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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007419.2: 5961903..5982636
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_02615

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 40.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (died as pupa) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    beetle stock: bad (increased lethality), adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Pupal morphology
    beetle stock: bad (increased lethality),
    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 0.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC032828 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC032828 RA
      atgcatcta aacggcgac tccatggag tcttcagtg 
      gaaaatcat gagatgctg gaggctgaa agccgtggg 
      gtcgctggc agactggcg gacctcgag cgcaaagtt 
      cttgaacaa tccgatgaa ttaatgtgt ttgaaggcg 
      accctggcc gaagccctg cgtcgcgtc agtcaatta 
      gaaggcacg aaaataaac caccaagcc gtgtcgtcg 
      cctcttcgc aacggcggc agcaaagac gtcgtccgt 
      ttgcgctcc cacaactac gccgcgaaa accacatcc 
      ttggaggtg agccgcagg agttacggc tcctcctta 
      ccacagaga agagcagtg cattatcag tcaaccggc 
      agtctgcac agtgatagt cacagttcg agtagtgtt 
      tcgccagtt ccgtcacca tcaccgagg gccactccg 
      ctcccagcg agcaaaaag ccgccctcg aacagcccc 
      agtccggtg ggaaatggg accgggctg cacaagagg 
      tggagctcg acgggggat tttcaccag aataacgcc 
      acttcgccc tctgggatg cactcaaag ttttcggca 
      aagtctttt ttaaacctt tacaataca agggctaac 
      agttatccc gcacaaaat tacaagcat gggacaaaa 
      gaagctacg ttcaacgaa gaggaaaaa accgtcaaa 
      atgtacctt cgaggccgt cccatcatc ctatacgtc 
      ccatccgag ctgtgcgac agctacgaa atcaccaaa 
      gtatcaaca ccaccttca caaaaatta aaactggac 
      tgggtttat gggtaccga gggcgggat tgtcgttca 
      aacttgtac tatctgcca accggggaa atggtctat 
      tttgtggcc gcggtggtc gttttgtac aacgtggag 
      gagcagagt caaaggcat tatttgggg catactgac 
      gatgttaaa agcttggcc attcatccg aataaaatg 
      ttggtggct acgggacaa tgtgcgggg actgaccgc 
      caaaacgcg aggccacat atccgtgtc tggaactcc 
      gtttcgctc cacactcaa gccgtaatt ggaatgaat 
      gactttgac gtgtccgtt tgctgtctc tcgttcagt 
      aaagcagac ggtgggtcg cttctcctc gccgtggac 
      gaggcccca gaccatata atttcaatc tgggagtgg 
      caaaagggc gacagtggg cacaaagtc acggaaacg 
      aagtgttca gttgacacc attgttgcc gctgaattc 
      catccgcta gaccgtaac attattgtg acttgtggc 
      aagtctcac atcgcgttc tggtcgctg gacgtcggt 
      ggaactctc tacaaacga atgggaatc ttcgaaacg 
      cgcgacaaa cccaaatac gtcacttgc gtggccttc 
      ctccaaacg ggggagaca atgactggg gattccagc 
      ggcaatttg gaaatctgg ggcagggga acaaacaca 
      atctggaaa ttcatcaaa aacgtgcac gaaggcccc 
      atcttctca atctgtgtc ttaaaagac gggagcatt 
      gtcacaggg ggcggaaaa gacggccgg atcgtcctc 
      ttcgacccc actttacaa aaactgggg gaaacccaa 
      atcgagggc cacttcggc ggcatccga gtcgtgtcc 
      gaaggctgc ggctcgcag ttaattgtg ggcacgacc 
      cgaaactgc attttaacg ggaactgtc gagttgggc 
      ttccagcca attattctg gggcacact gacgaactt 
      gtggctctt gcgtcgcac ccaagtgtc cagcagttc 
      gctacttca ggctacgat aaagttttg caagtgtgg 
      gatgcgctc tcgcatagc attctctgg agcaaggat 
      atcggggaa caggcgcaa agtttggcc ttttcggtc 
      gatggtaca acagttata gttgggtgt gtgactggg 
      cggtggatg gtttttgat gtacaaacg cgcgaaatt 
      ctggaaagt cactcggat ggggcggaa cccatccag 
      gtgatccag tgttcgcct gatgggagc atggttgcg 
      ttggggtcg cgcgataac aatatttat atctatcaa 
      gtgtcggaa gatgggcaa aagtacaac agggtgggg 
      cggtgtatg ggacattcg agtttcgtt actcacatc 
      gattggtca actgataat caaactctt cggaccaat 
      tcgggcgat tatgaactg ctttactgg aatgcgacc 
      acttgtcgg cagatcccg cagacgggc gtgatgcgg 
      gacgtggac tgggccacc aataactgt accataacg 
      tttagtacc atcgggatc tggccggag aatgctgat 
      ggtactgat gtaaatttc tgtgatcgt agtcatgat 
      aggaaactg ctggcaagt gctgatgat tttggcaaa 
      gtgaagcta tacagttat ccggcctcg cagcctcgg 
      tcgttgtgt cacacttac gggggtcac agcagtcac 
      gtaatggcc gtaaacttc ttgcacgac gacacgaga 
      ttagtgtca ataggaggc aaagacacc gctgttttg 
      caatggacg atatcttag
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC032828 RA
      tacaccacc ttcttcggc ccattttgg gcgctcatc 
      cgccattcc gtcccgaaa aaattaacg gatgcataa 
      aatagcaaa aactttctt atttgattc gttatcccg 
      tcgcgtcga gttgcacga agtcaaaag tatgcaaat 
      accttcttg cattcttct caaagccaa tcttcatct 
      ataagtgcg ttagataga gataggtgt ccaggtaaa 
      tatggtagt gggagacac attcacctg actttagac 
      cgtgctgtg gggacccca gccagcaag tttagtttt 
      gtgttgtga atgccgagt gagttcgcc ggttatcag 
      agtttttgt ctcagtgaa tcgtgtttt ctcgactaa 
      atctcttat ctggagatt aatttatcg gagaaatct 
      gggtttgtc aaacgatgc ttatcgtct atgagatac 
      agtgacttc aaaaacgaa gacaatgca tctaaacgg 
      cgactccat ggagtcttc agtggaaaa tcatgagat 
      gctggaggc tgaaagccg tggggtcgc tggcagact 
      ggcggacct cgagcgcaa agttcttga acaatccga 
      tgaattaat gtgtttgaa ggcgaccct ggccgaagc 
      cctgcgtcg cgtcagtca attagaagg cacgaaaat 
      aaaccacca agccgtgtc gtcgcctct tcgcaacgg 
      cggcagcaa agacgtcgt ccgtttgcg ctcccacaa 
      ctacgccgc gaaaaccac atccttgga ggtgagccg 
      caggagtta cggctcctc cttaccaca gagaagagc 
      agtgcatta tcagtcaac cggcagtct gcacagtga 
      tagtcacag ttcgagtag tgtttcgcc agttccgtc 
      accatcacc gagggccac tccgctccc agcgagcaa 
      aaagccgcc ctcgaacag ccccagtcc ggtgggaaa 
      tgggaccgg gctgcacaa gaggtggag ctcgacggg 
      ggattttca ccagaataa cgccacttc gccctctgg 
      gatgcactc aaagttttc ggcaaagtc ttttttaaa 
      cctttacaa tacaagggc taacagtta tcccgcaca 
      aaattacaa gcatgggac aaaagaagc tacgttcaa 
      cgaagagga aaaaaccgt caaaatgta ccttcgagg 
      ccgtcccat catcctata cgtcccatc cgagctgtg 
      cgacagcta cgaaatcac caaagtatc aacaccacc 
      ttcacaaaa attaaaact ggactgggt ttatgggta 
      ccgagggcg ggattgtcg ttcaaactt gtactatct 
      gccaaccgg ggaaatggt ctattttgt ggccgcggt 
      ggtcgtttt gtacaacgt ggaggagca gagtcaaag 
      gcattattt ggggcatac tgacgatgt taaaagctt 
      ggccattca tccgaataa aatgttggt ggctacggg 
      acaatgtgc ggggactga ccgccaaaa cgcgaggcc 
      acatatccg tgtctggaa ctccgtttc gctccacac 
      tcaagccgt aattggaat gaatgactt tgacgtgtc 
      cgtttgctg tctctcgtt cagtaaagc agacggtgg 
      gtcgcttct cctcgccgt ggacgaggc cccagacca 
      tataatttc aatctggga gtggcaaaa gggcgacag 
      tgggcacaa agtcacgga aacgaagtg ttcagttga 
      caccattgt tgccgctga attccatcc gctagaccg 
      taacattat tgtgacttg tggcaagtc tcacatcgc 
      gttctggtc gctggacgt cggtggaac tctctacaa 
      acgaatggg aatcttcga aacgcgcga caaacccaa 
      atacgtcac ttgcgtggc cttcctcca aacggggga 
      gacaatgac tggggattc cagcggcaa tttggaaat 
      ctggggcag gggaacaaa cacaatctg gaaattcat 
      caaaaacgt gcacgaagg ccccatctt ctcaatctg 
      tgtcttaaa agacgggag cattgtcac agggggcgg 
      aaaagacgg ccggatcgt cctcttcga ccccacttt 
      acaaaaact gggggaaac ccaaatcga gggccactt 
      cggcggcat ccgagtcgt gtccgaagg ctgcggctc 
      gcagttaat tgtgggcac gacccgaaa ctgcatttt 
      aacgggaac tgtcgagtt gggcttcca gccaattat 
      tctggggca cactgacga acttgtggc tcttgcgtc 
      gcacccaag tgtccagca gttcgctac ttcaggcta 
      cgataaagt tttgcaagt gtgggatgc gctctcgca 
      tagcattct ctggagcaa ggatatcgg ggaacaggc 
      gcaaagttt ggccttttc ggtcgatgg tacaacagt 
      tatagttgg gtgtgtgac tgggcggtg gatggtttt 
      tgatgtaca aacgcgcga aattctgga aagtcactc 
      ggatggggc ggaacccat ccaggtgat ccagtgttc 
      gcctgatgg gagcatggt tgcgttggg gtcgcgcga 
      taacaatat ttatatcta tcaagtgtc ggaagatgg 
      gcaaaagta caacagggt ggggcggtg tatgggaca 
      ttcgagttt cgttactca catcgattg gtcaactga 
      taatcaaac tcttcggac caattcggg cgattatga 
      actgcttta ctggaatgc gaccacttg tcggcagat 
      cccgcagac gggcgtgat gcgggacgt ggactgggc 
      caccaataa ctgtaccat aacgtttag taccatcgg 
      gatctggcc ggagaatgc tgatggtac tgatgtaaa 
      tttctgtga tcgtagtca tgataggaa actgctggc 
      aagtgctga tgattttgg caaagtgaa gctatacag 
      ttatccggc ctcgcagcc tcggtcgtt gtgtcacac 
      ttacggggg tcacagcag tcacgtaat ggccgtaaa 
      cttcttgca cgacgacac gagattagt gtcaatagg 
      aggcaaaga caccgctgt tttgcaatg gacgatatc 
      ttagtccct ccacgagta ttatgatgc cttaaagaa 
      acgagttgt cgtttattt taattattt attgttaat 
      tgtgcgtgt gagaggatt ggtgaccgg catgcttaa 
      cttaagagg ccttatgta acaactaat tcattccaa 
      gctttcaag tgcaagact cacgagtag aacttgttt 
      gtaaatcaa gtgccacaa actgtccag tttaggtgt 
      tttacctac aattttgtt atttatagt tgtgtgata 
      aataaagtg gataagtaa ac
    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY