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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007425.3: 1349173..1385564
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_02550

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 40.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 20
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC031338 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC031338 RA
      atgccgtgc tcgacggtc tacgatggc ttcgccacg 
      atccggaga ccgcgtgtg gggcccccg agggcgccc 
      ccacggccc ccgtccctg gccagcgtc ccggaggat 
      ccccgaatc gggtgcttg acttcgccg attggcaga 
      ccggcgatt ccttggtac gaattggcg accaggaga 
      agtcgctat cggtcgtgt cccactttg gagctccac 
      gctcatgtg gtttcggcg ttcgagcaa agtctgtct 
      tctatgacg caaagactg caacatctc acggccaca 
      gccgagaaa aaggattct gaattggct gagctgaaa 
      actgcaatg gaagctttg agggcccag tcgatacaa 
      gccgggatt ggaacggga ttagcaaga caaccgtcc 
      tctgatagt gtatcaagt ctatcatca gcttgtagt 
      ctggataag cacgagaag aagaagaaa aagggatgg 
      ttgcgtagc tcttttacg aaagccttc tcccgtaat 
      gccaaagta acaaaagtc caatgccaa agcgaaggt 
      gaaaacgaa cgccaacac agtcctcca cccccagcc 
      ccaaccgac cctggccaa gaagtcgcc gaattacaa 
      aaacaactt cgagagaaa gacctcgtc ctaaccgac 
      attcgtctt gaagcctta agttccgcc catcagcta 
      gaaagtctg aaagacact gtgatgaaa atgagaagc 
      gaaatgctt agtcttaag caaaacaat gaacggcta 
      caacggatg gtcaacgga gcaacaaac atgcctagc 
      gaattaccg gacaccaga agcacaaat agcatagac 
      gccctaagt gacctgatc cccacagag gagccgccc 
      cctgagccc gaacaggac gggaaaaga gtggccata 
      aatgtctac ttggggcaa ccccacagt ttcgaaaag 
      tattacgac gaccattac agttacgac ggaattggc 
      gaaaacgca attacggaa atatccatc gcacataca 
      aacataggc gcttcgtgt tcttgggcc caattggac 
      aacacagtc agaagagcc ttcaagcaa cacgtggca 
      aggctagat ccaggtgga gggctagga ttgggaagt 
      gattctatt gctagttat aagctgggg gaagccgaa 
      agaaagccc gattcgggc ccccctgac ctcctgcca 
      gtcggatac gctgttgga agagtctca actttacac 
      gttgtactg caacccatc gctgcctta gctttcgaa 
      gcacttata ccaaaagga gtggcacaa agactggtt 
      tcgttgttg tcagagcac cggaggctt gtcttgtgt 
      ggggccccc ggcacggga aagacacat ctagccacg 
      agacttgca gagtttcac gcacaagca caagggagg 
      gatccggcc gaagccgtg gcaactttt aatgtcgat 
      aataagtca gcaaaagaa ctccgccag tatctatcg 
      cacttgagc gagcaagcg gccgctggg gacaacagt 
      gtccttcct tgcgtcgtc gttttggac aatttgcac 
      aaagccggt cctttggca gacgccttg ggatccctc 
      cctcgcaac ttaccttgt cttttgggg accatggcc 
      cagtcggcc tgttctgcc accagtctc caactccaa 
      cacggcttc cgatgggtg ttggtagcc ccccatatg 
      gaaccggct cgaggtctt cttggtaga gtcctccga 
      cgaagactc gccactttg gagctcgaa caagggccc 
      caacccgaa ctggcggct attctgggg tggcttcca 
      agagtttgg caacacctg aatgctttt ctagagacg 
      cacagctcg ggggatgtg gccattgga ccgagactg 
      tttctgagc tgtcctttg gagttggat gcagcgcgg 
      gcgtggttc gcagacgtg tggaactac tccttggcc 
      ccctacttg cgggaggct gcccgcgag ggcctccag 
      ctgtacggg cggagggcc ccctggacg gacccggcg 
      cagtttgtc ctggacacg tacccctgg ccgggggcg 
      ccccctcaa ggcctcacg agcataaca gccaaagac 
      gtggggctg gagagcggc cccacagca caggccgaa 
      aatgaaggc gaccctctg ctaaatatg ctcatgcgt 
      ttgcaagaa gccgccaat tattcgagt ccgcattcg 
      aatgattct gactgtaac agtttggat tcgaatctg 
      acgcatggg agcaatgtt ggaaccgaa agtgtttct 
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC031338 RA
      tgagtagca gatgaagtc ggagtgtta ttggattgg 
      ggcgtatac ttggtagtc ggagtcttc gttttcgtt 
      gcagtcagt cattcagtc tgtttatgt cggttgtcg 
      agtaaggaa acactgaaa ccgagacgt ccattcacg 
      tgtcgttcg ataagtgag tgaatgtgg cgcggaaag 
      tggtggaat aatgcagtt ttaccaaac gtaaatgtt 
      gtgtgattt caaacaaac tccatacaa atgtgaaat 
      gtgtgtaaa aatgtgcca ataatgccg tgctcgacg 
      gtctacgat ggcttcgcc acgatccgg agaccgcgt 
      gtggggccc ccgagggcg cccccacgg cccccgtcc 
      ctggccagc gtcccggag gatccccga atcgggtgc 
      ttgacttcg ccgattggc agaccggcg attccttgg 
      tacgaattg gcgaccagg agaagtcgc tatcggtcg 
      tgtcccact ttggagctc cacgctcat gtggtttcg 
      gcgttcgag caaagtctg tcttctatg acgcaaaga 
      ctgcaacat ctcacggcc acagccgag aaaaaggat 
      tctgaattg gctgagctg aaaactgca atggaagct 
      ttgagggcc cagtcgata caagccggg attggaacg 
      ggattagca agacaaccg tcctctgat agtgtatca 
      agtctatca tcagcttgt agtctggat aagcacgag 
      aagaagaag aaaaaggga tggttgcgt agctctttt 
      acgaaagcc ttctcccgt aatgccaaa gtaacaaaa 
      gtccaatgc caaagcgaa ggtgaaaac gaacgccaa 
      cacagtcct ccaccccca gccccaacc gaccctggc 
      caagaagtc gccgaatta caaaaacaa cttcgagag 
      aaagacctc gtcctaacc gacattcgt cttgaagcc 
      ttaagttcc gcccatcag ctagaaagt ctgaaagac 
      actgtgatg aaaatgaga agcgaaatg cttagtctt 
      aagcaaaac aatgaacgg ctacaacgg atggtcaac 
      ggagcaaca aacatgcct agcgaatta ccggacacc 
      agaagcaca aatagcata gacgcccta agtgacctg 
      atccccaca gaggagccg ccccctgag cccgaacag 
      gacgggaaa agagtggcc ataaatgtc tacttgggg 
      caaccccac agtttcgaa aagtattac gacgaccat 
      tacagttac gacggaatt ggcgaaaac gcaattacg 
      gaaatatcc atcgcacat acaaacata ggcgcttcg 
      tgttcttgg gcccaattg gacaacaca gtcagaaga 
      gccttcaag caacacgtg gcaaggcta gatccaggt 
      ggagggcta ggattggga agtgattct attgctagt 
      tataagctg ggggaagcc gaaagaaag cccgattcg 
      ggcccccct gacctcctg ccagtcgga tacgctgtt 
      ggaagagtc tcaacttta cacgttgta ctgcaaccc 
      atcgctgcc ttagctttc gaagcactt ataccaaaa 
      ggagtggca caaagactg gtttcgttg ttgtcagag 
      caccggagg cttgtcttg tgtggggcc cccggcacg 
      ggaaagaca catctagcc acgagactt gcagagttt 
      cacgcacaa gcacaaggg agggatccg gccgaagcc 
      gtggcaact tttaatgtc gataataag tcagcaaaa 
      gaactccgc cagtatcta tcgcacttg agcgagcaa 
      gcggccgct ggggacaac agtgtcctt ccttgcgtc 
      gtcgttttg gacaatttg cacaaagcc ggtcctttg 
      gcagacgcc ttgggatcc ctccctcgc aacttacct 
      tgtcttttg gggaccatg gcccagtcg gcctgttct 
      gccaccagt ctccaactc caacacggc ttccgatgg 
      gtgttggta gccccccat atggaaccg gctcgaggt 
      cttcttggt agagtcctc cgacgaaga ctcgccact 
      ttggagctc gaacaaggg ccccaaccc gaactggcg 
      gctattctg gggtggctt ccaagagtt tggcaacac 
      ctgaatgct tttctagag acgcacagc tcgggggat 
      gtggccatt ggaccgaga ctgtttctg agctgtcct 
      ttggagttg gatgcagcg cgggcgtgg ttcgcagac 
      gtgtggaac tactccttg gccccctac ttgcgggag 
      gctgcccgc gagggcctc cagctgtac gggcggagg 
      gccccctgg acggacccg gcgcagttt gtcctggac 
      acgtacccc tggccgggg gcgccccct caaggcctc 
      acgagcata acagccaaa gacgtgggg ctggagagc 
      ggccccaca gcacaggcc gaaaatgaa ggcgaccct 
      ctgctaaat atgctcatg cgtttgcaa gaagccgcc 
      aattattcg agtccgcat tcgaatgat tctgactgt 
      aacagtttg gattcgaat ctgacgcat gggagcaat 
      gttggaacc gaaagtgtt tcttaatat tggataatc 
      aaagctatt ttatataaa ttgttcggc gatttggtt 
      ttatttttt caagtgtgt tgttaatca aaaatgcaa 
      aaaacgatg agtagaacg gtttatata aaattaatg 
      agtaagtat aatggtagc attcaatac ctaatgact 
      ataacaaag tgcttcacc attttttca cctgtaata 
      atgttatac agaatgctg tttgttgtc ttgtttgag 
      aaatataca cgaatgttt gtttctaga ggatttttt 
      tagaacagt atgtatatt tcttagttt tgtctgtgt 
      tttaacgag tattttctg gtcagataa ccaattgtg 
      taaatatgt tatttatat tatacattt atacagaat 
      gaaattttc tatgcctat gtttattgt atttataat 
      gtaaaatgt tttaataac ttttataca aattgtaaa 
      ttgccaata aattattgc aaaaatt

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY