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Gene information
General information
Former TC numbers

If one gene is splitted or genes are merged, the original TC numbers are listed. One listed former TC number indicates the previous gene has be splitted, serveral former TC number represents a merged gene.


The sequence from the iB fragment is matched against the genes from the official gene set. The matche(s) is/are visualizied in a genome browser.

NC_007420.3: 3194255..3239300
Sequence information
Transcripts / Proteins (1) Get mRNA sequence
Get CDS sequence
Get protein sequence
Ortholog information (from OrthoDB)

The information about the homolog genes in Drosophila is provided by OrthoDB The homologs are sorted according to their similarity score. For an orthology statement additional analysis are required.
The data basis for the orthologs is OrthoDB v9 containing OGS3 for Tribolium castaneum and 2015_04 (r6.07) for Drosophila melanogaster.

Closest fly homologs
    Gene ontology

    GO terms for Tribolium

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    There are no GO terms for Tribolium at the moment. You can help the community by providing some GO terms for this gene.

    GO terms for the homologous Drosophila genes

    Assign a GO term to this Tribolium gene by filling in the fields. Repeat to add several GO terms. Search AmiGO for the correct GO ID. Use only the most specific term - use "graph views" to browse related terms ("child terms" are more specific; the more general "parent" terms will be automatically linked). Only information based on Tribolium data should be entered - do not define terms just based on Drosophila knowledge. We will review this information and submit the annotation to the Gene Ontology consortium.

    {{ goGene }}
    The Tribolium gene the GO term is assigned to.
    GO ID *
    {{ blurIdResult }}
    The ID of the GO term you assign to the gene. Please enter only the ID of the GO term with proceeding 'GO:'. This information is mandatory.
    {{ blurEvidenceResult }}
    The evidence code describes with which method the function or location, expressed by the GO term, was show for this gene. Please refer to this page for a definition of the evidence code and a decision tree.
    Reference *
    {{ blurReferenceResult }}
    The reference where the function or location is described for the gene. Please enter a PubMed ID. This information is mandatory.
    If you paste here the relevant section of the reference it is for us a great help to review your annotation. The quotation may be also be displayed to the users of iBeetle-Base.
    You may enter your name. The contact information can help us to clarify any questions. If you agree, we may show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
    We will use your email address only for possible questions regarding this annotation. We will never show your address or give it away.
    Publish name
    If you have entered your name and agree by marking the checkbox. we might show your name on this page to honor your contribution.
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    * : mandatory fields
    For help on how to submit larger datasets or non experimental data please contact us.
    iBeetle screen iB_02231

    Attention! iBeetle is a first pass screen. Hence, the documented phenotypes need to be confirmed by independent experiments using non-overlapping dsRNA fragments! Phenotypes with a penetrance > 50% are frequently reproduced. See Schmitt-Engel et al. 2015 for details on reproducibility.

    iB sequence
    Phenotype after pupal injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Pupal injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female pupae of the pBA19 strain (muscle enhancer trap line) were injected with dsRNA.

    3 days post injection (dpi): Hatch control: Pupal and adult lethality as well as metamorphosis defects (molting, eclosion) were documented. For mating, 4 males of the black strain were added.

    9 dpi: First egg-lay was collected and incubated for cuticle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) was documented.

    11 dpi: Second egg-lay was collected and incubated for embryonic muscle analysis. Adult lethality and egg production (reduced/ no egg-lay) were documented.

    Note: The adult morphology was not analyzed systematically at 3/9/11 dpi. Only obvious phenotypes, visible without magnification, have been annotated.

    13 dpi: Egg productivity and Ovary analysis
    The percentage of hatched larvae was documented and not hatched larvae/ eggs were embedded for cuticle analysis (15 dpi). In case of a reduction of egg production, 4 injected females were dissected to analyze the gross morphology of the ovaries.

    14 dpi: Analysis of embryonic musculature and early embryonic development
    Offspring of the injected females (hatched and not hatched larvae/ eggs) were analysed for embryonic lethality and muscle defects.

    15 dpi: Analysis of larval instar 1 cuticle
    Offspring of injected females were analysed and cuticle phenotypes were annotated.

    22 dpi: Stink gland analysis
    Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands (colour, size, content) of the injected femals.

    Terms used in the pupal injection procedure

    larval pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    empty eggs
    Just empty shells are visible, no cuticle has been developed.
    strong defects
    L1 cuticle larvae which show severe defects. These strong defects are subdivided into three categories
    strongly fragmented (cuticle crumbs)
    No segments or appendages are identifiable, only residues of cuticle and bristles can be identified.
    cuticle remnants (with unidentifiable segments)
    Segments or parts of appendages are recognizable, but identity is not clear.
    cuticle remnants (with some identifiable segments)
    At least one segment or appendage is clearly regonizable.
    number of eggs on slide
    affected embryos usually (not always) do not hatch. Only the not hatched were used for cuticle analysis.
    For the embryonic muscle analysis the hatched as well as the not hatched were analysed.
    total number of affected eggs/embryos/larvae
    Summary of all different phenotypes/ phenotypic series which were annotated.
    The L1 larva shows a partial or complete inversion., e.g. bristles, appendages or parts of the abdominal segments are inverted into the interior of the cuticle.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Please see the help page for more information
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethality 11 days after pupal injection: 50.0% (includes death as pupa, adult)

    eclosion not fulfilled (with pupal and adult features) - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 1 (3 dpi)
    Days post injection

    adult lethality - Number of animals showing the phenotype: 4 (9 dpi)
    Days post injection

    Analysis of larval stage 1 cuticle
    number of eggs/embryos/larvae on slide: < 50
    Phenotype after larval injection
    Usually 10 injected animals

    Larval injection procedure

    Day 0: 10 female L5-6 larvae of the D17Xhom strain (females express RFP in the eyes and in the CNS; pupae express GFP in the thorax) were injected with dsRNA.

    11 days post injection (dpi): Pupal morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of pupal head and appendages, pupal thorax, pupal thoracic musculature, pupal legs, pupal wings, pupal abdomen and pupal genital lobes.

    16 dpi: Adult morphology Documentation of larval/ pupal and adult death and defects of metamorphosis (eclosion, delayed development). Screening for alterations of adult head and appendages, adult thorax, adult elytra and hindwings, adult legs and cuticle properties. For mating 4 males of the black strain were added.

    19 dpi: Sieving and egg-lay Documentation of adult lethality and enduring metamorphosis defects.

    22 dpi: Ovary analysis (Fertility) In case of a reduction of egg production 4 females were dissected and the gross morphology of the ovaries were analysed.

    41 dpi: Fertility and stink gland analysis Documentation of defects in abdominal and thoracic stink glands development (colour, size, content) of the injected females. Check for fertility of injected larvae (no or decreased offspring).

    Terms used in the larval injection procedure

    pupal/ adult pantagmatic defects
    At least two tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen or terminus) show similar/ comparable defects.
    pupal molt not fulfilled
    The hatching from the larva to the pupa is interrupted. Either it dies as prepupa or the phenotype shows larval as well as pupal features.
    eclosion not fulfilled
    The emergence of the adult from the pupa stage is interrupted. This phenotype shows pupal as well as adult features.
    Dissected females show a strong resorption of fatbody predominately in the abdomen and the oogenesis is blocked. These are considered as eventually lethal phenotypes and the blocked oogenesis probably a secondary defect due to starvation.
    Metamorphosis and survival

    Lethalities 11 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa)
    Lethalities 22 days after larval injection: 10.0% (includes death as larva, prepupa, pupa, adult)

    RNAi sequence
    Left: Right:
    Protein sequence
    • >TC033028 RA
    CDS sequence
    • >TC033028 RA
      atgatggtt tgcgtgttt tcagctggg acccgcgag 
      ggcagctcg tcgtccaaa taccccgtg gtggtgttc 
      gttcatgga gaaagctac gaatggaat tcgggcaac 
      ccttacgac ggcagcgtt cttgctagt tacggcggt 
      gtcgttgta gtcaccgta aactaccga cttggcatt 
      ttaggtaag attttcggc ttcctgaac gccaacacg 
      gatccttac tcccgttct ccggccaac tacggcctc 
      atggaccaa atagccgcc ctccactgg atacaggaa 
      aacatcgct gtatttggc ggagatcca acaaacgtt 
      accgttgta ggccatgga actggagcg gcttgcgtc 
      aacttcctg ttaacgtcc agcgcagtt cctgaaggt 
      gtgctgttc caccgagcc atcctcatg tcgggatcg 
      gccctctcc ccctgggcg ttgatccag gaaccgtcc 
      cgatatgcc gctcaagtg gccatccac gctaactgc 
      tcgccagaa ctgccacat ccccacctg ctcaagtgc 
      cttcgagag agacccctg gaaacgctc ctgtccacg 
      cctgtcatc gcaccggag ttcgctttc gctttcggc 
      ccgagcgtc gacggagtc gtcatcgac accggagaa 
      ccaccaggt gacaacccg cactacgag ttcgacgcg 
      ttgaagccg gtgaaggcc gagccccag aacgccatc 
      aacatcctc aacaacgtc ctcctgcgc aaatcggtg 
      gtgtcgaag ctgtccagg tacgacctg ctgctgggg 
      gtggtgaag gctgaggcg tacttcgcc ttcaacgga 
      gaagacgtc cagtacggc atcgaggcc gatcgcagg 
      tcgaaaatc ctgcggacc tttgtccga aacacgtac 
      agttatcac ctctcggag attctagcg acgatcgtt 
      aatgaatac acggattgg gaaagaccc gttcaacac 
      ccgatcaat attcgagat gagacgctg gaagcattg 
      tcggatgca caatacgta gcacccgtt gtgcatact 
      gccgatttg cattcggct gagcaccgg aattctttt 
      ctgtacgtc ttcgattat cagaccaag ttcggggat 
      tacccgcag agacaagga tgcatccat ggcgaggaa 
      cttccctat ttgttcggc gccccgctt gtcggagga 
      ttcatgcac tttgtaaga aactacacc aagtccgag 
      gtcctcctc gcagagacc accatgatc tattggagc 
      aactttgcg aggacggga aacccaaat gagccgcca 
      gagggagcc cgtcaggag cgaaatcgc ttcaaaaac 
      atcgattgg actgcctac gaagccgtt cataagaaa 
      tatctgaat ttggatacc aaacccaaa ctgaaaaac 
      cattatcgg gcccatcgt ctttcattc tggctgaac 
      ctcgtcccg gacttgcac aagcctggc ggcgacgac 
      gtgcccatg tcccatcac aaactggtc gacgacgac 
      ccaccgccc cccaaactc ccgtcgctc aacccacgc 
      aaactcccg acgaccgaa accccggac ttcgcccgg 
      actttaagc tccaacacc tcgctgctc gcaacggtg 
      gagaccccg gattcgacc gaacgcgtg gaggagttg 
      ggcgggctg agcaccacg acgcacccc gtcgaagac 
      ggctttgct gcctattcc accgcgctg agcgtcacc 
      atcgccatc gggtgttcg ctcctaatc ctgaacgtt 
      ctgattttc gcgggtgtt tactaccaa cgcgacaag 
      acgcgaatg aatgagaat cgagagccg aaaaagcgg 
      aacgaaaac ggacaaatg cccaacaat atttgcggc 
      gatttggag agcagcata ataggtgtg aagagcgac 
      ccggccacc attctgggc caccaccac tcccaccac 
      cagctgccg cccccggag ttcgccgac ttgccgcag 
      aacaacgcc acgttgccg cggccgccg ccgcccccg 
      aaaatctcc aaagccaac gtgaacacg ttgtcgtcg 
      aaccaagtg ccggagaat caacccctg ctttccaca 
      cacagtata cagttgatt aacacgggg acgttgacg 
      aagaagaac gttcacgcc aaacaaaac acgatggag 
      gagttgcgg gtgtga
    mRNA sequence
    • >TC033028 RA
      tccggcaag ggaattatt taggtcgtt gaaaaaact 
      ttatcgcgc taaactcga atgatgaaa tactgttat 
      gggctttta acacaaaag gatctaatt tttcttaaa 
      tatgatggt ttgcgtgtt ttcagctgg gacccgcga 
      gggcagctc gtcgtccaa ataccccgt ggtggtgtt 
      cgttcatgg agaaagcta cgaatggaa ttcgggcaa 
      cccttacga cggcagcgt tcttgctag ttacggcgg 
      tgtcgttgt agtcaccgt aaactaccg acttggcat 
      tttaggtaa gattttcgg cttcctgaa cgccaacac 
      ggatcctta ctcccgttc tccggccaa ctacggcct 
      catggacca aatagccgc cctccactg gatacagga 
      aaacatcgc tgtatttgg cggagatcc aacaaacgt 
      taccgttgt aggccatgg aactggagc ggcttgcgt 
      caacttcct gttaacgtc cagcgcagt tcctgaagg 
      tgtgctgtt ccaccgagc catcctcat gtcgggatc 
      ggccctctc cccctgggc gttgatcca ggaaccgtc 
      ccgatatgc cgctcaagt ggccatcca cgctaactg 
      ctcgccaga actgccaca tccccacct gctcaagtg 
      ccttcgaga gagacccct ggaaacgct cctgtccac 
      gcctgtcat cgcaccgga gttcgcttt cgctttcgg 
      cccgagcgt cgacggagt cgtcatcga caccggaga 
      accaccagg tgacaaccc gcactacga gttcgacgc 
      gttgaagcc ggtgaaggc cgagcccca gaacgccat 
      caacatcct caacaacgt cctcctgcg caaatcggt 
      ggtgtcgaa gctgtccag gtacgacct gctgctggg 
      ggtggtgaa ggctgaggc gtacttcgc cttcaacgg 
      agaagacgt ccagtacgg catcgaggc cgatcgcag 
      gtcgaaaat cctgcggac ctttgtccg aaacacgta 
      cagttatca cctctcgga gattctagc gacgatcgt 
      taatgaata cacggattg ggaaagacc cgttcaaca 
      cccgatcaa tattcgaga tgagacgct ggaagcatt 
      gtcggatgc acaatacgt agcacccgt tgtgcatac 
      tgccgattt gcattcggc tgagcaccg gaattcttt 
      tctgtacgt cttcgatta tcagaccaa gttcgggga 
      ttacccgca gagacaagg atgcatcca tggcgagga 
      acttcccta tttgttcgg cgccccgct tgtcggagg 
      attcatgca ctttgtaag aaactacac caagtccga 
      ggtcctcct cgcagagac caccatgat ctattggag 
      caactttgc gaggacggg aaacccaaa tgagccgcc 
      agagggagc ccgtcagga gcgaaatcg cttcaaaaa 
      catcgattg gactgccta cgaagccgt tcataagaa 
      atatctgaa tttggatac caaacccaa actgaaaaa 
      ccattatcg ggcccatcg tctttcatt ctggctgaa 
      cctcgtccc ggacttgca caagcctgg cggcgacga 
      cgtgcccat gtcccatca caaactggt cgacgacga 
      cccaccgcc ccccaaact cccgtcgct caacccacg 
      caaactccc gacgaccga aaccccgga cttcgcccg 
      gactttaag ctccaacac ctcgctgct cgcaacggt 
      ggagacccc ggattcgac cgaacgcgt ggaggagtt 
      gggcgggct gagcaccac gacgcaccc cgtcgaaga 
      cggctttgc tgcctattc caccgcgct gagcgtcac 
      catcgccat cgggtgttc gctcctaat cctgaacgt 
      tctgatttt cgcgggtgt ttactacca acgcgacaa 
      gacgcgaat gaatgagaa tcgagagcc gaaaaagcg 
      gaacgaaaa cggacaaat gcccaacaa tatttgcgg 
      cgatttgga gagcagcat aataggtgt gaagagcga 
      cccggccac cattctggg ccaccacca ctcccacca 
      ccagctgcc gcccccgga gttcgccga cttgccgca 
      gaacaacgc cacgttgcc gcggccgcc gccgccccc 
      gaaaatctc caaagccaa cgtgaacac gttgtcgtc 
      gaaccaagt gccggagaa tcaacccct gctttccac 
      acacagtat acagttgat taacacggg gacgttgac 
      gaagaagaa cgttcacgc caaacaaaa cacgatgga 
      ggagttgcg ggtgtgacg aattcagtg atactttgc 
      tcaaacttt gttttttat cggggacgg actcagtgt 
      tttctatct gtgaatagt aggctaggc gaatgacca 
      acagggccg gactctttt gtatccttc cctacagtg 
      cgagagtgg gccgctttt aagccggaa ttcggactt 
      gacaggctt tgaaagcgg tttttgcga atgttacac 
      ggaaaaatt gaatgaatg ttgtgtaaa taccctaaa 
      ttaataaaa tgttaaata aaca

    If you use iBeetle-Base, please cite: Dönitz J et al.: Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base,
    Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D831-D835. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx984.

    The data is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (CC-BY) CC-BY