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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007421.3: 4256167..4264802
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_02382

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 70.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 80.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 100.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    larva lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 7 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    pupal molt delayed (still larva) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (11 dpi)
    Days post injection

    larva lethality late (L7) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 2 (16 dpi)
    Days post injection

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC033415 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC033415 RA
      atgacagaa gagagaatt tttgaattt ttgctccca 
      aaacaccac gattacccc aaactccac tgcgaagca 
      gccgaaacc attgccaag agcttcacg gatgttatt 
      tacgacact ttgaggctc aaatcggcg attccggcc 
      aataaacgc ctcaacgtt cttaaattc attaaaaca 
      cttgcgtcc gctccagac aatcatgta acagtggac 
      gaaagcaat tgtgcaacg tttattaaa tcacttgag 
      gggcaattc agtgacaca agtgatgat tacttaaac 
      cgggttgag agcgattta agggcacaa ttaccaaaa 
      gatttgtcc gaagaagtg ttacagttt tacaagaga 
      cgcaaacaa gcccacgag gagaaaatc aaacggctt 
      gaactgatc aaaaaacac gaccaggaa gcgctagac 
      aacgacaat tttttgcac agagtcaca cgaagcatc 
      acgtattac gaaacgagc gaaaacgtt attaaacaa 
      ttattggga aacgaatca aagaaccaa aattcgccc 
      aacacaacc gacttcaat tcacccgac tatagggca 
      aaacaagtg caatttgca tacgggtta ctgcacctg 
      aaacactgg gagacctta ctgaaggtt ttagaacgg 
      ttcaaaaaa tacgagact ttgtcaaac accgaacaa 
      aacttcttg tgttacttg agcacgaat ttaagcccc 
      gactgtgac cacttaggg ccgatttta gtcaacgat 
      ttcattttc gtgtacgag agcattgtc ttgaccttt 
      tgtacacaa ataattcaa ctaccagac gcccaaata 
      ccccaattt tttgaaacc ttgccaagt gacaaaaat 
      taccaaacc cttaaaaat ttaagcaca aatcgcgaa 
      tttgggcta aaattgaag aatttattg ttcgagttg 
      tacagtttt agttatttc atttgcaag atggcgtcg 
      attctaaaa ttgtccaaa tccgtggca aaattatca 
      aaaaatggg ccaataatt cagacggct aaaaccctc 
      cgaaatgcc tcaacggcc gctgaacaa aaacaggtc 
      gtcttgaac gtgcctccc acaaacgtg acgacacta 
      aattcaggt ataagggtg gcgactgag gactggggc 
      tcgcacaca gccacggta ggtatctgg atcgacgcc 
      ggcagccgc tatgagaac tcgaaaaac aacggagtc 
      gcccatttc atggaacac atggctttt aaggggacg 
      ggtaagagg agccagacc cagctcgag gtcgagatc 
      gaggacatg ggggcccac ttgaacgcc tacacgagc 
      cgcgaacag actgtttac tattcgaaa tgtttggcc 
      aaagacgtg cccaaagcc attgagatt ttgggcgat 
      attgtgcaa aatgccaaa ctgggcgaa gcggaaatc 
      gagcgcgaa cgcggggtt attttgcgt gaaatgcaa 
      gagattgag tctaatctc caggaggtt gttttcgat 
      catttgcac gcgattgcg tatcaaggg acgcctttg 
      gctaacacg attctgggg cccaccgcc aacattagg 
      gctatcaat gccaatgat ttgcgctgc tatttggat 
      aatcactac aaggcgagc cggattgtg gtggccggt 
      gctgggggt gttaatcac gatgagttg gtcaaactg 
      tgtgagcaa catctgacc aaattgaat aacaactat 
      cctgacgaa atcccgatt ttgagtcct tgccgtttc 
      accggctct gagattcgc gtccgtgac gattccctg 
      cctttggcc cacatcgcc atagctgtg gaaggtacc 
      ggatggacc gacccagac accttgacc ttgatggtg 
      gcttccacc ttgttgggt gcatgggat aggtcccaa 
      gcgtcggca aaacagaac gctacaact ctggcacgt 
      gccagtggc gaaggcgag ttgtgtcac tcgtaccaa 
      agtttcaac acgtgctat aaagatacg ggtttgtgg 
      ggcatttac ttcgtctca gacccgctc aaaatcgaa 
      gatatggtc tttaatatc caacaggag tttatgagg 
      ttggctacg agtgttact gagggtgaa gtcgagagg 
      gctaaggct ctcctcacg gccaatact ttgctccaa 
      ttggatact tccactgct gtgtgtgag gatattggg 
      cgccagttg ttgtgttat ggaaggagg ctgccccct 
      catgaattg acccatagg attaattcc ataacagcg 
      caaaatgta cgagatgtg tgctacaaa tatttgtac 
      gatcggtgt cccgctatt gccgcagtg gggccagtt 
      gagcaactg ccagactac aacaggatc cgtagctca 
      atgtattgg ttacgtgtc taa
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC033415 RA
      gccataaag tacttcttt atgtcgcaa gtaagcgct 
      tgacatttc aaacgtcaa aatgacaga agagagaat 
      ttttgaatt tttgctccc aaaacacca cgattaccc 
      caaactcca ctgcgaagc agccgaaac cattgccaa 
      gagcttcac ggatgttat ttacgacac tttgaggct 
      caaatcggc gattccggc caataaacg cctcaacgt 
      tcttaaatt cattaaaac acttgcgtc cgctccaga 
      caatcatgt aacagtgga cgaaagcaa ttgtgcaac 
      gtttattaa atcacttga ggggcaatt cagtgacac 
      aagtgatga ttacttaaa ccgggttga gagcgattt 
      aagggcaca attaccaaa agatttgtc cgaagaagt 
      gttacagtt ttacaagag acgcaaaca agcccacga 
      ggagaaaat caaacggct tgaactgat caaaaaaca 
      cgaccagga agcgctaga caacgacaa ttttttgca 
      cagagtcac acgaagcat cacgtatta cgaaacgag 
      cgaaaacgt tattaaaca attattggg aaacgaatc 
      aaagaacca aaattcgcc caacacaac cgacttcaa 
      ttcacccga ctatagggc aaaacaagt gcaatttgc 
      atacgggtt actgcacct gaaacactg ggagacctt 
      actgaaggt tttagaacg gttcaaaaa atacgagac 
      tttgtcaaa caccgaaca aaacttctt gtgttactt 
      gagcacgaa tttaagccc cgactgtga ccacttagg 
      gccgatttt agtcaacga tttcatttt cgtgtacga 
      gagcattgt cttgacctt ttgtacaca aataattca 
      actaccaga cgcccaaat accccaatt ttttgaaac 
      cttgccaag tgacaaaaa ttaccaaac ccttaaaaa 
      tttaagcac aaatcgcga atttgggct aaaattgaa 
      gaatttatt gttcgagtt gtacagttt tagttattt 
      catttgcaa gatggcgtc gattctaaa attgtccaa 
      atccgtggc aaaattatc aaaaaatgg gccaataat 
      tcagacggc taaaaccct ccgaaatgc ctcaacggc 
      cgctgaaca aaaacaggt cgtcttgaa cgtgcctcc 
      cacaaacgt gacgacact aaattcagg tataagggt 
      ggcgactga ggactgggg ctcgcacac agccacggt 
      aggtatctg gatcgacgc cggcagccg ctatgagaa 
      ctcgaaaaa caacggagt cgcccattt catggaaca 
      catggcttt taaggggac gggtaagag gagccagac 
      ccagctcga ggtcgagat cgaggacat gggggccca 
      cttgaacgc ctacacgag ccgcgaaca gactgttta 
      ctattcgaa atgtttggc caaagacgt gcccaaagc 
      cattgagat tttgggcga tattgtgca aaatgccaa 
      actgggcga agcggaaat cgagcgcga acgcggggt 
      tattttgcg tgaaatgca agagattga gtctaatct 
      ccaggaggt tgttttcga tcatttgca cgcgattgc 
      gtatcaagg gacgccttt ggctaacac gattctggg 
      gcccaccgc caacattag ggctatcaa tgccaatga 
      tttgcgctg ctatttgga taatcacta caaggcgag 
      ccggattgt ggtggccgg tgctggggg tgttaatca 
      cgatgagtt ggtcaaact gtgtgagca acatctgac 
      caaattgaa taacaacta tcctgacga aatcccgat 
      tttgagtcc ttgccgttt caccggctc tgagattcg 
      cgtccgtga cgattccct gcctttggc ccacatcgc 
      catagctgt ggaaggtac cggatggac cgacccaga 
      caccttgac cttgatggt ggcttccac cttgttggg 
      tgcatggga taggtccca agcgtcggc aaaacagaa 
      cgctacaac tctggcacg tgccagtgg cgaaggcga 
      gttgtgtca ctcgtacca aagtttcaa cacgtgcta 
      taaagatac gggtttgtg gggcattta cttcgtctc 
      agacccgct caaaatcga agatatggt ctttaatat 
      ccaacagga gtttatgag gttggctac gagtgttac 
      tgagggtga agtcgagag ggctaaggc tctcctcac 
      ggccaatac tttgctcca attggatac ttccactgc 
      tgtgtgtga ggatattgg gcgccagtt gttgtgtta 
      tggaaggag gctgccccc tcatgaatt gacccatag 
      gattaattc cataacagc gcaaaatgt acgagatgt 
      gtgctacaa atatttgta cgatcggtg tcccgctat 
      tgccgcagt ggggccagt tgagcaact gccagacta 
      caacaggat ccgtagctc aatgtattg gttacgtgt 
      ctaagtgtt taaaaaata gtctttaaa ttcaacaat 
      gtaaataat tttttgttc caacttggt taattttat 
      taataaagg tacgtgtca cag

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY