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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007417.3: 11433972..11449200
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_02662

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 20.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of embryonic musculature and early development
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50 embryo/egg with embryonic tissue, no cuticle, no fluorescence - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%

    larval musculature pattern irregular - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%

    affected eggs/embryos/larvae total percentage of affected eggs/embryos/larvae on slide - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%
    remarks: muscle pattern potentially obscured by segmentation defect,
    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: > 50
    embryo/egg without visible larval cuticle in cuticle preparation - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 30% - 50%
    cuticle remnants strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs) - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%

    cuticle remnants without visible segmentation, differentiation or axis - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): less than 30%

    affected eggs/embryos/larvae total percentage of affected eggs/embryos/larvae on slide - Penetrance (percentage of animals/eggs on slide): 50% - 80%
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC032177 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC032177 RA
      atgacatgt aattacaac gttaaagca ataagtaat 
      agaaattat aatatacac ggaggatta ataaataat 
      aattacaca caagttgca ttaccaaca agaatcaat 
      aactccgct agaaaactg gtcaaaatc agcaaagtt 
      cagtgtgag agtctgaca tgtttcgat aagagcatc 
      aaagaggaa aaaatcagg ctggcgggc acagaactc 
      accgttgaa agtggaggc gacaaaagc tgcctcacc 
      acttacata ttcaacccc gttgacact tgcacgggc 
      tctcccagt cccgaaaaa ttcccactg aagactccc 
      gaccagcag cgggatgat gtcatcaac acggagacc 
      cacatgcac ccaaacttc ctctacgga aaaatcctc 
      cacgacggc cggcctaac tttctaacc gaatatgag 
      ctgagctac aaaaactgc aattttggg gtggctgac 
      cacggcaag tgctgcgtg gggggccat ttcgggaga 
      gacttgagt tttggacac ttgtacact atcagcaag 
      agcgacaag gaggagagg acgtacgat gagccctac 
      acgggggac ttgccgcgg aggtcctgg ctgtgctgt 
      ccaggctcg cagcatcat gtggaatgc gagcaaccg 
      ccccctttg caaaccaac aagtcaccg tccagccct 
      tgcgaagcg attacaaaa gcgcccagc cacaatctg 
      tgtcctgga aattgcgag agactccag cagcaattg 
      gacgaacaa gcacagcga tacgaagaa cagctgaca 
      gagctgcac tcggttata gctgaattg acgcgcaaa 
      ttgcaccaa cagagaact atggcaatt gcagaagaa 
      gacgaagtg tcagaatct tgtgcaagc gcccatgac 
      gattccgtg acgtgtcct ttggaagta agcgaatta 
      gaaccgtta gaaaacgag ttgtccgac ttggacaat 
      aaagtagta ttgtccgaa agtccatta gaactcccc 
      gagccgaaa ctaagctcg tcgcatcac gagaacaac 
      gaactttca ccatactca gaaatcgta gatccatta 
      aaacaggaa ataatgcat ctcagggcc caactgcaa 
      gaagccaac gccaaactg ttacagatc tcctcgaca 
      cagaagaat tacgaaatc gccgaagaa gaaactctg 
      accgatagc aaagttctg gaatcgccg gaatctcat 
      attgaagtt gactgcgac ccgaaattg tattccgat 
      gataaagtc gacataaaa tacagcaat attgttcct 
      attcatcga gccaacgtc aaaaataac accgccttc 
      tcaactgct ccggtcact aaagttgca gagaggatc 
      aagttgaaa cgggccgcc gatggccac agagacgtt 
      aatcctaat gatctggtt aacagtgat ctgccgaca 
      gctgtcgca gagcacatt gttggcgat attttaaga 
      cagtgcgat gtacaaacc gaaaaacaa gcaattgat 
      atcgaacta aggcgctta aatgccaaa ctcgaacat 
      gccagggcg caaaactcc gtcctggcc atcaccttg 
      accgaaact aaagcccat tgcgacaga ttggcctta 
      ctttgcgga aaatatgaa tccaacgca atagcttta 
      cgcctggcc ttgggaatc accgatcgt gcaatagaa 
      gcctacgac gtcctttta gctttacta gagactgaa 
      ttatcgtta gacgaaaac gattcaacg tctgttgaa 
      aatagatca gccgccgaa accgtcgct aaacagctc 
      ctaactcat ttggattca tatcaaaac accgacgtt 
      ctgttatct ccgtggcaa aaccacgtt tactctagt 
      ccagtatcg gaaaatgag gacccctgg agttcggaa 
      catgaaact agactaaga gagcacgtt tcgaggctt 
      aaagccgaa agaagcaat attcaagga acttacgtg 
      actttggag tccactcaa gtggaaaat gtacctgtc 
      agaccatca agtagtcaa gaagcgaga aaaatggat 
      ttggaaatg gctgttttg atgcaggag ctaatggga 
      ctcagggaa gacaaagcc gaacttata tcgaagcta 
      tttatgtta gaaaaagac aaaagtgcc atagagtta 
      aagttgaag tacgtcgaa gggcagcag aaagcccaa 
      gcggcggcg cttaaaaac ctccaagga cagctgaaa 
      gacacggaa gctttattg gccttagcg acacagaat 
      aaagagagg ggttattcg gatgcagag catgctcaa 
      ggtgttgaa ctcgagcta atgcaagcg ctggcaaga 
      gaggcaaga ctgaaagtt cgcttacaa gaacttgtc 
      acgactttg gaacaagtg acaaaaaat gccgaagcg 
      agactattg gaagggaga gagatcgtg cacgatctg 
      aatcacaca aatagtatt ttagccgaa actgtagat 
      agaaacaat aagaagtat caatccaag tttaagaaa 
      atggagcat cagatgtta gcaatggta gaaaagcac 
      aaccttcaa gtccagaat ctccaacag agaatagcc 
      acccttgaa actcccccc accaatagt tcagacaac 
      tctatcaat tctgtagct gtgtag
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC032177 RA
      gcggtcgga tagcagtgg aaacacgcg cgtgccgcc 
      gccggtcgg tctttggtg acagtgcgt ttcttgaca 
      tacatccat gtgctgaca catcttgag tgtcatctg 
      ctgtacatc caacgagga aaacgacgg aatagcgta 
      aaaaacgca ccgttttta cagttctga agaggatct 
      tgtgaatcc caaattgta ggaattagt gctttgata 
      atagattgt tgacttgtt ggtgacgca atttcgctg 
      gttcgaatt tgtttaagt ccttatcga gtagggttg 
      aaacgaatt tgaataatt taacgccaa aggtgtgaa 
      tgtgctaaa ttggtgttt ttacagctt cattcaaaa 
      tgaagtaat tgttgattt tggagttgt cacaaacca 
      caaacgcgt aacaatcga ttgagtcta ataagtatt 
      caaacaact tggtggttt taactttta aacaattca 
      caacatcac gaaatgtgt tttaatgtc agttccaaa 
      cttgtttcg gtgttatta cttcgagta tctaaagca 
      tatacgtgt aattccaat tcggggttt ctcctggga 
      ttgtgttta tttaaggga tatcagtaa cttgggcgc 
      aacagttgc cgatttcca tataaactt gccctaaag 
      gtgagtctg gcgtttgaa ttatttcgt gtgcgtcag 
      cagtgacta aaacggggt aatatatga ccgtcgttt 
      cctacaaag ttggtacac ttggctgcg tcaccgaaa 
      ggtgtgctt ttttgaatg aacacattg tagggtaag 
      aaatggaag cactttaca catttcgtc gtattatgt 
      tttcgctcg tttcgctcc cattttcga gtaatattg 
      aaagaagat gctgttgta tcgtatgta tacgatagg 
      caaataaag ctcgaaaca acaaacatt gtctaaaac 
      tatttcgag accatccga tgaagtgcc tcactaaaa 
      gagaaagtg gatgtaaac tacactaat ttcgttaat 
      gtgctttcg gcttggatt tcattacaa aattggtga 
      cgtttataa tcttagttt ttgtgttaa tcaaatttt 
      aattaaatt cggtacaag tagtggcgt acttacttg 
      tcaaggcgc ttaaaacca caacgaaat tagtgatca 
      gtcgggctc aattaaatc aagaaaaga ctaaagtga 
      ctttatggt ttcagagaa aaaacgcat tacattttc 
      gtcgcgtgc ttttacctt aattaaatt acaaaaata 
      aagcactgc ttgaagtac cctacgcat gattaattt 
      taaaataga atgactgga aatattctt cggttggcg 
      ttaaattgc tgagaaaat attttcact gctattaat 
      aaccagaaa tataaacta ggaaacgat gcatagttt 
      ctactaaaa agtcaggct ttttatttc tttttcggc 
      gttttaatt gctcaacct gtttgatta ttaattgac 
      ctatcgtct tttgtttta attaaaagg taagagacg 
      aaatgttca cataagttg acataaata tttcgtttc 
      gaaagaaag cattgtatt aacagcact tggacagcc 
      acaaccgac caaattagc tttattgat gggtctatg 
      tgatatcca aaaagccac caagtctcg gtgcatgta 
      ctgaattct aatagcgct acggctttg ttttaccat 
      attcataag tgcacatta actgtaata tggactgga 
      actggacgt gataataat tgcaataat taaccgtta 
      ggtatttca agcaattct tgtaatgac atgtaatta 
      caacgttaa agcaataag taatagaaa ttataatat 
      acacggagg attaataaa taataatta cacacaagt 
      tgcattacc aacaagaat caataactc cgctagaaa 
      actggtcaa aatcagcaa agttcagtg tgagagtct 
      gacatgttt cgataagag catcaaaga ggaaaaaat 
      caggctggc gggcacaga actcaccgt tgaaagtgg 
      aggcgacaa aagctgcct caccactta catattcaa 
      ccccgttga cacttgcac gggctctcc cagtcccga 
      aaaattccc actgaagac tcccgacca gcagcggga 
      tgatgtcat caacacgga gacccacat gcacccaaa 
      cttcctcta cggaaaaat cctccacga cggccggcc 
      taactttct aaccgaata tgagctgag ctacaaaaa 
      ctgcaattt tggggtggc tgaccacgg caagtgctg 
      cgtgggggg ccatttcgg gagagactt gagttttgg 
      acacttgta cactatcag caagagcga caaggagga 
      gaggacgta cgatgagcc ctacacggg ggacttgcc 
      gcggaggtc ctggctgtg ctgtccagg ctcgcagca 
      tcatgtgga atgcgagca accgccccc tttgcaaac 
      caacaagtc accgtccag cccttgcga agcgattac 
      aaaagcgcc cagccacaa tctgtgtcc tggaaattg 
      cgagagact ccagcagca attggacga acaagcaca 
      gcgatacga agaacagct gacagagct gcactcggt 
      tatagctga attgacgcg caaattgca ccaacagag 
      aactatggc aattgcaga agaagacga agtgtcaga 
      atcttgtgc aagcgccca tgacgattc cgtgacgtg 
      tcctttgga agtaagcga attagaacc gttagaaaa 
      cgagttgtc cgacttgga caataaagt agtattgtc 
      cgaaagtcc attagaact ccccgagcc gaaactaag 
      ctcgtcgca tcacgagaa caacgaact ttcaccata 
      ctcagaaat cgtagatcc attaaaaca ggaaataat 
      gcatctcag ggcccaact gcaagaagc caacgccaa 
      actgttaca gatctcctc gacacagaa gaattacga 
      aatcgccga agaagaaac tctgaccga tagcaaagt 
      tctggaatc gccggaatc tcatattga agttgactg 
      cgacccgaa attgtattc cgatgataa agtcgacat 
      aaaatacag caatattgt tcctattca tcgagccaa 
      cgtcaaaaa taacaccgc cttctcaac tgctccggt 
      cactaaagt tgcagagag gatcaagtt gaaacgggc 
      cgccgatgg ccacagaga cgttaatcc taatgatct 
      ggttaacag tgatctgcc gacagctgt cgcagagca 
      cattgttgg cgatatttt aagacagtg cgatgtaca 
      aaccgaaaa acaagcaat tgatatcga actaaggcg 
      cttaaatgc caaactcga acatgccag ggcgcaaaa 
      ctccgtcct ggccatcac cttgaccga aactaaagc 
      ccattgcga cagattggc cttactttg cggaaaata 
      tgaatccaa cgcaatagc tttacgcct ggccttggg 
      aatcaccga tcgtgcaat agaagccta cgacgtcct 
      tttagcttt actagagac tgaattatc gttagacga 
      aaacgattc aacgtctgt tgaaaatag atcagccgc 
      cgaaaccgt cgctaaaca gctcctaac tcatttgga 
      ttcatatca aaacaccga cgttctgtt atctccgtg 
      gcaaaacca cgtttactc tagtccagt atcggaaaa 
      tgaggaccc ctggagttc ggaacatga aactagact 
      aagagagca cgtttcgag gcttaaagc cgaaagaag 
      caatattca aggaactta cgtgacttt ggagtccac 
      tcaagtgga aaatgtacc tgtcagacc atcaagtag 
      tcaagaagc gagaaaaat ggatttgga aatggctgt 
      tttgatgca ggagctaat gggactcag ggaagacaa 
      agccgaact tatatcgaa gctatttat gttagaaaa 
      agacaaaag tgccataga gttaaagtt gaagtacgt 
      cgaagggca gcagaaagc ccaagcggc ggcgcttaa 
      aaacctcca aggacagct gaaagacac ggaagcttt 
      attggcctt agcgacaca gaataaaga gaggggtta 
      ttcggatgc agagcatgc tcaaggtgt tgaactcga 
      gctaatgca agcgctggc aagagaggc aagactgaa 
      agttcgctt acaagaact tgtcacgac tttggaaca 
      agtgacaaa aaatgccga agcgagact attggaagg 
      gagagagat cgtgcacga tctgaatca cacaaatag 
      tattttagc cgaaactgt agatagaaa caataagaa 
      gtatcaatc caagtttaa gaaaatgga gcatcagat 
      gttagcaat ggtagaaaa gcacaacct tcaagtcca 
      gaatctcca acagagaat agccaccct tgaaactcc 
      ccccaccaa tagttcaga caactctat caattctgt 
      agctgtgta gtaaagtgt gttttaaat gaaattatt 
      tttttattt ttcgttttg ttgatctct gttttaatc 
      agtggcgaa ttgagaaat aaatcaatt tatttttgc 
      cgaacctac tgactgcgc caattaata agcaaggcc 
      aggttttat tacaacaat tacacccaa aatttaaaa 
      aatacccca tcaattttt aatcttatc ttcgggcgt 
      ttttggaga agtaatgtc gggttaatt cgccgctga 
      ttttattat tgatgcatt taatgcggc ctgtatgta 
      taccactaa attgtcgag gaagtatta tgagcagta 
      taagatatt aaagttgta tatgcctag ctgtgatta 
      tttatacat tgctgaatc ggaagtgcg actgattta 
      tatggaaat gttactgca atggttgta ataatgtca 
      ggcagtcaa gtgcttaag cttaattaa atattgttg 
      tttattata aataatatc ggaatagtt tcccagatt 
      tagtacaaa tttattata ttatactaa cgtcttgcc 
      ataacgatg ttttttatg ataacatga ttgagagct 
      gcaagtcaa tcatatcat tcattggag cgtgctgag 
      aatgaagtc ataaattaa catctaaac cgatttcag 
      gaaaattca tttactagt tctaatttt aacacattt 
      taccacgtg ctaaaattc tattttact tacctttga 
      aacgtaatg ggctaataa aacttattt ttgtaaatg 
      aattttcca gtcattatt ttattaaaa cggaataac 
      tataacata cattgattt gtattcagc tatgtattt 
      attagttat tgaaataaa tatgtttac aatat

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY