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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007417.3: 12105057..12109887
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_02586

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 30.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 0.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 0.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC031004 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC031004 RA
      atgcacgtc ttctttttg tttttaaca agtctgctt 
      gttacaaac gcccacgtt caggtgttc aagcctcag 
      atcgatgtt cgaatcgtt ggtggtcat gccaccacc 
      atcgaagaa cacccacac caagtttca gtgatttac 
      attgatagt cactactgt ggcggttct attatccac 
      actagattt attctaact gcggctcat tgcacctac 
      caacttaca gctgaagat ttgctagtt cgtgctggc 
      tccactatg gtaaattcc ggtgggcaa gtgcgcgga 
      gtcgcccag atttttcaa cacaaaaac tttgatatt 
      gatacttac gactatgac atttcggta ctgaaattg 
      tccgagagt ttggtttta gggagtgga gttgcagtg 
      attccgctc cctgaggat ggtagtact gttcctggg 
      gaccttctg ggaacagcg actgggtgg gggagactt 
      tctgaaaat gggcctctt cctgtggag ctacaagaa 
      gttgacttg cccactatt caggataat gtctgtgca 
      ttgatgtac ggggatagg ctgactgag aggatgttt 
      tgtgcgggt tatcccaaa ggacaaaag gacacatgc 
      caaggcgat tctggaggg ccatacgag tatgaacaa 
      atgctaata ggaatcacg tcatgggga gacggttgt 
      ggtgccgca aataacatt catggcgat ttaaaaatg 
      ccaaccatt gatgtccgt attattggt ggccatgct 
      gtagatatt gaagactat ccttatcaa gtctcaatt 
      atgtacatt gacagtcat atgtgtggc ggttctctg 
      attcaacct aacttaatt ctaaccgca gcacattgt 
      atcgaggaa tttcgacca gaatggctt ttagttaga 
      gcaggttcc agttatcta aatcaagga ggagaagtg 
      aaatttgta aacaatatt tacaaacac aatagttat 
      gataatgta acgaacgat aatgatatc gctatcctg 
      gagctttcc gaaaatttg accattggg cctaacatt 
      caacttgtg aatttgcca aacggagac gacagtttt 
      tcagatggt gaaatggga gcagctaca ggttgggga 
      cgaatttcc gaaaatggc cctattcct attgagttg 
      caagaagtt ggactacca attatgagc gacgaagaa 
      tgtagcatg agttatcaa ggacaaata actgataaa 
      atgttttgt gctggatat gcgaatgga ggaaaagat 
      gcatgccag ggtgactct ggcggccct tttgtagtc 
      aatggcact cttgttggt ataacttcg tggggaaaa 
      ggatgtgga aagcccaac aatccgggt gtttacact 
      aaagtggtc atgtttctt gattttatt gatcagatt 
      gttaactca gcaaaaatt tttaacttc ctaccaaaa 
      ccagcaatg ctcccacta ataatccta gctcttgtg 
      atcaccgtt aatggtgcc ccacatttt gacggcaga 
      atcgtcggt ggaagaaca gcaaccatc gaagaatac 
      ccttaccaa gtatcctta cattactat ggcttccat 
      atttgtggc ggctctatt ataagcccg gtctatgtc 
      ataacagcg gctcattgc accaacgga aactttgat 
      atggcccta actgtgaga gctggatcc agcgccccg 
      aacagaggt ggtcaggaa ataacggtg aagaaagtc 
      taccaaaac ccacttttt acggttaaa actatggat 
      tacgacatt tccgttttg catcttttc aactcgatt 
      gactttagt ttatcggcg ctgccaatt gggttagct 
      ccacgtaac tacaaagtt tccctcggt actaacgtc 
      acggtgacc ggctggggg ttgctggct gaagagggc 
      gaaagtccg gaccagcta caagtcgtg gaaattccc 
      tacatcacg aacgaaaag tgccaaaaa gcttatgag 
      aaggaggag atgacgatc agcgagcgg atgctttgt 
      gctcaagcc gagttcggc ggcaaggac tcgtgccag 
      ggcgattcc ggcgggcct ttggtggcc gacggcctc 
      ctggtcggc atcgtgtcc tggggcttc ggctgcgca 
      cggcccgag taccccggc gtgtactcg cgcatctcc 
      gaattccgc gatttcatc aaaaatgta acacagttg 
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC031004 RA
      ggatttatc aattagttg gtgcagttg attgtgaag 
      ttattcgca aaatgcacg tcttctttt tgtttttaa 
      caagtctgc ttgttacaa acgcccacg ttcaggtgt 
      tcaagcctc agatcgatg ttcgaatcg ttggtggtc 
      atgccacca ccatcgaag aacacccac accaagttt 
      cagtgattt acattgata gtcactact gtggcggtt 
      ctattatcc acactagat ttattctaa ctgcggctc 
      attgcacct accaactta cagctgaag atttgctag 
      ttcgtgctg gctccacta tggtaaatt ccggtgggc 
      aagtgcgcg gagtcgccc agatttttc aacacaaaa 
      actttgata ttgatactt acgactatg acatttcgg 
      tactgaaat tgtccgaga gtttggttt tagggagtg 
      gagttgcag tgattccgc tccctgagg atggtagta 
      ctgttcctg gggaccttc tgggaacag cgactgggt 
      gggggagac tttctgaaa atgggcctc ttcctgtgg 
      agctacaag aagttgact tgcccacta ttcaggata 
      atgtctgtg cattgatgt acggggata ggctgactg 
      agaggatgt tttgtgcgg gttatccca aaggacaaa 
      aggacacat gccaaggcg attctggag ggccatacg 
      agtatgaac aaatgctaa taggaatca cgtcatggg 
      gagacggtt gtggtgccg caaataaca ttcatggcg 
      atttaaaaa tgccaacca ttgatgtcc gtattattg 
      gtggccatg ctgtagata ttgaagact atccttatc 
      aagtctcaa ttatgtaca ttgacagtc atatgtgtg 
      gcggttctc tgattcaac ctaacttaa ttctaaccg 
      cagcacatt gtatcgagg aatttcgac cagaatggc 
      ttttagtta gagcaggtt ccagttatc taaatcaag 
      gaggagaag tgaaatttg taaacaata tttacaaac 
      acaatagtt atgataatg taacgaacg ataatgata 
      tcgctatcc tggagcttt ccgaaaatt tgaccattg 
      ggcctaaca ttcaacttg tgaatttgc caaacggag 
      acgacagtt tttcagatg gtgaaatgg gagcagcta 
      caggttggg gacgaattt ccgaaaatg gccctattc 
      ctattgagt tgcaagaag ttggactac caattatga 
      gcgacgaag aatgtagca tgagttatc aaggacaaa 
      taactgata aaatgtttt gtgctggat atgcgaatg 
      gaggaaaag atgcatgcc agggtgact ctggcggcc 
      cttttgtag tcaatggca ctcttgttg gtataactt 
      cgtggggaa aaggatgtg gaaagccca acaatccgg 
      gtgtttaca ctaaagtgg tcatgtttc ttgatttta 
      ttgatcaga ttgttaact cagcaaaaa tttttaact 
      tcctaccaa aaccagcaa tgctcccac taataatcc 
      tagctcttg tgatcaccg ttaatggtg ccccacatt 
      ttgacggca gaatcgtcg gtggaagaa cagcaacca 
      tcgaagaat acccttacc aagtatcct tacattact 
      atggcttcc atatttgtg gcggctcta ttataagcc 
      cggtctatg tcataacag cggctcatt gcaccaacg 
      gaaactttg atatggccc taactgtga gagctggat 
      ccagcgccc cgaacagag gtggtcagg aaataacgg 
      tgaagaaag tctaccaaa acccacttt ttacggtta 
      aaactatgg attacgaca tttccgttt tgcatcttt 
      tcaactcga ttgacttta gtttatcgg cgctgccaa 
      ttgggttag ctccacgta actacaaag tttccctcg 
      gtactaacg tcacggtga ccggctggg ggttgctgg 
      ctgaagagg gcgaaagtc cggaccagc tacaagtcg 
      tggaaattc cctacatca cgaacgaaa agtgccaaa 
      aagcttatg agaaggagg agatgacga tcagcgagc 
      ggatgcttt gtgctcaag ccgagttcg gcggcaagg 
      actcgtgcc agggcgatt ccggcgggc ctttggtgg 
      ccgacggcc tcctggtcg gcatcgtgt cctggggct 
      tcggctgcg cacggcccg agtaccccg gcgtgtact 
      cgcgcatct ccgaattcc gcgatttca tcaaaaatg 
      taacacagt tgtaatctc aacacttta ttgtaaaca 
      aaataaatg tgcgactta agc

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY