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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007417.3: 8820696..8830913
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_02594

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 0.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 20.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    pupal molt delayed (still larva) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (16 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (41 dpi)
    Days post injection

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC032117 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC032117 RA
      atggaaaaa cgcatagaa ctcgaaaaa cgggggaga 
      aatccggac gagattaag gagcttaat ctcgataac 
      tgccggagc accagcatc ataggactc acagacaaa 
      ttctgcaat ttggaaacc ctgtcactt atcaatgtg 
      gggctcact tccctcaaa ggattccca aagcttcca 
      aatcttaag aaactagaa ttaagtgac aacaggata 
      aacaatgga cttaactta ctggaaaca agtcccaaa 
      ttaacgcat ctcaattta agtggcaac agaatcaaa 
      gatttagcg acgcttgaa ccgttaaaa aatttcaaa 
      catctcaaa aatctcgat ctcttcaat aacgaagcc 
      acaactgtg gagaactac agagagaaa attttcaaa 
      atgatacca agccttaaa tatctcgat ggatttgat 
      gcggaggac cgcgaggcc gacgacacc gacggcgag 
      gaggaggtg aacggcaac gacgacgac tctgaggaa 
      gagggaagc tctgaagag gatgaagat ctggaggag 
      agcgtgggt ttgggcgcc gtgtattcg gaaaatctg 
      gatgaactg tcagatgag ggtgattat gaggctggt 
      gaggaggaa gaagatgaa gacggtatt gaggaggag 
      gaggaagag gagatcgtg gaggaggat gcacaatca 
      cctgatgtt tcaaggggt aaaaagaga aaacacgaa 
      gacgaaatg gcagaaagt cgaggctct ttattggcc 
      aagtccgtg cagaagcat gcaggaaga gccaaagaa 
      aagatattg caaaatctt gggaaggtc gaccggaca 
      gcggacgaa atcttcgac gagcacttg cagaatttt 
      acaagacag cagaacgca gcgaataga atacagaaa 
      gaattcaac aactacata aggtgtata cgagctgca 
      caagcggct tcgaaatca ctcctcgaa gcgatcggt 
      gagacatac gagagtcaa tggaccggt cacgatctt 
      ctctacgtc caaacacaa caaatcgac atgttatgg 
      caagatttt agccataaa ctggccgat caggtgctc 
      cttccattg aacacctac cagagtcag ttcccggaa 
      atgaggaaa aaaatcgac aagaggggt agaaaattg 
      gtagatttt gacagtcag aggcacagt tttcaggcg 
      cttcagacg aatatgaaa aaacgggac gacgcgaaa 
      atcgcaaaa ggacgcgag cagttagaa gaagccaaa 
      aggacttac gaaatgtta aattcggaa ttacacgat 
      gagcttccc gcgctttat gattccagg atattgttt 
      tatgtgacg aatttgcaa tcgcttttt aatgccgaa 
      catgttttc cattcggag gcctcgaaa atttacggc 
      gaactagag tcagtggtt gacaagctg gcaacggac 
      agccagcgg gggtcgtat agtcttaag aaaaccaac 
      ggctctagt ctgccccgt ccggccgac aaaaactcg 
      tcaccctta ataatcaac aatatttca ccgatttct 
      tcacctcat cgcgctagt actgataat ttgccacca 
      ggtgtcttg tatagagtc aaggcgact tataaatac 
      aacagggag gatgttgac gagttgtcg tttgatgtt 
      ggggagata attcaagtg gtggagtat gatgaccca 
      gaggaacag gaggaggga tggctgatg ggtctgaag 
      gaaaatacc ggggagaaa gggatgttt ccggcgaat 
      ttcacgagg ccactctag
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC032117 RA
      tccgccccc ggtggccgc tgcggcccc caaggagcc 
      aaaaatgtg gcttctgtc atccctaac ctctcaaat 
      ccctgcgct cccattggc cggcaaatc tcccgccag 
      cgcatccat tgtgttatt gtaggtacc cctctagcg 
      gagcattgc gatgccatg aacgctgtg gcggctaat 
      cgatgagtt cttgtccac tgtcttcgc gttcgcggt 
      ttgaaagtg gtgattttt aacgaatta aaggctgcc 
      ttgtatgag attagtgcg gcgtcggcg gattttgct 
      cgctttggc cagtggata aaagtttcg cgatggaaa 
      aacgcatag aactcgaaa aacggggga gaaatccgg 
      acgagatta aggagctta atctcgata actgccgga 
      gcaccagca tcataggac tcacagaca aattctgca 
      atttggaaa ccctgtcac ttatcaatg tggggctca 
      cttccctca aaggattcc caaagcttc caaatctta 
      agaaactag aattaagtg acaacagga taaacaatg 
      gacttaact tactggaaa caagtccca aattaacgc 
      atctcaatt taagtggca acagaatca aagatttag 
      cgacgcttg aaccgttaa aaaatttca aacatctca 
      aaaatctcg atctcttca ataacgaag ccacaactg 
      tggagaact acagagaga aaattttca aaatgatac 
      caagcctta aatatctcg atggatttg atgcggagg 
      accgcgagg ccgacgaca ccgacggcg aggaggagg 
      tgaacggca acgacgacg actctgagg aagagggaa 
      gctctgaag aggatgaag atctggagg agagcgtgg 
      gtttgggcg ccgtgtatt cggaaaatc tggatgaac 
      tgtcagatg agggtgatt atgaggctg gtgaggagg 
      aagaagatg aagacggta ttgaggagg aggaggaag 
      aggagatcg tggaggagg atgcacaat cacctgatg 
      tttcaaggg gtaaaaaga gaaaacacg aagacgaaa 
      tggcagaaa gtcgaggct ctttattgg ccaagtccg 
      tgcagaagc atgcaggaa gagccaaag aaaagatat 
      tgcaaaatc ttgggaagg tcgaccgga cagcggacg 
      aaatcttcg acgagcact tgcagaatt ttacaagac 
      agcagaacg cagcgaata gaatacaga aagaattca 
      acaactaca taaggtgta tacgagctg cacaagcgg 
      cttcgaaat cactcctcg aagcgatcg gtgagacat 
      acgagagtc aatggaccg gtcacgatc ttctctacg 
      tccaaacac aacaaatcg acatgttat ggcaagatt 
      ttagccata aactggccg atcaggtgc tccttccat 
      tgaacacct accagagtc agttcccgg aaatgagga 
      aaaaaatcg acaagaggg gtagaaaat tggtagatt 
      ttgacagtc agaggcaca gttttcagg cgcttcaga 
      cgaatatga aaaaacggg acgacgcga aaatcgcaa 
      aaggacgcg agcagttag aagaagcca aaaggactt 
      acgaaatgt taaattcgg aattacacg atgagcttc 
      ccgcgcttt atgattcca ggatattgt tttatgtga 
      cgaatttgc aatcgcttt ttaatgccg aacatgttt 
      tccattcgg aggcctcga aaatttacg gcgaactag 
      agtcagtgg ttgacaagc tggcaacgg acagccagc 
      gggggtcgt atagtctta agaaaacca acggctcta 
      gtctgcccc gtccggccg acaaaaact cgtcaccct 
      taataatca acaatattt caccgattt cttcacctc 
      atcgcgcta gtactgata atttgccac caggtgtct 
      tgtatagag tcaaggcga cttataaat acaacaggg 
      aggatgttg acgagttgt cgtttgatg ttggggaga 
      taattcaag tggtggagt atgatgacc cagaggaac 
      aggaggagg gatggctga tgggtctga aggaaaata 
      ccggggaga aagggatgt ttccggcga atttcacga 
      ggccactct agaccaatc aaataaggg gtggatctg 
      tcaaatact aacaaag

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY