaaag tcagacaca 
      cttcaagaa gtcgacttg actgtggtt tctacagaa 
      gaatgcaac gctacgatc acagacaac cctgtaacc 
      tatcgtcaa atctgtacc tacgcacct aatcgagat 
      gcctgccag agtgactct ggaggaccg attctctgg 
      caagaccca aacacaagg agactacag ttgcttgga 
      atcatttct tacggaatc ggatgtgca acttcgaga 
      ccagcagta aatacaaga gttacgtca tatcttagg 
      tggattgtg tctgttact gaagatgct ttctactgt 
      atcaaatag tacaacaat taccaaaaa atcgccact 
      atttaataa agacttata aagagc

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY