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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007421.3: 3838544..3844972
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_02500

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 40.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    ovary size decreased - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4
    vitellogenic egg chamber number decreased - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4
    previtellogenic egg chamber pattern irregular - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4

    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 11.11% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3 (41 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Adult morphology
    wings dorsal not closed - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 3

    egg production: number no/almost no eggs -
    egg chamber mostly not present - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4

    tropharium size decreased - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4
    fertility after larval injection decreased (no living offspring) -
    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC033413 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC033413 RA
      atgtcagtg ttgaatcaa agcggggaa gagcaagtc 
      gagtgcccc ctgtgcatg gagcccctc gaggtggac 
      gatttgaac tttttcccg tgcacttgc ggctatcag 
      atttgtcgg ttctgctgg cacagaatc cggaccgat 
      gaaaacggt ctgtgtcca gcgtgccgc aaggcctac 
      tcggaggac cccgccgac ttcatcccc ctgtctcag 
      gagcaagtg gcgaagctc aaggccgag aagagacag 
      agggatcag cagaggaag gcgaagctg agcgagagc 
      aggaaacat ctagcgagt gttagggtc gtgcaaaag 
      aatctggtg tttgtggtg gggctgccg atgagatta 
      gccgagccc gaggtgctc aaaaggcac gagtatttc 
      ggcaagttt ggcaagata cataaagtc gttattaat 
      cagtcgacg gcgtatgcg ggctcacag gggcccagc 
      gcaagtgcc tacgtgacg tatatgaaa agcgatgac 
      gctttacgc gccattgaa agtgtcaat aacataaca 
      atcgacgga cgtctcgta aaatccagt ttaggaacg 
      acgaaatat tgcagtcac tttatgaaa aatcaacca 
      tgtccaaaa ccggactgt atgtacctc catgatttc 
      ggagatcct gaagctagt tttacgaaa gagcaaatg 
      cacgccggg aaacatcaa gaatacgaa aagaaatta 
      cacgaagcg ctgttacaa cggactaat aacaataat 
      acgaacgtg acaacaaca gagacaaaa ccgacaaca 
      aaaagtaaa gaaccggtg gcggctgcg acgccaacg 
      aatggcaca aataaggat aattggcca cagttgaat 
      tccgaaaag gagaatagt aaggaaaag aaggcggag 
      aagtcgacg gaaagtaaa gataaagtt acgaaaggc 
      aaaagtaaa gaaaaatcg aaagagaag aaggagaag 
      aagcccgaa gttaaagtc gcaaaggat aaggaagag 
      acgaagaaa gagagtgga gagaaatta tcaatattg 
      gacgataac acgagtttt ttttcgcac aattcgttc 
      caaaaaatc gtccccgaa aatcgagaa gacgacgac 
      agtcccaat caaacatca ccgtctctt ctaaccgat 
      tctctcccc gacataaac acgagcgaa gattgggcc 
      gcagctttc ggttttaat aaaacaagc gagacaaca 
      gttcggtcc gaatcgagt caatcgcca atcgattcg 
      tttttccgc accgacgat tttcgtaat attatcgaa 
      gcctcactt acaacagcc aaaaataac ggttatacc 
      aaaccacca caaccagcc accacaaca acaacaaca 
      tcggagaat tatttcggt aaagagtcg ggtttggat 
      caacacatg tccaagttt tttatggat tttcatacg 
      aaaaatggc cagaaagag agtaacggt tttacgatg 
      aatcataat atgaacggg tttcaagtg aataattat 
      tttatcaat caggatcgt ttgttcttg ttgcaacag 
      aaaaaaatc gaggaacat ttagtgaat ctctcgttg 
      aagcaacag aatcagagt tatggcggg tttatgaat 
      ggtgatgta gtggcacag aatggctat gggggaggg 
      tttcaagga cagatgtat cagaatcca caaccagtg 
      caaaagagt cggacacat gcggaggac gatttgggc 
      tttgatccc ttccaggag acgcagaag gccttggct 
      gagcttata gcgaacgaa cagagttat aaggcacat 
      agtaatgtt agaggaggt atgtcgtcg agtcaaatg 
      aacggtgtg gtccacagt cagagcggt aaaagtcac 
      ttacccccg cccccgccc ggttttgta caaccgaca 
      acacatatg aattcattc ggtagtaaa attttacca 
      tttttaaat atgtcaaat caacaaatt agttcatca 
      acacaacaa caacaacaa aactggcct agttataat 
      tcgcaagtg cagccgcca ccgccacca caacaacag 
      cagaaaaat gcaaacagc tgtaacgat tggaaggat 
      ttcgattcg gcaatagtc acaaccagt cgtcactac 
      ccaataatg ggaccgata aataatcct ttcagatcg 
      ttacaacaa cagttaggt acacaacaa ataccgaac 
      ggatcgtta cgatcgcac gaatttacg aataacgca 
      ttttcaaat ttcacacaa cagttgcaa caacaacag 
      ccgagttat tcaaattat tcatcacat ttaaataat 
      acaacacag caacaacaa cagaatctg agttggttt 
      actagcgaa ttaaataca caaatatca agtccaccc 
      ggatttcga actgcgact caaacgtct aaacaacaa 
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC033413 RA
      acattttgt aaacaaagg tttcatccc tgacaagtg 
      taaacgtgg ctttagtag gtgaatgtg tttggagcg 
      catgcgcaa gcctacgag atcatagtc gccatattt 
      ccaatctgt ctaatctga aaattcagt aagtaaatt 
      acgttttcg cacggattc gcgtgtttt tgtccgaaa 
      tcgccgccg tttctctct caattcccc cgaaattta 
      gcgtgatcg cgcaatgtc agtgttgaa tcaaagcgg 
      ggaagagca agtcgagtg ccccctgtg catggagcc 
      cctcgaggt ggacgattt gaacttttt cccgtgcac 
      ttgcggcta tcagatttg tcggttctg ctggcacag 
      aatccggac cgatgaaaa cggtctgtg tccagcgtg 
      ccgcaaggc ctactcgga ggaccccgc cgacttcat 
      ccccctgtc tcaggagca agtggcgaa gctcaaggc 
      cgagaagag acagaggga tcagcagag gaaggcgaa 
      gctgagcga gagcaggaa acatctagc gagtgttag 
      ggtcgtgca aaagaatct ggtgtttgt ggtggggct 
      gccgatgag attagccga gcccgaggt gctcaaaag 
      gcacgagta tttcggcaa gtttggcaa gatacataa 
      agtcgttat taatcagtc gacggcgta tgcgggctc 
      acaggggcc cagcgcaag tgcctacgt gacgtatat 
      gaaaagcga tgacgcttt acgcgccat tgaaagtgt 
      caataacat aacaatcga cggacgtct cgtaaaatc 
      cagtttagg aacgacgaa atattgcag tcactttat 
      gaaaaatca accatgtcc aaaaccgga ctgtatgta 
      cctccatga tttcggaga tcctgaagc tagttttac 
      gaaagagca aatgcacgc cgggaaaca tcaagaata 
      cgaaaagaa attacacga agcgctgtt acaacggac 
      taataacaa taatacgaa cgtgacaac aacagagac 
      aaaaccgac aacaaaaag taaagaacc ggtggcggc 
      tgcgacgcc aacgaatgg cacaaataa ggataattg 
      gccacagtt gaattccga aaaggagaa tagtaagga 
      aaagaaggc ggagaagtc gacggaaag taaagataa 
      agttacgaa aggcaaaag taaagaaaa atcgaaaga 
      gaagaagga gaagaagcc cgaagttaa agtcgcaaa 
      ggataagga agagacgaa gaaagagag tggagagaa 
      attatcaat attggacga taacacgag ttttttttc 
      gcacaattc gttccaaaa aatcgtccc cgaaaatcg 
      agaagacga cgacagtcc caatcaaac atcaccgtc 
      tcttctaac cgattctct ccccgacat aaacacgag 
      cgaagattg ggccgcagc tttcggttt taataaaac 
      aagcgagac aacagttcg gtccgaatc gagtcaatc 
      gccaatcga ttcgttttt ccgcaccga cgattttcg 
      taatattat cgaagcctc acttacaac agccaaaaa 
      taacggtta taccaaacc accacaacc agccaccac 
      aacaacaac aacatcgga gaattattt cggtaaaga 
      gtcgggttt ggatcaaca catgtccaa gttttttat 
      ggattttca tacgaaaaa tggccagaa agagagtaa 
      cggttttac gatgaatca taatatgaa cgggtttca 
      agtgaataa ttattttat caatcagga tcgtttgtt 
      cttgttgca acagaaaaa aatcgagga acatttagt 
      gaatctctc gttgaagca acagaatca gagttatgg 
      cgggtttat gaatggtga tgtagtggc acagaatgg 
      ctatggggg agggtttca aggacagat gtatcagaa 
      tccacaacc agtgcaaaa gagtcggac acatgcgga 
      ggacgattt gggctttga tcccttcca ggagacgca 
      gaaggcctt ggctgagct tatagcgaa cgaacagag 
      ttataaggc acatagtaa tgttagagg aggtatgtc 
      gtcgagtca aatgaacgg tgtggtcca cagtcagag 
      cggtaaaag tcacttacc cccgccccc gcccggttt 
      tgtacaacc gacaacaca tatgaattc attcggtag 
      taaaatttt accattttt aaatatgtc aaatcaaca 
      aattagttc atcaacaca acaacaaca acaaaactg 
      gcctagtta taattcgca agtgcagcc gccaccgcc 
      accacaaca acagcagaa aaatgcaaa cagctgtaa 
      cgattggaa ggatttcga ttcggcaat agtcacaac 
      cagtcgtca ctacccaat aatgggacc gataaataa 
      tcctttcag atcgttaca acaacagtt aggtacaca 
      acaaatacc gaacggatc gttacgatc gcacgaatt 
      tacgaataa cgcattttc aaatttcac acaacagtt 
      gcaacaaca acagccgag ttattcaaa ttattcatc 
      acatttaaa taatacaac acagcaaca acaacagaa 
      tctgagttg gtttactag cgaattaaa tacacaaat 
      atcaagtcc acccggatt tcgaactgc gactcaaac 
      gtctaaaca acaagaatg ttaaaaaac acgcaacgt 
      ctaaggtgt ctggatccg ttaaatata taatttttt 
      tctttggat ttcattttt ctttcattt tctgattta 
      ttacatacg tgatgagcg tttccacaa ttgtgcaat 
      aatacagat ggaaaaagc cgactggat agaattgtt 
      tcgttgtta ttatttagc aggatccat gcagttaag 
      ttattctaa ttatcaaag aaagcgtaa aaagagtac 
      taaaatgtg ctttatttt gttataaaa ttctgtggg 
      tgcttggcc aacaatctt caaatgatt aaaaactaa 
      tattatcct tatattcat ttgattata tgaaataaa 
      acagctaaa tatat
    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY